Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (57)

Fever (27)

Cough (17)

Falls (11)

Respiratory failure (7)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Clinical Utility of a Highly Sensitive Lateral Flow Immunoassay SERO as determined by Titer Analysis for the Detection of anti- SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies SERO at the Point-of-Care

    Authors: Amanda Haymond; Claudius Mueller; Hannah Steinberg; K. Alex Hodge; Caitlin W Lehman; Shih-Chao Lin; Lucia Collini; Heather Branscome; Tuong Vi Nguyen; Sally Rucker; Lauren Panny; Rafaela Flor; Raouf Guirguis; Richard Hoefer; Giovanni Lorenzin; Emanuel Petricoin; Fatah Kashanchi; Kylene Kehn-Hall; Paolo Lanzafame; Lance Liotta; Alessandra Luchini

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20163824 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), became a pandemic in early 2020. Lateral flow immunoassays SERO for antibody testing SERO have been viewed as a cheap and rapidly deployable method for determining previous infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2; however, these assays have shown unacceptably low sensitivity SERO. We report on nine lateral flow immunoassays SERO currently available and compare their titer sensitivity SERO in serum SERO to a best-practice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO) and viral neutralization assay. For a small group of PCR-positive, we found two lateral flow immunoassay SERO devices with titer sensitivity SERO roughly equal to the ELISA SERO; these devices were positive for all PCR-positive patients harboring SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies SERO. One of these devices was deployed in Northern Italy to test its sensitivity SERO and specificity in a real-world clinical setting. Using the device with fingerstick blood SERO on a cohort of 27 hospitalized PCR-positive patients and seven hospitalized controls, ROC curve analysis gave AUC values of 0.7646 for IgG. For comparison, this assay was also tested with saliva from the same patient population and showed reduced discrimination between cases and controls with AUC values of 0.6841 for IgG. Furthermore, during viral neutralization testing, one patient was discovered to harbor autoantibodies to ACE2, with implications for how immune responses are profiled. We show here through a proof-of-concept study that these lateral flow devices can be as analytically sensitive as ELISAs SERO and adopted into hospital protocols; however, additional improvements to these devices remain necessary before their clinical deployment.

    Comparison of sixteen serological SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays SERO in sixteen clinical laboratories

    Authors: Lene Holm Harritshoej; Mikkel Gybel-Brask; Shoaib Afzal; Pia R. Kamstrup; Charlotte Svaerke Joergensen; Marianne K. Thomsen; Linda M. Hilsted; Lennart J. Friis-Hansen; Pal B. Szecsi; Lise Pedersen; Lene Nielsen; Cecilie B. Hansen; Peter Garred; Trine-Line Korsholm; Susan Mikkelsen; Kirstine O. Nielsen; Bjarne K. Moeller; Anne T. Hansen; Kasper K. Iversen; Pernille B. Nielsen; Rasmus B. Hasselbalch; Kamille Fogh; Jakob B. Norsk; Jonas H. Kristensen; Kristian Schoenning; Nikolai S. Kirkby; Alex C.Y. Nielsen; Lone H. Landsy; Mette Loftager; Dorte K. Holm; Anna C. Nilsson; Susanne G. Saekmose; Birgitte Grum-Svendsen; Bitten Aagaard; Thoeger G. Jensen; Dorte M. Nielsen; Henrik Ullum; Ram BC Dessau

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165373 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    Serological SARS-CoV-2 assays are needed to support clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigations. Recently, assays for the large-volume detection of total antibodies SERO (Ab) and immunoglobulin (Ig) G and M against SARS-CoV-2 antigens have been developed, but there are limited data on the diagnostic accuracy of these assays. This study was organized as a Danish national collaboration and included fifteen commercial and one in-house anti-SARS-CoV-2 assays in sixteen laboratories. Sensitivity SERO was evaluated using 150 serum samples SERO from individuals diagnosed with asymptomatic TRANS, mild or moderate nonhospitalized (n=129) or hospitalized (n=31) COVID-19, confirmed by nucleic acid amplification tests, collected 13-73 days from symptom onset TRANS. Specificity and cross-reactivity were evaluated in samples collected prior to the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic from > 586 blood SERO donors and patients with autoimmune diseases MESHD or CMV or EBV infections MESHD. Predefined specificity criteria of [≥]99% were met by all total-Ab and IgG assays except one (Diasorin/LiaisonXL-IgG 97.2%). The sensitivities SERO in descending order were: Wantai/ ELISA SERO total-Ab (96.7%), CUH/NOVO in-house ELISA SERO total-Ab (96.0%), Ortho/Vitros total-Ab (95.3%), YHLO/iFlash-IgG (94.0%), Ortho/Vitros-IgG (93.3%), Siemens/Atellica total-Ab (93.2%), Roche-Elecsys total-Ab (92.7%), Abbott-Architect-IgG (90.0%), Abbott/Alinity-IgG (median 88.0%), Diasorin/LiaisonXL-IgG (84.6%), Siemens/Vista total-Ab (81.0%), Euroimmun/ ELISA-IgG SERO (78.0%), and Snibe/Maglumi-IgG (median 78.0%). The IgM results were variable, but one assay (Wantai/ ELISA SERO-IgM) had both high sensitivity SERO (82.7%) and specificity (99%). The rate of seropositivity increased with time from symptom onset TRANS and symptom severity. In conclusion, predefined sensitivity SERO and specificity acceptance criteria of 90%/99%, respectively, for diagnostic use were met in five of six total-Ab and three of seven IgG assays.

    Persistence of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in non-hospitalized COVID-19 convalescent health care workers

    Authors: Margherita Bruni; Valentina Cecatiello; Angelica Diaz-Basabe; Georgia Lattanzi; Erika Mileti; Silvia Monzani; Laura Pirovano; Francesca Rizzelli; Clara Visintin; Giuseppina Bonizzi; Marco Giani; Marialuisa Lavitrano; Silvia Faravelli; Federico Forneris; Flavio Caprioli; Pier Giuseppe Pelicci; Gioacchino Natoli; Sebastiano Pasqualato; Marina Mapelli; Federica Facciotti

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20164368 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Coronavirus disease MESHD-19 (COVID-19) is a respiratory illness caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel beta-coronavirus. Although antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2 can be detected early during the infection MESHD, several outstanding questions remain to be addressed regarding magnitude and persistence of antibody SERO titer against different viral proteins and their correlation with the strength of the immune response, as measured by serum SERO levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. Methods. An ELISA assay SERO has been developed by expressing and purifying the recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike Receptor Binding Domain (RBD), Soluble Ectodomain (Spike), and full length nucleocapsid protein (N protein). Sera from healthcare workers affected by non-severe COVID-19 were longitudinally collected over four weeks, and compared to sera from patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Units (ICU) and SARS-CoV-2-negative subjects for the presence of IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies SERO as well as soluble pro-inflammatory mediators in the sera. Results. Specificity and sensitivity SERO of the ELISA assays SERO were high for anti-RBD IgG and IgA (92-97%) and slightly lower for IgM and the Spike and N proteins (70-85%). The ELISA SERO allowed quantification of IgM, IgG and IgA antibody SERO responses against all the viral antigens tested and showed a correlation between magnitude of the antibody SERO response and disease MESHD severity. Non-hospitalized subjects showed lower antibody SERO titers and blood SERO pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles as compared to patients in Intensive Care Units (ICU), irrespective of the antibodies tested SERO. Noteworthy, in non-severe COVID-19 infections MESHD, antibody SERO titers against RBD and Spike, but not against the N protein, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines decreased within a month after viral clearance. Conclusions. Rapid decline in antibody SERO titers and in pro-inflammatory cytokines may be a common feature of non-severe SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, suggesting that antibody SERO-mediated protection against re- infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 is of short duration. These results suggest caution in use serological testing SERO to estimate the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the general population.

    Comparative effects of viral transport medium heat inactivation upon downstream SARS-CoV-2 detection in patient samples

    Authors: Jamie L Thompson; Angela Downie Ruiz Velasco; Alice Cardall; Rebecca Tarbox; Jaineeta Richardson; Gemma Clarke; Michelle Lister; Hannah C Howson-Wells; Vicki M Fleming; Manjinder Khakh; Tim Sloan; Nichola Duckworth; Chris Denning; C. Patrick McClure; Andrew V Benest; Claire H Seedhouse

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20164988 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic, which began in 2020 is testing economic resilience and surge capacity of healthcare providers worldwide. At time of writing, positive detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus remains the only method for diagnosing COVID-19 infection MESHD. Rapid upscaling of national SARS-CoV-2 genome testing presented challenges: 1) Unpredictable supply chains of reagents and kits for virus inactivation, RNA extraction and PCR-detection of viral genomes 2) Rapid time to result of <24 hours is required in order to facilitate timely infection MESHD control measures. We evaluated whether alternative commercially available kits provided sensitivity SERO and accuracy of SARS-CoV-2 genome detection comparable to those used by regional National Healthcare Services (NHS), and asked if detection was altered by heat inactivation, an approach for rapid one-step viral inactivation and RNA extraction without chemicals or kits. Using purified RNA, we found the CerTest VIASURE kit to be comparable to Altona RealStar system currently in use, and further showed that both diagnostic kits performed similarly in the BioRad CFX96 and Roche LightCycler 480 II machines. Additionally, both kits were comparable to a third alternative using a combination of Quantabio qScript 1-step qRT-PCR mix and CDC-accredited N1 and N2 primer/probes when looking specifically at borderline samples. Importantly, when using the kits in an extraction-free protocol, following heat inactivation, we saw differing results, with the combined Quantabio-CDC assay showing superior accuracy and sensitivity SERO. In particular, detection using the CDC N2 probe following the extraction-free protocol was highly correlated to results generated with the same probe following RNA extraction and reported clinically (n=127; R2=0.9259). Our results demonstrate that sample treatment can greatly affect the downstream performance SERO of SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic kits, with varying impact depending on the kit. We also showed that one-step heat inactivation methods could reduce time from swab receipt to outcome of test result. Combined, these findings present alternatives to the protocols in use and can serve to alleviate any arising supply chain issues at different points in the workflow, whilst accelerating testing, and reducing cost and environmental impact.

    Throat wash as a source of SARS-CoV-2 RNA to monitor community spread of COVID-19.

    Authors: Giselle Ibette Silva Lopez-Lopes; Cintia Mayumi Ahagon; Margarete Aparecida Bonega; Fabiana Pereira dos Santos; Katia Correa de Oliveira Santos; Audrey Cilli; Lincoln Spinazola do Prado; Daniela Bernardes Borges da Silva; Nuria Borges da Luz; Claudia Patara Saraceni; Ana Maria Sardinha Afonso; Maria do Carmo Timenetsky; Luis Fernando de Macedo Brigido

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20163998 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection with real time PCR is currently the central diagnostic tool to determine ongoing active infection MESHD. Nasopharyngeal and oral swabs are the main collection tool of biological material used as the source of viral RNA outside a hospital setting. However, limitation in swabs availability, trained health professional with proper PPE and potential risk of aerosols may hinder COVID diagnosis. Self-collection with swabs, saliva and throat wash to obtain oropharyngeal wash has been suggested as having comparable performance SERO of regular swab. We performed throat wash (TW) based surveillance with laboratory heath workers and other employees (LHW) at a laboratory research institute. Methods: Consecutive volunteer testing of LWH and external household and close contacts TRANS were included. TW self-collection was performed in 5 mL of sterile saline that was returned to original vial after approximate 5 secs of gargle. RNA extraction and rtPCR were performed as part of routine COVID protocols using Allplex (Seegene, Korea). Results: Four hundred and twenty two volunteers, 387 (93%) LHW and 43 (7%) contacts participated in the survey. One or more positive COVID rtPCR was documented in 63 (14.9% CI95 12%-19%) individuals. No correlation was observed between with direct activities with COVID samples to positivity, with infection MESHD observed in comparable rates among different laboratory areas, administrative or supportive activities. Among 63 with detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA, 59 with clinical information, 58% reported symptoms at a median of 4 days prior to collection, most with mild disease MESHD. Over a third (38%) of asymptomatic TRANS cases developed symptoms 1-3 days after collection. Although overall CT values of TW were higher than that of contemporary swab tests from hospitalized cases, TW from symptomatic cases had comparable CTs. Conclusions: The study suggests that TW may be a valid alternative to the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The proportion of asymptomatic TRANS and pre-symptomatic cases is elevated and reinforces the need of universal precautions and frequent surveys to limit the spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD.

    Performance SERO of Abbott Architect, Ortho Vitros, and Euroimmun Assays in Detecting Prior SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD

    Authors: Shiwani Mahajan; Carrie A Redlich; Adam V Wisnewski; Louis E Fazen; Lokinendi V Rao; Karthik Kuppusamy; Albert I Ko; Harlan M Krumholz

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164343 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Several serological assays SERO have been developed to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO, but evidence about their comparative performance SERO is limited. We sought to assess the sensitivity SERO of four anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays SERO ( ELISA SERO) in individuals with evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Methods: We obtained sera from 36 individuals with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD between March and May 2020. We evaluated samples collected at around 21 days ({+/-}14 days) after their initial PCR test using 3 commercially available ELISA assays SERO, two anti-spike (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics Vitros, and Euroimmun) and one anti-nucleocapsid (Abbott Architect), and a Yale-developed anti-spike ELISA SERO test. We determined the sensitivity SERO of the tests and compared their results. The Euroimmun and Yale ELISA SERO had an equivocal and indeterminate category, which were considered as both negative and positive. Results: Among the 36 individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, mean age TRANS was 43 ({+/-}13) years and 19 (53%) were female TRANS. The sensitivities SERO of the tests were not significantly different (Abbott Architect, Ortho Vitros, Euroimmmun, and Yale assays: 86% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71-95), 94% (95% CI, 81-99), 86% (95% CI, 71-95), and 94% (95% CI, 81-99), respectively; p-value=0.464). The sensitivities SERO of the Euroimmun and Yale ELISA SERO tests increased when the equivocal/indeterminate results were considered positive (97% [95% CI, 85-100] and 100% [95% CI, 90-100], respectively), but were not significantly different from other tests (p=0.082). The cross-correlation coefficient ranged from 0.85-0.98 between three anti-spike protein assays (Ortho Vitros, Euroimmun, Yale) and was 0.58-0.71 between the three anti-spike protein assays and the anti-nucleocapsid assay (Abbott). Conclusion: The sensitivities SERO of four anti-SARS-CoV-2 protein assays did not significantly differ, although the sample size was small. Sensitivity SERO also depended on the interpretation of equivocal and indeterminate results. The strongest correlations were present for the three anti-spike proteins assays. These findings suggest that individual test characteristics and the correlation between different tests should be considered when comparing or aggregating data across different populations studies for serologic surveillance of past SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Incidence and outcomes of healthcare-associated COVID-19 infections MESHD: significance of delayed diagnosis and correlation with staff absence

    Authors: Kirstin Khonyongwa; Surabhi K Taori; Ana Soares; Nergish Desai; Malur Sudhanva; William Bernal; Silke Schelenz; Lisa A Curran

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.24.20148262 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The sudden increase in COVID-19 admissions in hospitals during the SARS-CoV2 pandemic of 2020 has led to onward transmissions TRANS among vulnerable inpatients. Aims: This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence SERO and clinical outcomes of Healthcare-associated COVID-19 infections MESHD (HA-COVID-19) during the 2020 epidemic and study factors which may promote or correlate with its incidence and transmission TRANS in a London Teaching Hospital Trust. Methods: Electronic laboratory, patient and staff self-reported sickness records were interrogated for the period 1st March to 18th April 2020. HA-COVID-19 was defined as symptom onset TRANS >14d of admission. Test performance SERO of a single combined throat and nose swab (CTNS) for patient placement and the effect of delayed RNA positivity (DRP, defined as >48h delay) on patient outcomes was evaluated. The incidence of staff self-reported COVID-19 sickness absence, hospital bed occupancy, community incidence and DRP was compared HA-COVID-19. The incidence of other significant hospital-acquired bacterial infections MESHD (OHAI) was compared to previous years. Results: 58 HA-COVID-19 (7.1%) cases were identified. As compared to community-acquired cases, significant differences were observed in age TRANS (p=0.018), ethnicity (p<0.001) and comorbidity burden (p<0.001) but not in 30d mortality. CTNS negative predictive value SERO was 60.3%. DRP was associated with greater mortality (p=0.034) and 34.5% HA-COVID-19 cases could be traced TRANS to delayed diagnosis in CA-COVID-19. Incidence of HA-COVID-19 correlated positively with DRP (R=0.7108) and staff sickness absence (R=0.7815). OHAI rates were similar to previous 2 years. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and isolation of COVID-19 would help reduce transmission TRANS. A single CTNS has limited value in segregating patients into positive and negative pathways.

    COVID-19: Time-Dependent Effective Reproduction Number TRANS and Sub-notification Effect Estimation Modeling

    Authors: Eduardo Atem De Carvalho; Rogerio Atem De Carvalho

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.28.20164087 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers and health authorities have sought to identify the different parameters that govern their infection MESHD and death MESHD cycles, in order to be able to make better decisions. In particular, a series of reproduction number TRANS estimation models have been presented, with different practical results. Objective: This article aims to present an effective and efficient model for estimating the Reproduction Number TRANS and to discuss the impacts of sub-notification on these calculations. Methods: The concept of Moving Average Method with Initial value (MAMI) is used, as well as a model for Rt, the Reproduction Number TRANS, is derived from experimental data. The models are applied to real data and their performance SERO is presented. Results: Analyses on Rt and sub-notification effects for Germany, Italy, Sweden, United Kingdom, South Korea, and the State of New York are presented to show the performance SERO of the methods here introduced. Conclusions: We show that, with relatively simple mathematical tools, it is possible to obtain reliable values for time-dependent Reproduction Numbers TRANS (Rt), as well as we demonstrate that the impact of sub-notification is relatively low, after the initial phase of the epidemic cycle has passed.

    DPP4 inhibitors and respiratory infection MESHD, a systematic review and meta-analysis of the CardioVascular Outcomes Trials conducted before the pandemic and implications for the management of diabetes during COVID-19

    Authors: Guillaume Grenet; Samia Mekhaldi; Sabine MAINBOURG; Marine AUFFRET; Catherine Cornu; Jean-Luc Cracowski; Francois Gueyffier; Jean-Christophe Lega; Michel CUCHERAT

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.28.20163386 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background Association between DPP4 inhibitors and respiratory infection MESHD remains unclear. CardioVascular Outcomes Trials (CVOTs) conducted before the COVID-19 pandemic are available. We aimed to estimate the effect of DPP4 inhibitors on the risk of respiratory infections MESHD. Methods We updated a previous systematic review and meta-analysis, searching for CVOTs assessing a DPP4 inhibitor in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP. We focused on placebo-controlled CVOTs. Our primary outcome was 'any respiratory infection MESHD'. We added a sensitivity SERO analysis integrating non-CVOTs and active-controlled CVOTs. Findings We included 47 714 patients in five placebo-controlled CVOTs. Median follow-up ranged from 1.5 years to 3 years. 4 369 events of overall respiratory infection MESHD were reported (rate of 9.2%). DPP4 inhibitors were not associated with a different risk compared to placebo (RR = 0.99 [95%CI: 0.93; 1.04]). The sensitivity SERO analysis integrating the non-CVOTs studies and the active-controlled CVOT reached 11 349 events among 82 644 participants (rate of 13.7%). DPP4 inhibitors were not associated with a different risk of overall respiratory infection MESHD (RR = 1.00 [95% CI: 0.97; 1.03]). Interpretation Our up-dated meta-analysis provides the most powerful and least biased estimation of the association of DPP4 inhibitors and the risk of overall (non COVID-19) respiratory infection MESHD. We did not find any effect of the DPP4 inhibitors on the risk of respiratory infection MESHD. Our results support the recently published practical recommendations for the management of diabetes in patients with COVID-19, suggesting that DPP4 inhibitors should not be discontinued regarding the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Impact of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic among health care workers in a secondary teaching hospital in Spain.

    Authors: Javier Garralda Fernandez; Ignacio Molero Vilches; Alfredo Bermejo Rodriguez; Isabel Cano de Torres; Elda I Colino Romay; Isabel Garcia-Arata; Jeronimo Jaqueti Aroca; Rosa Lillo; Daniel Lopez Lacomba; Luis Mazon Cuadrado; Laura M Molina Esteban; Luis J Morales Garcia; Laura Moratilla Monzo; Elva Nieto-Borrajo; Maria Pacheco Delgado; Santiago Prieto Menchero; Cristina Sanchez Hernandez; Eva Sanchez Testillano; Jesus Garcia-Martinez

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.26.20162529 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background. The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a huge challenge to healthcare systems and their personnel worldwide. The study of the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD among healthcare workers, through prevalence SERO studies, will let us know viral expansion, individuals at most risk and the most exposed areas. The aim of this study is to gauge the impact of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in our hospital workforce and identify groups and areas at increased risk. Methods and Findings. This is a cross-sectional and longitudinal study carried out on healthcare workers based on molecular and serological diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Of the 3013 HCW invited to participate, finally 2439 (80.9%) were recruited, including 674 (22.4%) who had previously consulted at the OHS for confirmed exposure and/or presenting symptoms suggestive of COVID-19. A total of 411 (16.9%) and 264 (10.8%) healthcare workers were SARS-CoV-2 IgG and rRT-PCR positive, respectively. The cumulative prevalence SERO considering all studies (IgG positive HCW and/or rRT-PCR positive detection) has been 485 (19.9%). SARS-CoV-2 IgG-positive patients in whom the virus was not detected were 221 (9.1%); up to 151 of them (68.3%) did not report any compatible symptoms nor consult at the OHS for this reason. Men became more infected than women (25% vs 18.5%, p=0.0009), including when data were also classified by age TRANS. COVID-19 cumulative prevalence SERO among the HCW assigned to medical departments was higher (25.2%) than others, as well as among medical staff (25.4%) compared with other professional categories (p<0.01). Conclusions. Global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HCW of our centre has been 19.9%. Doctors and medical services personnel have had the highest prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, but many of them have not presented compatible symptoms. This emphasizes the performance SERO of continuous surveillance methods of the most exposed health personnel and not only based on the appearance of symptoms.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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