Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (29)

Fever (12)

Hypertension (11)

Cough (6)

Falls (5)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 201 - 210 records in total 264
    records per page




    Enzyme immunoassay SERO for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in dried blood SERO spot samples: A minimally-invasive approach to facilitate community- and population-based screening

    Authors: Thomas W McDade; Elizabeth McNally; Richard Thomas D'Aquila; Brian Mustanski; Aaron Miller; Lauren Vaught; Nina Reiser; Elena Bogdanovic; Aaron Zelikovich; Alexis Demonbreun

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.28.20081844 Date: 2020-05-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background Serological testing SERO for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO is needed to document the community prevalence SERO and distribution of the virus, particularly since many individuals have mild symptoms and cannot access molecular diagnostic testing of naso-pharyngeal swabs. However, the requirement for serum SERO/ plasma SERO limits serological testing SERO to clinical settings where it is feasible to collect and process venous blood SERO. To address this problem we developed a serological test SERO for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO that requires only a single drop of capillary whole blood SERO, collected from a simple finger prick and dried on filter paper (dried blood SERO spot, DBS). Methods Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO) was optimized to detect SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. DBS samples were eluted overnight and transferred to a 96-well plate coated with antigen, and anti-human IgG-HRP was used to generate signal in proportion to bound antibody SERO. DBS samples spiked with anti-SARS IgG antibody SERO, and samples from known positive and negative cases, were compared to evaluate assay performance SERO. Results Analysis of samples with known concentrations of anti-SARS IgG produced the expected pattern of dose-response. Optical density (OD) values were significantly elevated for known positive cases in comparison with samples from unexposed individuals. Discussion DBS ELISA SERO provides a minimally-invasive alternative to venous blood SERO collection that combines the convenience of sample collection in the home or non-clinical setting with the accuracy of ELISA SERO in the lab. Serological testing SERO for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO in DBS samples should facilitate research across a wide range of community- and population-based settings on seroprevalence SERO, predictors and duration of antibody SERO responses, as well as correlates of protection from reinfection, each of which is critically important for pandemic control.

    Pre-test probability for SARS-Cov-2-related Infection Score: the PARIS score

    Authors: Mickael Tordjman; Ahmed Mekki; Rahul D Mali; Ines Saab; Guillaume Chassagnon; Enora Guillo; Robert Burns; Deborah Eshagh; Sebastien Beaune; Guillaume Madelin; Simon Bessis; Antoine Feydy; Fadila Mihoubi; Benoit Doumenc; Robert-Yves Carlier; Jean-Luc Drapé; Marie-Pierre Revel

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.28.20081687 Date: 2020-05-03 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Diagnostic tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD (mostly RT-PCR and Computed Tomography) are not widely available in numerous countries, expensive and with imperfect performance SERO Methods: This multicenter retrospective study aimed to determine a pre-test probability score for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD based on clinical and biological variables. Patients were recruited from emergency and infectious disease MESHD departments and were divided into a training and a validation cohort. Demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, and results of blood SERO tests (complete white blood SERO cell count, serum SERO electrolytes and CRP) were collected. The pre-test probability score was derived from univariate analyses between patients and controls, followed by multivariate binary logistic analysis to determine the independent variables associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Points were assigned to each variable to create the PARIS score. ROC curve analysis determined the area under the curve (AUC) Findings: One hundred subjects with clinical suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD were included in the training cohort, and 300 other consecutive individuals were included in the validation cohort. Low lymphocyte (<1.3 G/L), eosinophil (<0.06G/L), basophil (<0.04G/L) and neutrophil counts (<5G/L) were associated with a high probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. No clinical variable was statistically significant. The score had a good performance SERO in the validation cohort (AUC=0.889 (CI: [0.846-0.932]; STD=0.022) with a sensitivity SERO and Positive Predictive Value SERO of high-probability score of 80.3% and 92.3% respectively. Furthermore, a low-probability score excluded SARS-CoV-2 infection with a Negative Predictive Value SERO of 99.5% Interpretation: The PARIS score based on complete white blood SERO cell count has a good performance SERO to categorize the pre-test probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection. It could help clinicians avoid diagnostic tests in patients with a low-probability score and conversely keep on testing individuals with high-probability score but negative RT-PCR or CT. It could prove helpful in countries with a low-availability of PCR and/or CT during the current period of pandemic

    Performance SERO Characteristics of the Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG Assay and Seroprevalence SERO Testing in Idaho

    Authors: Andrew Bryan; Gregory Pepper; Mark H. Wener; Susan L Fink; Chihiro Morishima; Anu Chaudhary; Keith Jerome; Patrick C Mathias; Alex Greninger

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.27.20082362 Date: 2020-05-02 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID19), the novel respiratory illness MESHD caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. The rollout of diagnostic testing in the United States was slow, leading to numerous cases that were not tested for SARS-CoV-2 in February and March 2020, necessitating the use of serological testing SERO to determine past infections MESHD. Here, we evaluated the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG test for detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO by testing 3 distinct patient populations. We tested 1,020 serum SERO specimens collected prior to SARS-CoV-2 circulation in the United States and found one false positive, indicating a specificity of 99.90%. We tested 125 patients who tested RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2 for which 689 excess serum SERO specimens were available and found sensitivity SERO reached 100% at day 17 after symptom onset TRANS and day 13 after PCR positivity. Alternative index value thresholds for positivity resulted in 100% sensitivity SERO and 100% specificity. We then tested 4,856 individuals from Boise, Idaho collected over one week in April 2020 as part of the Crush the Curve initiative and detected 87 positives for a positivity rate of 1.79%. These data demonstrate excellent analytical performance SERO of the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG test as well as the limited circulation of the virus on the West Coast. We expect the availability of high-quality serological testing SERO will be a key tool in the fight against SARS-CoV-2.

    Performance SERO verification of detecting COVID-19 specific antibody SERO by using four chemiluminescence immunoassay SERO systems

    Authors: Yafang Wan; Zhijie Li; Kun Wang; Tian Li; Pu Liao

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.27.20074849 Date: 2020-05-02 Source: medRxiv

    Background The purpose of current study is to evaluate the analytical performance SERO of seven kits for detecting IgM/IgG antibody SERO of corona virus (2019-nCoV) by using four chemiluminescence immunoassay SERO systems. Methods 50 patients diagnosed with 2019-nCoV infection and 130 controls without corona virus infection from the people's hospital of Chongqing were enrolled in current retrospective study. Four chemiluminescence immunoassay SERO systems including seven IgM/IgG antibody SERO detection Kits for 2019-nCoV (A_IgM, A_IgG, B_IgM, B_IgG, C_IgM, C_IgG, D_Ab) were employed to detecting antibody SERO concentration. Chi-square test,receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Youden's index were demonstrated to verify the cutoff value of each detection system. Results The repeatability verification results of the A, B, C, and D system are all qualified. D-Ab performances SERO best (92% sensitivity SERO and 99.23% specificity), and B_IgM worse than other systems. Except for the system of A_IgM and C_IgG, the optimal diagnostic thresholds and cutoff value of other kits from recommendations are inconsistent with each other. B_IgM got the worst AUC and C_IgG had the best diagnostic accuracy. More importantly, B_IgG system have the highest false positive rate for testing patients with AIDS, tumor and pregnant. A_IgM system test showed highest false positive rates among elder over 90 years old. Conclusions Systems for CoVID-2019 IgM/IgG antibody test SERO performance SERO difference. Serum SERO diagnosis kit of D-Ab is the most reliable detecting system for 2019-nCoV antibody SERO, which can be used as an alternative method for nucleic acid testing.

    Ultra-Sensitive High-Resolution Profiling of Anti- SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies SERO for Detecting Early Seroconversion in COVID-19 Patients

    Authors: Maia Norman; Tal Gilboa; Alana F. Ogata; Adam M. Maley; Limor Cohen; Yongfei Cai; Jun Zhang; Jared E. Feldman; Blake M. Hauser; Timothy M. Caradonna; Bing Chen; Aaron G. Schmidt; Galit Alter; Richelle C. Charles; Edward T. Ryan; David R. Walt

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.28.20083691 Date: 2020-05-02 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic continues to infect millions of people worldwide. In order to curb its spread and reduce morbidity and mortality, it is essential to develop sensitive and quantitative methods that identify infected individuals and enable accurate population-wide screening of both past and present infection. Here we show that Single Molecule Array assays detect seroconversion in COVID-19 patients as soon as one day after symptom onset TRANS using less than a microliter of blood SERO. This multiplexed assay format allows us to quantitate IgG, IgM and IgA immunoglobulins against four SARS-CoV-2 targets, thereby interrogating 12 antibody SERO isotype-viral protein interactions to give a high resolution profile of the immune response. Using a cohort of samples collected prior to the outbreak as well as samples collected during the pandemic, we demonstrate a sensitivity SERO of 86% and a specificity of 100% during the first week of infection, and 100% sensitivity SERO and specificity thereafter. This assay should become the gold standard for COVID19 serological profiling and will be a valuable tool for answering important questions about the heterogeneity of clinical presentation seen in the ongoing pandemic.

    Seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 virus infection MESHD in Guilan province, Iran

    Authors: Maryam Shakiba; Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari; Fardin Mehrabian; Seyed Mahmoud Rezvani; Zahra Ghasempour; Abtin Heidarzadeh

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.26.20079244 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The extent of infection by coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 has not been well documented. In this study we aimed to determine seropositivity of COVID-19 virus infection MESHD in population of a highly affected area in north of Iran. Methods: In a population-based cluster random sampling design through phone call invitation, a total of 196 household including 552 subjects agreed to participate in this study. Each participant were taken 50ml blood SERO sample at health care center. Rapid test SERO kits were used to detect antibody SERO against COVID-19. Crude, population-weight adjusted and test performance SERO adjusted prevalence SERO of antibody SERO seropositivity to SARS-CoV-2 were reported. Results: The prevalence SERO of antibody SERO seropositivity was 0.22 (95%CI: 0.19-0.26). The population weight adjusted estimate was 0.21 (95%CI: 0.14-0.29) and test performance SERO adjusted prevalence SERO was 0.33 (95%CI: 0.28-0.39). Based on these estimates the range of infected people MESHD in this province would be between 518000 and 777000. Conclusion: The population seropositivity prevalence SERO of COVID-19 virus infection MESHD indicated that the asymptomatic TRANS infection is much higher than the number of confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19. This estimate can be used to better detect infection fatality rate and decide for public policy guidelines.

    Comparison between CT and RT-PCR in a cohort of symptomatic patients with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD during the outbreak peak in Italy

    Authors: Giulia Besutti; Paolo Giorgi Rossi; Valentina Iotti; Lucia Spaggiari; Riccardo Bonacini; Andrea Nitrosi; Marta Ottone; Efrem Bonelli; Tommaso Fasano; Simone Canovi; Rossana Colla; Marco Massari; Ivana Lattuada; Laura Trabucco; Pierpaolo Pattacini

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-26275/v1 Date: 2020-04-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective: To assess sensitivity SERO and specificity of CT vs RT-PCR for the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in a prospective Italian cohort of symptomatic patients during the outbreak peak.Methods: In this cross-sectional study we included all consecutive patients who presented to the ER between March 13th and 23rd for suspected COVID-19 and underwent both CT and RT-PCR within 3 days. Using a structured report, radiologists prospectively classified CTs in highly suggestive, suggestive, and non-suggestive of COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. Ground-glass, consolidation, and visual extension of parenchymal changes were collected. Three different RT-PCR-based reference standard definitions were used. Oxygen saturation level, CRP, LDH, and blood SERO cell counts were collected and compared between CT/RT-PCR classes.Results: The study included 696 patients (41.4% women; age TRANS 59±15.8 years): 423/454 (93%) patients with highly suggestive CT, 97/127 (76%) with suggestive CT, and 31/115 (27%) with non-suggestive CT had positive RT-PCR. CT sensitivity SERO ranged from 73% to 77% and from 90% to 94% for high and low positivity threshold, respectively. Specificity ranged from 79% to 84% for high positivity threshold and was about 58% for low positivity threshold. PPV remained ≥90% in all cases. Ground-glass was more frequent in patients with positive RT-PCR in all CT classes. Blood SERO tests were significantly associated with RT-PCR and CT classes. Leukocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and platelets decreased, CRP and LDH increased from non-suggestive to suggestive CT classes.Conclusions: During the outbreak peak, CT presented high PPV and may be considered a good reference to recognize COVID-19 patients while waiting for RT-PCR confirmation.

    Estimating seroprevalence SERO with imperfect serological tests SERO: a cutoff-free approach

    Authors: Judith A Bouman; Sebastian Bonhoeffer; Roland R Regoes

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.29.068999 Date: 2020-04-30 Source: bioRxiv

    Large-scale serological testing SERO in the population is essential to determine the true extent of the current Coronavirus pandemic. Serological tests SERO measure antibody SERO responses against pathogens and define cutoff levels that dichotomize the quantitative test measures into sero-positives and negatives. With the imperfect tests that are currently available to test for past SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, the fraction of seropositive individuals in serosurveys is a biased estimator of seroprevalence SERO and is usually corrected post-hoc to account for the sensitivity SERO and specificity. Here we use a likelihood-based inference method -- previously called mixture models -- for the estimation of the seroprevalence SERO that does not require to define cutoffs by integrating the quantitative test measures directly into the statistical inference procedure. We confirm that this likelihood-based method outperforms the methods based on cutoffs and post-hoc corrections leading to less variation in point-estimates of the seroprevalence SERO and its temporal trend. We illustrate how the likelihood-based method can be used to optimize the design of serosurveys with imperfect serological tests SERO. We also provide guidance on the number of control and case sera that are required to quantify the tests ambiguity sufficiently to enable the reliable estimation of the seroprevalence SERO. Lastly, we show how this approach can be used to identify classes of case sera with an unknown distribution of quantitative test measures that have not been used for test validation. An R-package with the likelihood and power analysis functions is provided. Our study advocates to using serological tests SERO without cutoffs, especially if they are used to determine parameters characterizing populations rather than individuals. This approach circumvents some of the shortcomings of cutoff-based methods with post-hoc correction at exactly the low seroprevalence SERO levels and test accuracies that we are currently facing in COVID-19 serosurveys. Author SummaryAs other pathogens, SARS-CoV-2 elicits antibody SERO responses in infected people that can be detected in their blood SERO serum SERO as early as a week after the infection until long after recovery. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies SERO can therefore be used as a marker of past infection, and the prevalence SERO of seropositive people, i.e. people with specific antibodies SERO, is a key measure to determine the extent of the Coronavirus pandemic. The serological tests SERO, however, are usually not perfect, yielding false positive and negative results. Here we exploit an approach that refrains from classifying people as seropositive or negative, but rather compares the antibody SERO level to that of confirmed cases TRANS and controls. This approach leads to more reliable seroprevalence SERO estimates, especially for the low prevalence SERO and low test accuracies that we face during the current Coronavirus pandemic. We also show how this approach can be extended to infer the presence of cases that have not been used for validating the test, such as people that underwent a mild or even asymptomatic TRANS infection.

    SARS-CoV-2 mortality in blacks and temperature- sensitivity SERO to an angiotensin-2 receptor blocker

    Authors: Donald R. Forsdyke

    id:2005.01579v5 Date: 2020-04-30 Source: arXiv

    Tropical climates provoke adaptations in skin pigmentation MESHD and in mechanisms controlling the volume, salt-content and pressure of body fluids. For many whose distant ancestors moved to temperate climes, these adaptations proved harmful: pigmentation decreased by natural selection and susceptibility to hypertension HP hypertension MESHD emerged. Now an added risk is lung inflammation MESHD from coronavirus that may be furthered by innate immune differences. Hypertension HP Hypertension MESHD and coronavirus have in common angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which decreases blood SERO pressure and mediates virus entry. In keeping with less detailed studies, a long-term case-report shows that decreased blood SERO pressure induced by blocking a primary angiotensin receptor is supplemented, above critical blocker dosage, by a further temperature-dependent fall HP, likely mediated by ACE2 and secondary angiotensin receptors. Temperature-dependence suggests a linkage with tropical heritage and an influence of blockers on the progress of coronavirus infections MESHD. Positive therapeutic results should result from negation of host pro-inflammatory effects mediated by the primary angiotensin receptor and concomitant promotion of countervailing anti-inflammatory effects mediated by ACE2 through other receptors. These effects may involve innate immune system components (lectin complement pathway, NAD metabolome). Black vulnerability - more likely based on physiological than on socioeconomic differences - provides an important clue that may guide treatments.

    Test performance SERO evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 serological assays SERO

    Authors: Jeffrey D. Whitman; Joseph Hiatt; Cody T. Mowery; Brian R. Shy; Ruby Yu; Tori N. Yamamoto; Ujjwal Rathore; Gregory M. Goldgof; Caroline Whitty; Jonathan M Woo; Antonia E. Gallman; Tyler E. Miller; Andrew G. Levine; David N. Nguyen; Sagar P. Bapat; Joanna Balcerek; Sophia Bylsma; Ana M. Lyons; Stacy Li; Allison Wai-yi Wong; Eva Mae Gillis-Buck; Zachary B. Steinhart; Youjin Lee; Ryan Apathy; Mitchell J. Lipke; Jennifer A. Smith; Tina Zheng; Ian C. Boothby; Erin Isaza; Jackie Chan; Dante D Acenas II; Jinwoo Lee; Trisha A. Macrae; Than S. Kyaw; David Wu; Dianna L. Ng; Wei Gu; Vanessa A. York; Haig A. Eskandarian; Perri C. Callaway; Lakshmi Warrier; Mary E. Moreno; Justine Levan; Leonel Torres; Lila Farrington; Rita Loudermilk; Kanishka Koshal; Kelsey C. Zorn; Wilfredo F. Garcia-Beltran; Diane Yang; Michael G. Astudillo; Bradley E. Bernstein; Jeffrey A. Gelfand; Edward T. Ryan; Richelle C. Charles; A. John Iafrate; Jochen K. Lennerz; Steve Miller; Charles Y Chiu; Susan L. Stramer; Michael R. Wilson; Aashish Manglik; Chun Jimmie Ye; Nevan J. Krogan; Mark S. Anderson; Jason G. Cyster; Joel D. Ernst; Alan H.B. Wu; Kara L. Lynch; Caryn Bern; Patrick D. Hsu; Alexander Marson

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.25.20074856 Date: 2020-04-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background Serological tests SERO are crucial tools for assessments of SARS-CoV-2 exposure, infection MESHD and potential immunity. Their appropriate use and interpretation require accurate assay performance SERO data. Method We conducted an evaluation of 10 lateral flow assays (LFAs) and two ELISAs SERO to detect anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. The specimen set comprised 128 plasma SERO or serum samples SERO from 79 symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR-positive individuals; 108 pre-COVID-19 negative controls; and 52 recent samples from individuals who underwent respiratory viral testing but were not diagnosed with Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Samples were blinded and LFA results were interpreted by two independent readers, using a standardized intensity scoring system. Results Among specimens from SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR-positive individuals, the percent seropositive increased with time interval, peaking at 81.8-100.0% in samples taken >20 days after symptom onset TRANS. Test specificity ranged from 84.3-100.0% in pre-COVID-19 specimens. Specificity was higher when weak LFA bands were considered negative, but this decreased sensitivity SERO. IgM detection was more variable than IgG, and detection was highest when IgM and IgG results were combined. Agreement between ELISAs SERO and LFAs ranged from 75.7-94.8%. No consistent cross-reactivity was observed. Conclusion Our evaluation showed heterogeneous assay performance SERO. Reader training is key to reliable LFA performance SERO, and can be tailored for survey goals. Informed use of serology will require evaluations covering the full spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD, from asymptomatic TRANS and mild infection to severe HP infection to severe MESHD disease, and later convalescence. Well-designed studies to elucidate the mechanisms and serological correlates of protective immunity will be crucial to guide rational clinical and public health policies.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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