Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (29)

Fever (12)

Hypertension (11)

Cough (6)

Falls (5)


    displaying 211 - 220 records in total 264
    records per page

    Supplementing the National Early Warning Score (NEWS2) for anticipating early deterioration among patients with COVID-19 infection

    Authors: Ewan Carr; Rebecca Bendayan; Daniel Bean; Matthew Stammers; Wenjuan Wang; Huayu Zhang; Thomas Searle; Zeljko Kraljevic; Anthony Shek; Hang T T Phan; Walter Muruet; Anthony J Shinton; Ting Shi; Xin Zhang; Andrew Pickles; Daniel Stahl; Rosita Zakeri; Kevin O'Gallagher; Amos Folarin; Lukasz Roguski; Florina Borca; James Batchelor; Xiaodong Wu; Jiaxing Sun; Ashwin Pinto; Bruce Guthrie; Cormac Breen; Abdel Douiri; Honghan Wu; Vasa Curcin; James T Teo; Ajay Shah; Richard Dobson

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.24.20078006 Date: 2020-04-29 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: To evaluate the National Early Warning Score (NEWS2), currently recommended in the UK for risk-stratification of severe COVID-19 outcomes, and subsequently identify and validate a minimal set of common parameters taken at hospital admission that improve the score. Design: Retrospective observational cohort with internal and multi-hospital external validation. Setting: Secondary care. Interventions: Not applicable. Participants: Training and temporal external validation cohorts comprised 1464 patients admitted to King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (KCH) with COVID-19 disease from 1st March to 30th April 2020. External validation cohorts included 3869 patients from two UK NHS Trusts (Guys and St Thomas' Hospitals, GSTT and University Hospitals Southampton, UHS) and two hospitals in Wuhan, China (Wuhan Sixth Hospital and Taikang Tongji Hospital). Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was patient status at 14 days after symptom onset TRANS categorised as severe disease (transferred to intensive care unit or death MESHD). Age TRANS, physiological measures, blood SERO biomarkers, sex, ethnicity and comorbidities ( hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, cardiovascular, respiratory and kidney diseases MESHD) were included. Results: NEWS2 score on admission was a weak predictor of severe COVID-19 infection MESHD (AUC = 0.628). Adding age TRANS and common blood SERO tests (CRP, neutrophil count, estimated GFR and albumin) provided substantial improvements to a risk stratification model, particularly in relation to sensitivity SERO, but performance SERO was only moderate (AUC = 0.753). Improvement over NEWS2 remained robust and generalisable in GSTT (AUC = 0.817), UHS (AUC = 0.835) and Wuhan hospitals (AUC = 0.918). Conclusions: Adding age TRANS and a minimal set of blood SERO parameters to NEWS2 improves the detection of patients likely to develop severe COVID-19 outcomes. This finding was replicated across NHS and non-UK hospitals. Adding a few common parameters to a pre-existing acuity score allows rapid and easy implementation of this risk-scoring system.

    Estimation of SARS-CoV-2 infection fatality MESHD rate by real-time antibody SERO screening of blood SERO donors

    Authors: Christian Erikstrup; Christoffer Egeberg Hother; Ole Birger Vestager Pedersen; Kåre Mølbak; Robert Leo Skov; Dorte Kinggaard Holm; Susanne Sækmose; Anna Christine Nilsson; Patrick Terrence Brooks; Jens Kjaergaard Boldsen; Christina Mikkelsen; Mikkel Gybel-Brask; Erik Sørensen; Khoa Manh Dinh; Susan Mikkelsen; Bjarne Kuno Møller; Thure Haunstrup; Lene Harritshøj; Bitten Aagaard Jensen; Henrik Hjalgrim; Søren Thue Lillevang; Henrik Ullum

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.24.20075291 Date: 2020-04-28 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The pandemic due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) has tremendous consequences for our societies. Knowledge of the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 is needed to accurately monitor the spread of the epidemic and also to calculate the infection fatality rate (IFR). These measures may help the authorities to make informed decisions and adjust the current societal interventions. Blood SERO donors comprise approximately 4.7% of the similarly aged TRANS population of Denmark and blood SERO is donated in all areas of the country. The objective of this study was to perform real-time seroprevalence SERO surveying among blood SERO donors as a tool to estimate previous SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD and the population based IFR. Methods: All Danish blood SERO donors aged TRANS 17-69 years giving blood SERO April 6 to 17 were tested for SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M and G antibodies SERO using a commercial lateral flow test. Antibody SERO status was compared between areas and an estimate of the IFR was calculated. The seroprevalence SERO was adjusted for assay sensitivity SERO and specificity taking the uncertainties of the test validation into account when reporting the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: The first 9,496 blood SERO donors were tested and a combined adjusted seroprevalence SERO of 1.7% (CI: 0.9-2.3) was calculated. The seroprevalence SERO differed across areas. Using available data on fatalities and population numbers a combined IFR in patients younger than 70 is estimated at 82 per 100,000 (CI: 59-154) infections. Conclusions: The IFR was estimated to be slightly lower than previously reported from other countries not using seroprevalence SERO data. The IFR, including only individuals with no comorbidity, is likely several fold lower than the current estimate. This may have implications for risk mitigation. We have initiated real-time nationwide anti-SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO surveying of blood SERO donations as a tool in monitoring the epidemic.

    Resilient SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics workflows including viral heat inactivation

    Authors: Maria Jose Lista; Robert Page; Helin Sertkaya; Pedro Matos; Elena Ortiz-Zapater; Thomas J.A. Maguire; Kate Poulton; Aoife O'Byrne; Clement Bouton; Ruth E Dickenson; Mattia Ficarelli; Mark Howard; Gilberto Betancor; Rui Pedro Galao; Suzanne Pickering; Adrian W Signell; Harry Wilson; Penny Cliff; Mark Tan Kia Ik; Amita Patel; Eithne MacMahon; Emma Cunningham; Katie Doores; Monica Agromayor; Juan Martin-Serrano; Esperanza Perucha; Hannah E Mischo; Manu Shankar-Hari; Rahul Batra; Jonathan Edgeworth; Michael H Malim; Stuart Neil; Rocio Teresa Martinez-Nunez

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.22.20074351 Date: 2020-04-28 Source: medRxiv

    There is a worldwide shortage of reagents to perform detection of SARS-2. Many clinical diagnostic laboratories rely on commercial platforms that provide integrated end-to-end solutions. While this provides established robust pipelines, there is a clear bottleneck in the supply of reagents given the current situation of extraordinary high demand. Some laboratories resort to implementing kit-free handling procedures, but many other small laboratories will not have the capacity to develop those and/or will perform manual handling of their samples. In order to provide multiple workflows for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection we compared several commercially available RNA extraction methods: QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit (QIAgen), the recently developed RNAdvance Blood SERO (Beckman) and Mag-Bind Viral DNA/RNA 96 Kit (Omega Bio-tek). We also compared different 1-step RT-qPCR Master Mix brands: TaqMan Fast Virus 1-Step Master Mix (ThermoFisher Scientific), qPCRBIO Probe 1-Step Go Lo-ROX (PCR Biosystems) and Luna(R) Universal Probe One-Step RT-qPCR Kit (NEB). We used the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) recommended primers that detect two regions of the viral N gene as well as those that detect the RdRP gene region as per Public Health England (PHE) guidelines (Charite/WHO/PHE). Our data show that the RNA extraction methods provide similar results. Amongst the qPCR reagents tested, TaqMan Fast Virus 1-Step Master Mix and Luna(R) Universal Probe One-Step RT-qPCR Kit proved most sensitive. The N1 and N2 primer-probes provide a more reliable detection than the RdRP-SARSr primer-probe set, particularly in samples with low viral titres. Importantly, we have implemented a protocol using heat inactivation and demonstrate that it has minimal impact on the sensitivity SERO of the qPCR in clinical samples - potentially making SARS-CoV-2 testing portable to settings that do not have CL-3 facilities.

    Clinical evaluation of an immunochromatographic IgM/IgG antibody SERO assay and chest computed tomography for the diagnosis of COVID-19

    Authors: Kazuo Imai; Sakiko Tabata; Mayu Ikeda; Sakiko Noguchi; Yutaro Kitagawa; Masaru Matuoka; Kazuyasu Miyoshi; Norihito Tarumoto; Jun Sakai; Toshimitsu Ito; Shigefumi Maesaki; Kaku Tamura; Takuya Maeda

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.22.20075564 Date: 2020-04-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background: We evaluated the clinical performance SERO of an immunochromatographic (IC) IgM/IgG antibody SERO assay for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV2) and chest computed tomography (CT) for the diagnosis of Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: We examined 139 serum SERO specimens collected from 112 patients with COVID-19 and 48 serum SERO specimens collected from 48 non-COVID-19 patients. The presence of IgM/IgG antibody SERO for SARS-CoV2 was determined using the One Step Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) IgM/IgG Antibody Test SERO. Chest CT was performed in COVID-19 patients on admission. Findings: Of the 139 COVID-19 serum SERO specimens, IgM was detected in 27.8%, 48.0%, and 95.8% of the specimens collected within 1 week, 1-2 weeks, and >2 weeks after symptom onset TRANS and IgG was detected in 3.3%, 8.0%, and 62.5%, respectively. Among the 48 non-COVID-19 serum SERO specimens, 1 generated a false-positive result for IgM. Thirty-eight of the 112 COVID-19 patients were asymptomatic TRANS, of whom 15 were positive for IgM, and 74 were symptomatic, of whom 22 were positive for IgM and 7 were positive for IgG. The diagnostic sensitivity SERO of CT scan alone and in combination with the IC assay was 57.9 % (22/38) and 68.4% (26/38) for the asymptomatic TRANS patients and 74.3% (55/74) and 82.4% (61/74) for the symptomatic patients, respectively. Conclusion: The IC assay had low sensitivity SERO during the early phase of infection MESHD, and thus IC assay alone is not recommended for initial diagnostic testing for COVID-19. If RT-qPCR is not available, the combination of chest CT and IC assay may be useful for diagnosing COVID-19.

    Estimating Survival of Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients from Admission Information

    Authors: Todd J. Levy; Safiya Richardson; Kevin Coppa; Douglas P. Barnaby; Thomas McGinn; Lance B. Becker; Karina W. Davidson; Stuart L. Cohen; Jamie S. Hirsch; Theodoros Zanos; - J. Northwell & Maimonides COVID-19 Research Consortium

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.22.20075416 Date: 2020-04-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Chinese studies reported predictors of severe disease and mortality associated with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). A generalizable and simple survival calculator based on data from US patients hospitalized with COVID-19 has not yet been introduced. Objective: Develop and validate a clinical tool to predict 7-day survival in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Design: Retrospective and prospective cohort study. Setting: Thirteen acute care hospitals in the New York City area. Participants: Adult TRANS patients hospitalized with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. The development and internal validation cohort included patients hospitalized between March 1 and May 6, 2020. The external validation cohort included patients hospitalized between March 1 and May 5, 2020. Measurements: Demographic, laboratory, clinical, and outcome data were extracted from the electronic health record. Optimal predictors and performance SERO were identified using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression with receiver operating characteristic curves and measurements of area under the curve (AUC). Results: The development and internal validation cohort included 11 095 patients with a median age TRANS of 65 years [interquartile range (IQR) 54-77]. Overall 7-day survival was 89%. Serum SERO blood SERO urea nitrogen, age TRANS, absolute neutrophil count, red cell distribution width, oxygen saturation, and serum SERO sodium were identified as the 6 optimal of 42 possible predictors of survival. These factors constitute the NOCOS (Northwell COVID-19 Survival) Calculator. Performance SERO in the internal validation, prospective validation, and external validation were marked by AUCs of 0.86, 0.82, and 0.82, respectively. Limitations: All participants were hospitalized within the New York City area. Conclusions: The NOCOS Calculator uses 6 factors routinely available at hospital admission to predict 7-day survival for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The calculator is publicly available at

    Utility of FebriDx in early identification of possible COVID19 infection MESHD

    Authors: Nawazish Karim; Muhammad Zubair Ashraf; Muhammad Naeem; Tahir Anwar; Hnin Aung; Srikumar Mallik; Eleni Avraam; Sidra Kiran; Sareesh Bandapaati; Faisal Khan; Georgios Tsaknis; Raja V. Reddy

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-04-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Reliable differentiation between uncomplicated and self-limiting acute respiratory tract infections HP respiratory tract infections MESHD (ARIs) and more severe bacterial respiratory tract infections HP respiratory tract infections MESHD remains challenging, due to the non-specific clinical manifestations in both systemic bacterial or viral infections MESHD. The current COVID-19 pandemic is putting extraordinary strain on healthcare resources. To date, molecular testing is available but has a long turnaround time and therefore cannot provide results at the point-of-care, leading to a delay in results thereby exposing patients to cross-infection MESHD and delay in diagnosis (1-3). Methods We prospectively evaluated the utility of FebriDx®, a point-of-care fingerstick blood SERO test that can differentiate viral from bacterial ARIs through simultaneous detection of both Myxovirus-resistance protein A (MxA) and C-reactive protein (CRP), in rapidly determining viral cases requiring immediate isolation and confirmatory molecular testing, from non-infectious patients or bacterial infections MESHD that require antibacterial therapy.Results 75 consecutive patients were assessed and 48 eligible cases were tested with FebriDx®. Overall, 35 patients had FebriDx® test viral positive. All 35 patients had either positive rt-PCR (n=30) for COVID-19 or clinical picture highly suggestive of COVID-19 infection MESHD (PPV of 100% in a pandemic situation)[AB1] . In the 13 cases it was viral negative, rRT-PCR was also negative in all cases. In one case of LRTI, it was not possible to determine the exact cause of infection MESHD and a viral infection couldn’t be excluded. Including this patient, the NPV was 12/13 (92%) exceeding the NPV of rRt-PCR at 71% (12/17). Sensitivity SERO was conservatively calculated at 97% (35/36) compared to 85.7% (30[RS2] /35) for rRt-PCR.  Similarly the specificity of both FebriDx®and rRt-PCR was 100% (12/12).Conclusions In the current COVID-19, FebriDx® shows potential as a reliable POC test SERO and a proxy marker of COVID-19 infection MESHD amongst inpatients in a secondary care setting.  [AB1]35/35 equates to a sensitivity SERO and specificity of 100% for COVID, would you be willing to say that instead of ‘near 100% ppv)? [RS2]I believe PCR was 85.7% (30/35), because PCR only detects the COVID cases

    Detection of COVID-19 Infection from Routine Blood SERO Exams with Machine Learning: a Feasibility Study

    Authors: Davide Brinati; Andrea Campagner; Davide Ferrari; Massimo Locatelli; Giuseppe Banfi; Federico Cabitza

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.22.20075143 Date: 2020-04-25 Source: medRxiv

    Background - The COVID-19 pandemia due to the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus MESHD, in its first 4 months since its outbreak, has to date reached more than 200 countries worldwide with more than 2 million confirmed cases TRANS (probably a much higher number of infected), and almost 200,000 deaths. Amplification of viral RNA by (real time) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is the current gold standard test for confirmation of infection MESHD, although it presents known shortcomings: long turnaround times (3-4 hours to generate results), potential shortage of reagents, false-negative rates as large as 15-20%, the need for certified laboratories, expensive equipment and trained personnel. Thus there is a need for alternative, faster, less expensive and more accessible tests. Material and methods - We developed two machine learning classification models using hematochemical values from routine blood SERO exams (namely: white blood SERO cells counts, and the platelets, CRP, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP MESHD, LDH plasma SERO levels) drawn from 279 patients who, after being admitted to the San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy) emergency-room with COVID-19 symptoms, were screened with the rRT-PCR test performed on respiratory tract specimens. Of these patients, 177 resulted positive, whereas 102 received a negative response. Results - We have developed two machine learning models, to discriminate between patients who are either positive or negative to the SARS-CoV-2: their accuracy ranges between 82% and 86%, and sensitivity SERO between 92% e 95%, so comparably well with respect to the gold standard. We also developed an interpretable Decision Tree model as a simple decision aid for clinician interpreting blood SERO tests (even off-line) for COVID-19 suspect cases. Discussion - This study demonstrated the feasibility and clinical soundness of using blood SERO tests analysis and machine learning as an alternative to rRT-PCR for identifying COVID-19 positive patients. This is especially useful in those countries, like developing ones, suffering from shortages of rRT-PCR reagents and specialized laboratories. We made available a Web-based tool for clinical reference and evaluation. This tool is available at https://covid19- blood

    SARS-CoV-2 serological analysis of COVID-19 hospitalized patients, pauci-symptomatic individuals and blood SERO donors.

    Authors: Ludivine Grzelak; Sarah Temmam; Cyril Planchais; Caroline Demeret; Christele Huon; Florence Guivel; Isabelle Staropoli; Maxime Chazal; Jeremy Dufloo; Delphine Planas; Julian Buchrieser; Maaran Michael Rajah; Remy Robinot; Francoise Porrot; Melanie Albert; Kuang-Yu Chen; Bernadette Crescenzo; Flora Donati; Francois Anna; Philippe Souque; Marion Gransagne; Jacques Bellalou; Mireille Nowakowski; Marija Backovic; lila Bouadma; Lucie Le Fevre; Quentin Le Hingrat; Diane Descamps; Anabelle Pourbaix; Yazdan Yazdanpanah; Laura Tondeur; Camille Besombes; Marie-Noelle Ungeheuer; Guillaume Mellon; Pascal Morel; Simon Rolland; Felix Rey; Sylvie Behillil; Vincent Enouf; Audrey Lemaitre; Marie-Aude Creach; Stephane Petres; Nicolas Escriou; Pierre Charneau; Arnaud Fontanet; Bruno Hoen; Timothee Bruel; Marc Eloit; Hugo Mouquet; Olivier Schwartz; Sylvie van der Werf

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.21.20068858 Date: 2020-04-24 Source: medRxiv

    It is of paramount importance to evaluate the prevalence SERO of both asymptomatic TRANS and symptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and their antibody SERO response profile. Here, we performed a pilot study to assess the levels of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in samples taken from 491 pre- epidemic individuals, 51 patients from Hopital Bichat (Paris), 209 pauci-symptomatic individuals in the French Oise region and 200 contemporary Oise blood SERO donors. Two in-house ELISA assays SERO, that recognize the full-length nucleoprotein (N) or trimeric Spike (S) ectodomain were implemented. We also developed two novel assays: the S-Flow assay, which is based on the recognition of S at the cell surface by flow-cytometry, and the LIPS assay that recognizes diverse antigens (including S1 or N C- terminal domain) by immunoprecipitation. Overall, the results obtained with the four assays were similar, with differences in sensitivity SERO that can be attributed to the technique and the antigen in use. High antibody SERO titers were associated with neutralisation activity, assessed using infectious SARS-CoV- 2 or lentiviral-S pseudotypes. In hospitalized patients, seroconversion and neutralisation occurred on 5-14 days post symptom onset TRANS, confirming previous studies. Seropositivity was detected in 29% of pauci-symptomatic individuals within 15 days post-symptoms and 3 % of blood SERO of healthy donors collected in the area of a cluster of COVID cases. Altogether, our assays allow for a broad evaluation of SARS-CoV2 seroprevalence SERO and antibody SERO profiling in different population subsets.

    Detection of Nucleocapsid Antibody to SARS-CoV-2 SERO is More Sensitive than Antibody SERO to Spike Protein in COVID-19 Patients

    Authors: Peter D Burbelo; Francis X Riedo; Chihiro Morishima; Stephen Rawlings; Davey Smith; Sanchita Das; Jeffrey R Strich; Daniel S Chertow; Richard T Davey Jr.; Jeffrey I Cohen

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.20.20071423 Date: 2020-04-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background: SARS-CoV-2, the cause of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), is associated with respiratory-related morbidity and mortality. Assays to detect virus-specific antibodies SERO are important to understand the prevalence SERO of infection MESHD and the course of the immune response. Methodology: Quantitative measurements of plasma SERO or serum SERO antibodies SERO by luciferase immunoprecipitation assay systems ( LIPS MESHD) to the nucleocapsid and spike proteins were analyzed in 100 cross-sectional or longitudinal samples from SARS-CoV-2-infected MESHD patients. A subset of samples was tested with and without heat inactivation. Results: Fifteen or more days after symptom onset TRANS, antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein showed 100% sensitivity SERO and 100% specificity, while antibodies SERO to spike protein were detected with 91% sensitivity SERO and 100% specificity. Neither antibody SERO levels nor the rate of seropositivity were significantly reduced by heat inactivation of samples. Analysis of daily samples from six patients with COVID-19 showed anti-nucleocapsid and spike antibodies SERO appearing between day 8 to day 14 after initial symptoms. Immunocompromised patients generally had a delayed antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2 compared to immunocompetent patients. Conclusions: Antibody SERO to the nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 is more sensitive than spike protein antibody SERO for detecting early infection MESHD. Analyzing heat-inactivated samples by LIPS is a safe and sensitive method for detecting SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO.

    Cluster of COVID-19 in northern France: A retrospective closed cohort study

    Authors: Arnaud Fontanet; Laura Tondeur; Yoann Madec; Rebecca Grant; Camille Besombes; Nathalie Jolly; Sandrine Fernandes Pellerin; Marie-Noelle Ungeheuer; Isabelle Cailleau; Lucie Kuhmel; Sarah Temmam; Christele Huon; Kuang-Yu Chen; Bernadette Crescenzo; Sandie Munier; Caroline Demeret; Ludivine Grzelak; Isabelle Staropoli; Timothee Bruel; Pierre Gallian; Simon Cauchemez; Sylvie van der Werf; Olivier Schwartz; Marc Eloit; Bruno Hoen

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.18.20071134 Date: 2020-04-23 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The Oise department in France has been heavily affected by COVID-19 in early 2020. Methods: Between 30 March and 4 April 2020, we conducted a retrospective closed cohort study among pupils, their parents TRANS and siblings, as well as teachers and non-teaching staff of a high-school located in Oise. Participants completed a questionnaire that covered history of fever HP and/or respiratory symptoms since 13 January 2020 and had blood SERO tested for the presence of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. The infection attack rate TRANS (IAR) was defined as the proportion of participants with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection based on antibody SERO detection. Blood SERO samples from two blood SERO donor centres collected between 23 and 27 March 2020 in the Oise department were also tested for presence of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. Findings: Of the 661 participants (median age TRANS: 37 years), 171 participants had anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. The overall IAR was 25.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 22.6-29.4), and the infection fatality rate was 0% (one-sided 97.5% CI = 0-2.1). Nine of the ten participants hospitalised since mid-January were in the infected group, giving a hospitalisation rate of 5.3% (95% CI = 2.4-9.8). Anosmia HP and ageusia had high positive predictive values SERO for SARS-CoV-2 infection (84.7% and 88.1%, respectively). Smokers had a lower IAR compared to non-smokers (7.2% versus 28.0%, P <0.001). The proportion of infected individuals who had no symptoms during the study period was 17.0% (95% CI = 11.2-23.4). The proportion of donors with anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in two nearby blood SERO banks of the Oise department was 3.0% (95% CI = 1.1-6.4). Interpretation: The relatively low IAR observed in an area where SARS-CoV-2 actively circulated weeks before confinement measures indicates that establishing herd immunity will take time, and that lifting these measures in France will be long and complex.

The ZB MED preprint Viewer preVIEW includes all COVID-19 related preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv, from ChemRxiv, from ResearchSquare, from arXiv and from and is updated on a daily basis (7am CET/CEST).
The web page can also be accessed via API.



MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

Export subcorpus as...

This service is developed in the project nfdi4health task force covid-19 which is a part of nfdi4health.

nfdi4health is one of the funded consortia of the National Research Data Infrastructure programme of the DFG.