Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Community prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 virus in England during May 2020: REACT study

    Authors: Steven Riley; Kylie E. C. Ainslie; Oliver Eales; Benjamin Jeffrey; Caroline E. Walters; Christina J Atchison; Peter J. Diggle; Deborah Ashby; Christl A. Donnelly; Graham Cooke; Wendy Barclay; Helen Ward; Graham Taylor; Ara Darzi; Paul Elliott

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150524 Date: 2020-07-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background England has experienced one of the highest rates of confirmed COVID-19 mortality in the world. SARS-CoV-2 virus has circulated in hospitals, care homes and the community since January 2020. Our current epidemiological knowledge is largely informed by clinical cases with far less understanding of community transmission TRANS. Methods The REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission TRANS (REACT) study is a nationally representative prevalence SERO survey of SARS-CoV-2 virus swab-positivity in the community in England. We recruited participants regardless of symptom status. Results We found 159 positives from 120,610 swabs giving an average prevalence SERO of 0.13% (95% CI: 0.11%,0.15%) from 1st May to 1st June 2020. We showed decreasing prevalence SERO with a halving time of 8.6 (6.2, 13.6) days, implying an overall reproduction number TRANS R of 0.57 (0.45, 0.72). Adults TRANS aged TRANS 18 to 24 yrs had the highest swab-positivity rates, while those >64 yrs had the lowest. Of the 126 participants who tested positive with known symptom status in the week prior to their swab, 39 reported symptoms while 87 did not, giving an estimate that 69% (61%,76%) of people were symptom-free for the 7 days prior testing positive in our community sample. Symptoms strongly associated with swab-positivity were: nausea and/or vomiting HP nausea and/or vomiting MESHD vomiting MESHD, diarrhoea MESHD, blocked nose, loss of smell, loss of taste MESHD, headache HP headache MESHD, chills HP and severe fatigue HP fatigue MESHD. Recent contact with a known COVID-19 case was associated with odds of 24 (16, 38) for swab-positivity. Compared with non-key workers, odds of swab-positivity were 7.7 (2.4, 25) among care home (long-term care facilities) workers and 5.2 (2.9, 9.3) among health care workers. However, some of the excess risk associated with key worker status was explained by recent contact with COVID-19 cases. We found no strong evidence for geographical variability in positive swab results. Conclusion Our results provide a reliable baseline against which the impact of subsequent relaxation of lockdown can be assessed to inform future public health efforts to control transmission TRANS.

    Epidemiologic, Clinical, and Laboratory Findings of the COVID-19 in the current pandemic: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Authors: Yewei Xie; Zaisheng Wang; Huipeng Liao; Gifty Marley; Dan Wu; Weiming Tang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-28367/v2 Date: 2020-05-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world deeply, with more than 3,000,000 people infected and nearly 200,000 deaths. This review aimed to summarize the epidemiologic traits, clinical spectrum, CT results and laboratory findings of the COVID-19 pandemic.Methods: We scoped for relevant literatures published during 1st Dec 2019 to 23rd Apr 2020 based on four databases using English and Chinese languages. We reviewed and analyzed the relevant clinic outcomes of COVID-19.Results: The COVID-19 pandemic was found to have a higher transmission TRANS rate compared to SARS and MERS MESHD and involved 4 stages of evolution. The basic reproduction number TRANS ( R0 TRANS) is 3.32 (95% CI:3.24-3.39), the incubation period TRANS was 5.24 days (95% CI:3.97-6.50, 5 studies) on average, and the average time for symptoms onset TRANS varied by countries. Common clinical spectrums identified included fever HP fever MESHD (38.1-39.0℃), cough HP cough MESHD and fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome MESHD Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome ( ARDS MESHD) being the most common complication reported. Body temperatures above 39.0 ℃, dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD, and anorexia HP anorexia MESHD were more common symptoms in severe patients. Aged TRANS over 60 years old, having co-morbidities, and developing complications were the commonest high-risk factors associated with severe conditions. Leucopenia and lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD were the most common signs of infection MESHD while liver and kidney damage MESHD were rare but may cause bad outcomes for patients. The bilateral, multifocal Ground-Glass Opacification (GGO) on peripheral, and the consolidative pulmonary opacity HP were the most frequent CT results and the tendency of mortality rates differed by region.Conclusions: We provided a bird’s-eye view of the COVID-19 during the current pandemic, which will help better understanding the key traits of the disease. The findings could be used for disease’s future research, control and prevention.

    Epidemiologic, Clinical, and Laboratory Findings of the COVID-19 in the current pandemic: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Authors: Yewei Xie; Zaisheng Wang; Huipeng Liao; Gifty Marley; Dan Wu; Weiming Tang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-28367/v3 Date: 2020-05-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world deeply, with more than 3,000,000 people infected and nearly 200,000 deaths. This review aimed to summarize the epidemiologic traits, clinical spectrum, CT results and laboratory findings of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We scoped for relevant literatures published during 1 st Dec 2019 to 23 rd Apr 2020 based on four databases using English and Chinese languages. We reviewed and analyzed the relevant clinic outcomes of COVID-19. Results: The COVID-19 pandemic was found to have a higher transmission TRANS rate compared to SARS and MERS MESHD and involved 4 stages of evolution. The basic reproduction number TRANS (R 0 ) is 3.32 (95% CI:3.24-3.39), the incubation period TRANS was 5.24 days (95% CI:3.97-6.50, 5 studies) on average, and the average time for symptoms onset TRANS varied by countries. Common clinical spectrums identified included fever HP fever MESHD (38.1-39.0℃), cough HP cough MESHD and fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome MESHD Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome ( ARDS MESHD) being the most common complication reported. Body temperatures above 39.0 ℃, dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD, and anorexia HP anorexia MESHD were more common symptoms in severe patients. Aged TRANS over 60 years old, having co-morbidities, and developing complications were the commonest high-risk factors associated with severe conditions. Leucopenia and lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD were the most common signs of infection MESHD while liver and kidney damage MESHD were rare but may cause bad outcomes for patients. The bilateral, multifocal Ground-Glass Opacification (GGO) on peripheral, and the consolidative pulmonary opacity HP were the most frequent CT results and the tendency of mortality rates differed by region. Conclusions: We provided a bird’s-eye view of the COVID-19 during the current pandemic, which will help better understanding the key traits of the disease. The findings could be used for disease’s future research, control and prevention.

    Impact assessment of non-pharmaceutical interventions against COVID-19 and influenza in Hong Kong: an observational study

    Authors: Benjamin J Cowling; Sheikh Taslim Ali; Tiffany W. Y. Ng; Tim K Tsang; Julian C. M Li; Min Whui Fong; Qiuyan Liao; Mike YW Kwan; So Lun Lee; Susan S. Chiu; Joseph T. Wu; Peng Wu; Gabriel M. Leung

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.12.20034660 Date: 2020-03-16 Source: medRxiv

    Background: A range of public health measures have been implemented to delay and reduce local transmission TRANS of COVID-19 in Hong Kong, and there have been major changes in behaviours of the general public. We examined the effect of these interventions and behavioral changes on the incidence of COVID-19 as well as on influenza virus infections which may share some aspects of transmission TRANS dynamics with COVID-19. Methods: We reviewed policy interventions and measured changes in population behaviours through two telephone surveys, on January 20-23 and February 11-14. We analysed data on laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases, influenza surveillance data in outpatients of all ages TRANS, and influenza hospitalisations in children TRANS. We estimated the daily effective reproduction number TRANS (R_t), for COVID-19 and influenza A(H1N1). Findings: COVID-19 transmissibility TRANS has remained at or below 1, indicating successful containment to date. Influenza transmission TRANS declined substantially after the implementation of social distancing measures and changes in population behaviours in late January, with a 44% (95% confidence interval, CI: 34% to 53%) reduction in transmissibility TRANS in the community, and a 33% (95% CI: 24% to 43%) reduction in transmissibility TRANS based on paediatric hospitalization rates. In the two surveys we estimated that 74.5% and 97.5% of the general adult TRANS population wore masks when going out, and 61.3% and 90.2% avoided going to crowded places, respectively. Implications: Containment measures, social distancing measures and changes in population behaviour have successfully prevented spread of COVID-19. The social distancing measures and behavioural changes led to a substantial reduction in influenza transmission TRANS in early February 2020. However, it may be challenging to avoid fatigue HP fatigue MESHD and sustain these measures and population behaviours as COVID-19 continues to spread globally. Funding: Health and Medical Research Fund, Hong Kong

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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