Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (29)

Fever (12)

Hypertension (11)

Cough (6)

Falls (5)


    displaying 21 - 30 records in total 255
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    Characterization of neutralizing versus binding antibodies SERO and memory B cells in COVID-19 recovered individuals from India

    Authors: Kaustuv Nayak; Kamalvishnu Gottimukkala; Sanjeev Kumar; Elluri Seetharami Reddy; Venkata Vishwanadh Edara; Robert Kauffman; Katharine Floyd; Grace Mantus; Deepali Savargaonkar; Pawan Kumar Goel; Satyam Arora; Manju Rahi; Carl W. Davis; Susi Linderman; Jens Wrammert; Mehul Suthar; Rafi Ahmed; Amit Sharma; Kaja Murali-Krishna; Anmol Chandele; Jose Ramon Pano-Pardo; Jose Antonio Moreno-Chulilla; Itziar Arrieta-Aldea; Alba Bosch; Moncef Belhassen-Garcia; Olga Lopez-Villar; Ascension Ramos-Garrido; Lydia Blanco; Maria Elena Madrigal; Enric Contreras; Eduard Muniz-Diaz; Jose Maria Domingo-Morera; Inmaculada Casas-Flecha; Mayte Perez-Olmeda; Javier Garcia-Perez; Jose Alcami; Jose Luis Bueno; Rafael F Duarte; Jordi Guardiola; Josep M Cruzado; Josep Comin-Colet; Salud Santos; Ramon Jodar; Xavier Corbella

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.31.276675 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: bioRxiv

    India is one of the countries most affected by the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Characterization of humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, including immunoglobulin isotype usage, neutralizing activity and memory B cell generation, is necessary to provide critical insights on the formation of immune memory in Indian subjects. In this study, we evaluated SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific IgG, IgM, and IgA antibody SERO responses, neutralization of live virus, and RBD-specific memory B cell responses in pre-pandemic healthy versus convalescent COVID-19 individuals from India. We observed substantial heterogeneity in the formation of humoral and B cell memory post COVID-19 recovery. While a vast majority (38/42, 90.47%) of COVID-19 recovered individuals developed SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific IgG responses, only half of them had appreciable neutralizing antibody SERO titers. RBD-specific IgG titers correlated with these neutralizing antibody SERO titers as well as with RBD-specific memory B cell frequencies. In contrast, IgG titers measured against SARS-CoV-2 whole virus preparation, which includes responses to additional viral proteins besides RBD, did not show robust correlation. Our results suggest that assessing RBD-specific IgG titers can serve as a surrogate assay to determine the neutralizing antibody SERO response. These observations have timely implications for identifying potential plasma SERO therapy donors based on RBD-specific IgG in resource-limited settings where routine performance SERO of neutralization assays remains a challenge. ImportanceOur study provides an understanding of SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies SERO, binding antibodies SERO and memory B cells in COVID-19 convalescent subjects from India. Our study highlights that PCR-confirmed convalescent COVID-19 individuals develop SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific IgG antibodies SERO, which correlate strongly with their neutralizing antibody SERO titers. RBD-specific IgG titers, thus, can serve as a valuable surrogate measurement for neutralizing antibody SERO responses. These finding have timely significance for selection of appropriate individuals as donors for plasma SERO intervention strategies, as well as determining vaccine efficacy.

    A Systematic Review of Droplet and Aerosol Generation in Dentistry

    Authors: Nicola Innes; Ilona Johnson; Waraf Al-Yaseen; Rebecca Harris; Rhiannon Jones; Sukriti KC; Scott McGregor; Mark Robertson; William Wade; Jennifer Gallagher; Cecile Viboud; Hongjie Yu; Lars I Eriksson; Anna Norrby-Teglund; Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren; Niklas K Bjorkstrom; Soo Aleman; Marcus Buggert; Jonas Klingstrom; Kristoffer Stralin; Johan K. Sandberg

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.28.20183475 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: Against the COVID-19 pandemic backdrop and potential disease transmission risk TRANS by dental procedures that can generate aerosol and droplets. Objectives: This review aimed to identify which clinical dental procedures do generate droplets and aerosols with subsequent contamination, and for these, characterise their pattern, spread and settle. Materials and Method: Six databases were searched and citation chasing undertaken (to 11/08/20). Screening stages were undertaken in duplicate, independently, by two researchers. Data extraction was performed by one reviewer and verified by another. Results: Eighty-three studies met the inclusion criteria and covered: Ultrasonic scaling (USS, n=44), high speed air-rotor (HSAR, n=31); oral surgery (n=11), slow-speed handpiece (n=4); air-water (triple) syringe (n=4), air-polishing (n=4), prophylaxis (n=2) and hand-scaling (n=2). Although no studies investigated respiratory viruses, those on bacteria, blood SERO splatter and aerosol showed activities using powered devices produced the greatest contamination. Contamination was found for all activities, and at the furthest points studied. The operator torso operator arm, and patient body were especially affected. Heterogeneity precluded significant inter-study comparisons but intra-study comparisons allowed construction of a proposed hierarchy of procedure contamination risk: higher risk (USS, HSAR, air-water syringe [air only or air/water together], air polishing, extractions using motorised hand-pieces); moderate (slow-speed handpieces, prophylaxis with pumice, extractions) and lower (air-water syringe [water only] and hand scaling. Conclusion: Significant gaps in the evidence, low sensitivity SERO of measures and variable quality limit firm conclusions around contamination for different procedures. However, a hierarchy of contamination from procedures can be proposed for challenge/verification by future research which should consider standardised methodologies to facilitate research synthesis. Clinical significance (49 words): This manuscript addresses uncertainty around aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) in dentistry. Findings indicate a continuum of procedure-related aerosol generation rather than the current binary AGP or non-AGP perspective. This informs discussion around AGPs and direct future research to help support knowledge and decision making around COVID-19 and dental procedures.

    Systematic examination of T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 versus influenza virus reveals distinct inflammatory profile

    Authors: Jaclyn C Law; Wan Koh; Patrick Budylowski; Jonah Lin; FengYun Yue; Kento T Abe; Bhavisha Rathod; Melanie Girard; Zhijie Li; James M Rini; Samira Mubareka; Allison McGeer; Adrienne K Chan; Anne-Claude Gingras; Tania H Watts; Mario Ostrowski; Elisabet Leiva; Albert Ariza-Sole; Paolo D Dallaglio; Maria Quero; Antonio Soriano; Alberto Pasqualetto; Maylin Koo; Virginia Esteve; Arnau Antoli; Rafael Moreno; Sergi Yun; Pau Cerda; Mariona Llaberia; Francesc Formiga; Marta Fanlo; Abelardo Montero; David Chivite; Olga Capdevila; Ferran Bolao; Xavier Pinto; Josep Llop; Antoni Sabate; Jordi Guardiola; Josep M Cruzado; Josep Comin-Colet; Salud Santos; Ramon Jodar; Xavier Corbella

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.27.20183319 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    There is a pressing need for an in-depth understanding of immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Here we investigated T cell recall SERO responses to fully glycosylated Spike trimer, recombinant N protein as well as to S, N, M and E peptide pools in the early convalescent phase. All subjects showed SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses to at least one antigen. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells were primarily of the central memory phenotype and exhibited a lower IFN-[gamma] to TNF-[alpha] ratio compared to influenza-specific responses of the same donors, independent of disease severity. SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were less multifunctional than influenza-specific T cells, particularly in severe cases, potentially suggesting exhaustion. High IL-10 production was noted in response to N protein, possibly contributing to immunosuppression, with potential implications for vaccine design. We observed granzyme B+/IFN-[gamma] CD4+ and CD8+ proliferative responses to peptide pools in most individuals, with CD4+ responses predominating over CD8+ responses. Peripheral T follicular helper responses to S or N strongly correlated with serum SERO neutralization assays as well as RBD-specific IgA. Overall, T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 are robust, however, CD4+ Th1 responses predominate over CD8+ responses and are more inflammatory with a weaker Tfh response than influenza-specific CD4+ responses, potentially contributing to COVID-19 disease.

    Prevalence SERO of readily detected amyloid blood SERO clots in ‘unclotted’ Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus MESHD Diabetes Mellitus HP and COVID-19 plasma SERO

    Authors: Etheresia Pretorius; Chantelle Venter; Gert Jacobus Laubscher; Petrus Johannes Lourens; Janami Steenkamp; Douglas B Kell

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus MESHD Diabetes Mellitus HP ( T2DM MESHD) is a well-known comorbidity to COVID-19 and coagulopathies MESHD are a common accompaniment to both T2DM MESHD and COVID-19. In addition, patients with COVID-19 are known to develop micro-clots within the lungs. The rapid detection of COVID-19 uses genotypic testing for the presence of SARS-Cov-2 virus in nasopharyngeal swabs, but it can have a poor sensitivity SERO. A rapid, host-based physiological test that indicated clotting severity and the extent of clotting pathologies in the individual who was infected MESHD or not would be highly desirable.Methods We show here that microclots can be detected in the native plasma SERO of COVID-19, as well as T2DM MESHD patients, without the addition of any clotting agent, and in particular that such clots are amyloid in nature as judged by a standard fluorogenic stain.Results In COVID-19 plasma SERO these microclots are significantly increased when compared to the levels in T2DM MESHD.Conclusions This fluorogenic test may provide a rapid and convenient test with 100% sensitivity SERO (P < 0.0001), and is consistent with the recognition that the early detection and prevention of such clotting can have an important role in therapy.

    Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies SERO using a vesicular stomatitis MESHD stomatitis HP virus possessing SARS-CoV-2 spike protein

    Authors: Hideki Tani; Long Tan; Miyuki Kimura; Yoshihiro Yoshida; Hiroshi Yamada; Shuetsu Fukushi; Masayuki Saijo; Hitoshi Kawasuji; Akitoshi Ueno; Yuki Miyajima; Yasutaka Fukui; Ippei Sakamaki; Yoshihiro Yamamoto; Yoshitomo Morinaga; Dumith C Bou-Habib; Fernando A Bozza; Thiago M L Souza; Patricia T Bozza; ZACHARIE SANDO; GEORGE ENOW ENOWNCHONG OROCK

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.21.262295 Date: 2020-08-23 Source: bioRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that emerged in 2019 and is now classified in the genus Coronavirus with closely related SARS-CoV MESHD. SARS-CoV-2 is highly pathogenic in humans and is classified as a biosafety level (BSL)-3 pathogen, which makes manipulating it relatively difficult due to its infectious nature. To circumvent the need for BSL-3 laboratories, an alternative assay was developed that avoids live virus and instead uses a recombinant VSV expressing luciferase and possesses the full length or truncated spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, to measure SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies SERO under BSL2 conditions, a chemiluminescence reduction neutralization test (CRNT) for SARS-CoV-2 was developed. The neutralization values of the serum samples SERO collected from hospitalized patients with COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 PCR-negative donors against the pseudotyped virus infection evaluated by the CRNT were compared with antibody SERO titers determined from an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The CRNT, which used whole blood SERO collected from hospitalized patients with COVID-19, was also examined. As a result, the inhibition of pseudotyped virus infection MESHD was specifically observed in both serum SERO and whole blood SERO and was also correlated with the results of the IFA. In conclusion, the CRNT for COVID-19 is a convenient assay system that can be performed in a BSL-2 laboratory with high specificity and sensitivity SERO for evaluating the occurrence of neutralizing antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2.

    Self assessment overestimates historical COVID-19 disease relative to sensitive serological assays SERO: cross sectional study in UK key workers

    Authors: Ranya Mulchandani; Sian Taylor-Phillips; Hayley Jones; Tony Ades; Ray Borrow; Ezra Linley; Peter Kirwan; Richard Stewart; Philippa Moore; John Boyes; Anil Hormis; Neil Todd; Antoanela Colda; Ian Reckless; Tim Brooks; Andre Charlett; Matthew Hickman; Isabel Oliver; David Wyllie

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.19.20178186 Date: 2020-08-22 Source: medRxiv

    Objective To measure the association between self-reported signs and symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. Design Cross sectional study of three key worker groups. Setting Six acute NHS hospitals and two Police and Fire and Rescue sites in England. Participants Individuals were recruited from three streams: (A) Police and Fire and Rescue services (n=1147), (B) healthcare workers (n=1546) and (C) healthcare workers with previously positive virus detection (n=154). Main outcome measures Detection of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in plasma SERO. Results 943 of the 2847 participants (33%) reported belief they had had COVID-19, having experienced compatible symptoms (including 152 from Stream C). Among individuals reporting COVID-19 compatible symptoms, 466 (49%) were seronegative on both Nucleoprotein (Roche) and Spike-protein (EUROIMMUN) antibody SERO assays. However, among the 268 individuals with prior positive SARS-CoV-2 tests, of whom 96% reported symptoms with onset TRANS a median of 63 days (IQR 52 to 75 days) prior to venesection, Roche and EUROIMMUN assays had 96.6% (95% CI 93.7% to 98.2%) and 93.3% (95% CI 89.6% to 95.7%) sensitivity SERO respectively. Symptomatic but seronegative individuals had significantly earlier symptom onset TRANS dates than the symptomatic seropositive individuals, shorter illness duration and a much lower anosmia HP anosmia MESHD reporting frequency. Conclusions Self-reported belief of COVID-19 was common among our frontline worker cohort. About half of these individuals were seronegative, despite a high sensitivity SERO of serology in this cohort, at least in individuals with previous positive PCR results. This is compatible with non-COVID-19 respiratory disease MESHD during the COVID-19 outbreak having been commonly mistaken for COVID-19 within the key worker cohort studied.

    Clinical Characterisation of Lateral Flow Assays for Detection of COVID-19 Antibodies SERO in a population

    Authors: Fabian Rudolf; Hans-Michael Kaltenbach; Janina Linnik; Marie-Therese Ruf; Christoph Niederhauser; Beatrice Nickel; Daniel Gygax; Miodrag Savic; Xueying Zheng; Tengchuan Jin; Chao Jiang; Tianyang Chen; Lei Han; Hengdong Zhang; Yue Gao; Zhengmin Yu; Xiaowen Liu; Tianyu Yan; Hebi Li; Patrick Robinson; Baoli Zhu; Jie Liu; Yang Liu; Zengli Zhang; Yaorong Ge; Shi Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.18.20177204 Date: 2020-08-21 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Serological assays SERO can help diagnose and determine the rate of SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD in a population. Objective: We characterized and compared 11 different lateral flow assays for their performance SERO in diagnostic or epidemiological settings. Design, Setting, Participants: We used two cohorts to determine the speci- ficity: (i) up to 350 blood SERO donor samples from past influenza seasons and (ii) up to 110 samples which tested PCR negative for SARS-CoV-2 during the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD in Switzerland. The sensitivity SERO was determined using up to 370 samples which tested PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2 during the same time and is representative for age TRANS distribution and severity. Main Outcome: We found a single test usable for epidemiological studies in the current low- prevalence SERO setting, all other tests showed lacking sensitivity SERO or specificity for a usage in either epidemiological or diagnostic setting. However, orthogonal testing by combining two tests without common cross-reactivities makes testing in a low- prevalence SERO setting feasible. Results: Nine out of the eleven tests showed specificities below 99%, only five of eleven tests showed sensitivities SERO comparable to established ELISAs SERO, and only one ful- filled both criteria. Contrary to previous results from lab assays, five tests measured an IgM response in >80% of the samples. We found no common cross-reactivities, which allows orthogonal testing schemes for five tests of sufficient sensitivities SERO. Conclusions and Relevance: This study emphasizes the need for large and diverse negative cohorts when determining specificities, and for diverse and repre- sentative positive samples when determining sensitivities SERO of lateral flow assays for SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD. Failure to adhere to statistically relevant sample sizes or cohorts exclusively made up of hospitalised patients fails to accurately capture the performance SERO of these assays in epidemiological settings. Our results allow a rational choice between tests for different use cases.

    Engineering luminescent biosensors for point-of-care SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO detection

    Authors: Susanna K. Elledge; Xin X. Zhou; James R. Byrnes; Alexander J. Martinko; Irene Lui; Katarina Pance; Shion A. Lim; Jeff E. Glasgow; Anum A. Glasgow; Keirstinne Turcios; Nikita Iyer; Leonel Torres; Michael J. Peluso; Timothy J. Henrich; Taia T. Wang; Cristina M. Tato; Kevin K. Leung; Bryan Greenhouse; James A. Wells; Ainara Coduras Erdozain; Carmen Martinez Cilleros; Jose Loureiro Amigo; Francisco Epelde; Carlos Lumbreras Bermejo; Juan Miguel Anton Santos

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.17.20176925 Date: 2020-08-21 Source: medRxiv

    Current serology tests for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO mainly take the form of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays SERO or lateral flow assays, with the former being laborious and the latter being expensive and often lacking sufficient sensitivity SERO and scalability. Here we present the development and validation of a rapid, low-cost solution-based assay to detect antibodies SERO in serum SERO, plasma SERO, whole blood SERO, and saliva, using rationally designed split luciferase antibody SERO biosensors (spLUC). This new assay, which generates quantitative results in as short as 5 minutes, substantially reduces the complexity and improves the scalability of COVID-19 antibody tests SERO for point-of-care and broad population testing.

    Information given by websites selling home self-sampling COVID-19 tests: An analysis of accuracy and completeness

    Authors: Sian Taylor-Phillips; Sarah Berhane; Alice Sitch; Karoline Freeman; Malcolm Price; Clare Davenport; Julia Geppert; Isobel Harris; Osemeke Osokogu; Magdalena Skrybant; Jonathan J Deeks; Katie L Flanagan; Denise Doolan; Joseph Torresi; Weisan Chen; Linda Wakim; Allen Cheng; Jan Petersen; Jamie Rossjohn; Adam K Wheatley; Stephen Kent; Louise Rowntree; Katherine Kedzierska; Mengge Lyu; Guixiang Xiao; Xia Xu; Weigang Ge; Jiale He; Jun Fan; Junhua Wu; Meng Luo; Xiaona Chang; Huaxiong Pan; Xue Cai; Junjie Zhou; Jing Yu; Huanhuan Gao; Mingxing Xie; Sihua Wang; Guan Ruan; Hao Chen; Hua Su; Heng Mei; Danju Luo; Dashi Zhao; Fei Xu; Yan Li; Yi Zhu; Jiahong Xia; Yu Hu; Tiannan Guo

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.18.20177360 Date: 2020-08-19 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: To assess the accuracy and completeness of information provided by websites selling home self-sampling and testing kits for COVID-19. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Setting: All websites (n=27) selling direct to user home self-sampling and testing for COVID-19 (41 tests) in the UK (39 tests) and US (2 tests) identified by a website search on 23rd May 2020. Main outcome measures: Thirteen predefined basic information items to communicate to a user, including who should be tested, when and how testing should be done, test accuracy, and interpretation of results. Results: Many websites did not provide the name or manufacturer of the test (32/41; 78%), when to use the test (10/41; 24%), test accuracy (12/41; 29%), and how to interpret results (21/41; 51%). Sensitivity SERO and specificity were the most commonly reported test accuracy measures (either reported for 27/41 (66%) tests); we could only link these figures to manufacturers documents or publications for four (10%) tests. Predictive values, most relevant to users, were rarely reported (five [12%] tests reported positive predictive values SERO). For molecular virus tests, 9/23 (39%) websites explained that test positives should self-isolate, and 8/23 (35%) explained that test negatives may still have the disease. For antibody tests SERO, 12/18 (67%) websites explained that testing positive does not necessarily infer immunity from future infection MESHD. Seven (39%) websites selling antibody tests SERO claimed the test had a CE mark, when they were for a different intended use (venous blood SERO rather than finger-prick samples). Conclusions: At the point of online purchase of home self-sampling COVID-19 tests, users in the UK are provided with incomplete, and in some cases misleading information on test accuracy, intended use and test interpretation. Best practice guidance for communication about tests to the public should be developed and enforced for online sales of COVID-19 tests.

    Assessment of the Presence of Symptoms, Individual Protection Measures (IPM) and Suspect Screening Measures (SSM) of COVID-19 in Federal Police Officers from a Regional Police Station in Brazil

    Authors: Jefferson Aparecido Dias; Eduardo Federighi Baisi Chagas; Cláudia Rucco Penteado Detregiachi; Fernanda Mesquita Serva; Piero Biteli; Claudemir Gregório Mendes; Elídia Fabiana de Souza Xavier; Carlos Francisco Bitencourt Jorge; Tereza Lais Menegucci Zutin; Mateus Cezar dos Santos; Daniela Vieira Buchaim; Rogério Leone Buchaim

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0408.v1 Date: 2020-08-19 Source:

    The coronavirus of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD 2 (SARS-CoV-2), known as COVID-19, has spread rapidly around the world, leading to social detachment MESHD and the home office replacing face-to-face work. The performance SERO of police officers faces limitations to the new requirements, while recognizing the need to ensure health and quality of life. Thus, the present study aimed to verify the panorama of the spread of COVID-19 among federal police officers by analyzing the presence of symptoms, individual protection measures (IPM), suspect screening measures (SSM) and examination for total antibodies SERO (IgA, IgG and IgM). For this, data were collected through a questionnaire customized for this situation, blood SERO for serological testing SERO and measurements of clinical data from 56 federal police officers in the municipality of Marília (São Paulo, Brazil). There was no positive result in the Anti-SARS-CoV-2 serological test SERO in any sample participant. The mean value of the Body Mass Index (27.2 ± 5.4 kg / m2) suggests overweight HP and obesity HP obesity MESHD, in addition to the presence of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD in 16.1%, diabetes MESHD in 3.6%, asthma HP asthma MESHD in 3.6 % and obesity HP obesity MESHD by 25%, which represents an important risk of complications for COVID-19. The use of a mask is the most frequent IPM (96.4%) and most of the sample has used a cloth or home mask (90.9%). However, 47.3% have not performed the correct cleaning of the masks and 5.5% have not taken any care with mask hygiene. It can be concluded that care in relation to the professional activities of federal police to date has prevented the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and that they must be maintained or increased because risk factors, which involve quality of life and worsening of the contamination condition, were detected in the participants.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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