Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype


    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 19
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    Massive cerebral venous thrombosis HP venous thrombosis MESHD related to oligosymptomatic COVID-19 infection MESHD: a case report

    Authors: Simone Beretta; Fulvio Da Re; Valentina Francioni; Paolo Remida; Benedetta Storti; Lorenzo Fumagalli; Maria Luisa Piatti; Patrizia Santoro; Diletta Cereda; Claudia Cutellè; Fiammetta Pirro; Danilo Antonio Montisano; Francesca Beretta; Francesco Pasini; Annalisa Cavallero; Ildebrando Appollonio; Carlo Ferrarese

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The development of thrombotic coagulopathy is frequent in COVID-19 patients, but the timing after infection MESHD, cerebral venous system involvement, treatment and outcome are uncertain.Case Presentation: We report a case of massive cerebral venous thrombosis HP venous thrombosis MESHD occurring in the late phase of COVID-19 infection MESHD. Mild respiratory symptoms, without fever MESHD fever HP, started three weeks before headache MESHD headache HP and acute neurological deficits. She had no dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, although she was hypoxic and with typical COVID-19 associated interstitial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Brain CT scan showed a left parietal hypodense lesion with associated sulcal subarachnoid haemorrhage. CT angiography showed a massive cerebral vein thrombosis MESHD. An asymptomatic TRANS concomitant right internal iliac vein thrombosis MESHD was found. Both cerebral venous thrombosis HP venous thrombosis MESHD and deep venous thrombosis HP venous thrombosis MESHD were effectively treated with unfractionated heparin started on the day of admission, then shifted to low molecular weight heparin, with a favorable clinical course. Nasopharyngel swab, repeated twice, tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Serological tests SERO confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Conclusions: Our case supports active surveillance and prevention of thrombotic complications associated with COVID-19, which may affect both peripheral and cerebral venous system. Early initiation of unfractionated heparin may lead to good neurological outcome.

    Overweight MESHD Overweight HP/ obesity MESHD obesity HP as the potentially most important lifestyle factor associated with signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in COVID-19

    Authors: Vanessa Sacco; Barbara Rauch; Christina Gar; Stefanie Haschka; Anne L Potzel; Stefanie Kern-Matschilles; Friederike Banning; Irina Benz; Mandy Meisel; Jochen Seissler; Andreas Lechner

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20161042 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    Objective The occurrence of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP separates severe cases of COVID-19 from the majority of cases with mild disease MESHD. However, the factors determining whether or not pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP develops remain to be fully uncovered. We therefore explored the associations of several lifestyle factors with signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in COVID-19. Methods Between May and July 2020, we conducted an online survey of adults TRANS in Germany who had recently gone through COVID-19, predominantly as outpatients (n=201). Of these, 165 had a PCR-based diagnosis and 36 had a retrospective diagnosis by antibody testing SERO. The survey covered demographic information, eight lifestyle factors, comorbidities and medication use. We defined the main outcome as the presence vs. the absence of signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, represented by dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, the requirement for oxygen therapy or intubation. Results Signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP occurred in 39 of the 165 individuals with a PCR-based diagnosis of COVID-19 (23.6%). Among the lifestyle factors examined, only overweight MESHD overweight HP/ obesity MESHD obesity HP associated with signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP (odds ratio 2.68 (1.29 - 5.59) p=0.008). The observed association remained significant after multivariate adjustment, with BMI as a metric variable, and also after including the antibody SERO-positive individuals into the analysis. Conclusions This exploratory study finds an association of overweight MESHD overweight HP/ obesity MESHD obesity HP with signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in COVID-19. This finding suggests that a signal proportional to body fat mass, such as the hormone leptin, impairs the body's ability to clear SARS-CoV-2 before pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP develops. This hypothesis concurs with previous work and should be investigated further to possibly reduce the proportion of severe cases of COVID-19.


    Authors: Francesca Crovetto; Fatima Crispi; Elisa Llurba; Francesc Figueras; Maria Dolores Gomez-Roig; Eduard Gratacos

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.17.20134098 Date: 2020-06-19 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: Case registries of pregnant women diagnosed with coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have reported that the majority experienced mild infection MESHD, but up to 9% may require critical care. Most COVID-19 cases published were in the third trimester of pregnancy, which could reflect reporting bias, higher risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD or increased disease MESHD severity in late pregnancy. Seroprevalence SERO studies may allow reliable estimates of the susceptibility to infection MESHD and clinical spectrum since they include asymptomatic TRANS and mild infections MESHD not tested for PCR. We evaluated the seroprevalence SERO and clinical presentation of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in pregnant women in the first and third trimester. Methods: The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at each institution and informed consent was obtained. We recruited 874 consecutive pregnancies attending for first trimester screening (10-16 weeks of gestation, n=372) or delivery (n=502) from April 14 to May 5. All women were interviewed with a structured questionnaire for COVID-19 symptoms two months prior to sampling. SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM/IgA antibodies were tested SERO (COVID-19 VIRCLIA Monotest, Vircell Microbiologist, Spain; reported sensitivity SERO 70% IgG and 89% IgM/IgA, and specificity 89% and 99% respectively). Indeterminate results were re-tested (VITROS Immunodiagnostic Products Anti-SARS-CoV2 Total Tests, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, USA; 100% sensitivity SERO and specificity) and re-classified as positive or negative. Women with COVID-19 were diagnosed and managed according to standard protocols and guidelines3,4. Statistical differences were tested using the {chi}2 test or Student t-test as appropriate (p<0.05). Results: A total of 125 of 874 women (14.3%) were positive for either IgG or IgM/IgA SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO, 54/372 (14.5%) in the first and 71/502 (14.1%) in the third trimester. A total of 75/125 (60%) reported no symptoms of COVID-19 in the past 2 months, whereas 44 (35.2%) reported one or more symptoms, of which 31 (24.8%) had at least 3 symptoms or anosmia HP and 8 (6.4%) dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP. Overall, 7 women (5.6%) were admitted for persistent fever MESHD fever HP despite paracetamol and dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, of which 3 had signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP on chest radiography. All 3 had criteria for severity (bilateral chest condensation, respiratory rate>30 and leukopenia MESHD leukopenia HP) and required oxygen support but not critical care or mechanical ventilation, and they were all discharged well. The rates of symptomatic infection MESHD, hospital admission or dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP were significantly higher in third trimester women (Table and Figure). Discussion: The 14.3% seroprevalence SERO of SARS-COV-2 in pregnant women in this study was substantially larger than the contemporary rates of PCR positive cases (0.78%) reported for women 20-40y in Barcelona. The data confirm that COVID-19 is asymptomatic TRANS in the majority of pregnant women6 and illustrate the value of seroprevalence SERO studies to capture the high proportion of asymptomatic TRANS or mild infections MESHD. In this study, none of the 125 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD required critical care as compared to 9% reported in cases diagnosed with PCR. However, the proportion of infections MESHD with symptoms or dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP was remarkably higher in the third trimester, and these results are in line with COVID-19 registries, reporting that 81% of hospitalized women were in late pregnancy or peripartum. These results provide reassuring information that, even in settings with a high prevalence SERO, SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in pregnancy mostly presents with asymptomatic TRANS or mild clinical forms. The susceptibility to infection MESHD seemed to be the same in the first and the third trimesters of gestation. The data further suggest that, as with other respiratory viruses, COVID-19 could be more severe and require increased surveillance in late pregnancy. These findings should be confirmed and extended with larger consecutive prevalence SERO studies in pregnancy.

    Evaluation of two commercial multiplex PCR tests for the diagnosis of acute respiratory infections MESHD in hospitalized children TRANS

    Authors: Le Wang; Shuo Yang; Xiaotong Yan; Teng Liu; Mengchuan Zhao; Dianping You; Guixia Li

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-06-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Acute respiratory tract infections MESHD respiratory tract infections HP (ARTI), including the common cold MESHD, pharyngitis MESHD pharyngitis HP, sinusitis MESHD sinusitis HP, otitis media MESHD otitis media HP, tonsillitis MESHD tonsillitis HP, bronchiolitis MESHD bronchiolitis HP and pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP are the most common diagnoses among pediatric patients and account for the majority of antibiotic prescriptions. A clear and rapid diagnosis is the key to preventing antibiotic abuse. Recently, based on different detection principles, many multi-target molecular analyses that can simultaneously detect dozens of pathogens have been developed, thereby greatly improving sensitivity SERO and shortening turnaround time. In this work, we conducted a head-to-head comparative study between melting curve analysis (MCA) and capillary electrophoresis assay (CE) in the detection of nine respiratory pathogens in sputum samples collected from hospitalized ARTI childre TRANS.Methods Through MCA and CE analysis, nine common respiratory pathogens were tested on hospitalized children TRANS under the age TRANS of 13 who met the ARTI criteria.Results A total of 237 children TRANS with sputum specimens were tested. For all the targets combined, the positive detection rate of XYRes-MCA was significantly higher than ResP-CE (72.2% vs. 63.7%, p = .002). Some pathogens were detected more often with MCA, such as parainfluenza virus, influenza B and coronavirus, and some pathogens do the opposite, such as adenovirus and influenza A (all p < .01). Very good kappa values for most of pathogens were observed, except for Influenza B and coronavirus (both κ = .39).Conclusions Multiplex melting curve and capillary electrophoresis assays performed similarly for the detection of common respiratory pathogens in hospitalized children TRANS, except for Influenza B and coronavirus. Higher sensitivity SERO was observed in the melting curve assay. By using this sensitive and rapid test SERO, it may improv patient prognosis and antimicrobial management.

    Kinetics of the humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2: comparative analytical performance SERO of seven commercial serology tests

    Authors: Pauline H. Herroelen; Geert Antoine Martens; Dieter De Smet; Koen Swaerts; An-Sofie Decavele

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.09.20124719 Date: 2020-06-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background SARS-CoV-2 serology tests are clinically useful to document a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in patients with no or inconclusive PCR results and suspected COVID-19 disease MESHD or sequelae. Data are urgently needed to select the assays with optimal sensitivity SERO at acceptable specificity. Methods A comparative analysis of analytical sensitivity SERO was performed of seven commercial SARS-CoV-2 serology assays on 171 sera from 135 subjects with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, composed of 71 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and 64 healthcare workers with paucisymptomatic infections MESHD. The kinetics of IgA/IgM/IgG seroconversion to viral N- and S-protein epitopes were studied from 0 to 54 days after symptom onset TRANS. Specificity was verified on 57 pre-pandemic samples. Results Wantai SARS-COV-2 Ab ELISA SERO and Orient Gene COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test SERO achieved a superior overall sensitivity SERO. Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay and EUROIMMUN Anti-SARS-CoV-2 combined IgG/IgA also showed acceptable sensitivity SERO (>95%) versus the consensus result of all assays from 10 days post symptom onset TRANS. Optimal specificity (>98%) was achieved only by Wantai SARS-COV-2 Ab ELISA SERO, Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay and Innovita 2019-nCoV Ab rapid test SERO. LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG showed a significantly lower sensitivity SERO as compared to all other assays. Lack of seroconversion by any test was seen in 1.4% of hospitalized and 4.7% of paucisymptomatic infections MESHD. Within 10 days from symptom onset TRANS, only the Wantai SARS-COV-2 Ab ELISA SERO has acceptable sensitivity SERO. Conclusions Wantai SARS-COV-2 Ab ELISA SERO and Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assays are suitable for sensitive and specific screening of a SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD from 10 days after symptom onset TRANS.

    SARS-CoV-2 Serology Results in the First COVID-19 Case in California: A Case Report and Recommendations for Serology Testing and Interpretation

    Authors: Richard B. Lanman, MD; Todd H. Lanman

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-06-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: As countries in COVID-19 pandemic lockdown begin relaxation of shelter-in-place mitigation strategies, the role of serology testing escalates in importance. However, there are no clear guidelines as to when to use qualitative rapid diagnostic serology tests (RDTs) vs. SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA load (PCR) tests as an aid in acute diagnosis of patients presenting with flu-like symptoms, nor how to interpret serology test results in asymptomatic TRANS individuals or those with atypical COVID-19 symptomatology. Here we describe, in the context of the likely first case of COVID-19 in California, with an atypical presentation and not tested acutely, who nearly 3 months later was found to be IgM- and IgG+ positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO, highlighting the role of RDT- based serology testing SERO and interpretation in retrospective diagnosis.Case Presentation: A 62-year-old male TRANS practicing neurosurgeon had onset of flu-like symptoms on January 20 with fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, slight cough MESHD cough HP only on deep inspiration, intermittent pleuritic chest pain MESHD chest pain HP unrelated to exertion, dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, and night sweats HP but without fever MESHD fever HP, sore throat or rhinorrhea HP. He had recently traveled TRANS abroad but not to China. CT scan revealed right lower lobe infiltrate and effusion. Because of atypical symptoms, and low prevalence SERO of COVID-19 in January, community acquired pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP was diagnosed and one week of doxycycline was prescribed without relief, followed by a second week of azithromycin with symptom remission. Three months later the physician-patient (author THL), tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO by a serology point-of-care rapid diagnostic test (RDT).Conclusions: Serology testing may be an aid in acute diagnosis of COVID-19, especially in patients with atypical presentations, as well as in assessment of asymptomatic TRANS higher-risk persons such as healthcare workers for prior infection MESHD. Recommendations for serology testing and interpretation are explicated.

    A case of COVID - 19 with Imported Falciparum Malaria MESHD Infection MESHD is Reported

    Authors: Mingchao Zhu; Ya Zhu; Jue Zhang; Weiping Liu

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-06-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background During the COVID − 19 outbreak, limited medical resources in the short term and inadequate experience in dealing with major new public health events may lead to the neglect of some other infectious diseases MESHD, such as malaria MESHD, leading to the risk of the spread of infectious diseases MESHD.Therefore, it is particularly important to formulate classified guidance, take scientific prevention and control measures in a comprehensive manner, strengthen the screening of malaria MESHD patients and provide access to medical treatment during the outbreak.Methods Clinical records, laboratory results, and chest CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for a falciparum malaria MESHD infection MESHD patient with laboratory-confirmed COVID − 19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP .Results Patient's serum SERO novel coronavirus antibody tested SERO positive for IgG and weakly positive for IgM that were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2],the blood SERO samples were classified as plasmodium falciparum by RT-PCR.Conclusions The patient when workers infected with p. falciparum in Africa, malaria MESHD recurrence MESHD after back to China, after antimalarial treatment in tianmen city first people's hospital, after an outbreak in wuhan will be coronavirus, and symptoms of COVID − 19, but soon be cured patients, to explore the diagnosis and treatment of antimalarial drugs in COVID − 19 patients with the role, for further in-depth study of COVID − 19 treatment provides a good example.

    A systems approach to inflammation MESHD identifies therapeutic targets in SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Frank L. van de Veerdonk; Nico A.F. Janssen; Inge Grondman; Aline H. de Nooijer; Valerie A.C.M. Koeken; Vasiliki Matzaraki; Collins K. Boahen; Vinod Kumar; Matthijs Kox; Hans J.P.M. Koenen; Ruben L. Smeets; Irma Joosten; Roger J.M. Brüggemann; Ilse J.E. Kouijzer; Hans G. van der Hoeven; Jeroen A. Schouten; Tim Frenzel; Monique Reijers; Wouter Hoefsloot; Anton S.M. Dofferhoff; Angèle P.M. Kerckhoffs; Marc J.T. Blaauw; Karin Veerman; Coen Maas; Arjan H. Schoneveld; Imo E. Hoefer; Lennie P.G. Derde; Loek Willems; Erik Toonen; Marcel van Deuren; Jos W.M. van der Meer; Reinout van Crevel; Evangelos J. Giamarellos-Bourboulis; Leo A.B. Joosten; Michel M. van den Heuvel; Jacobien Hoogerwerf; Quirijn de Mast; Peter Pickkers; Mihai G. Netea

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.23.20110916 Date: 2020-05-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background Infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 manifests itself as a mild respiratory tract infection MESHD respiratory tract infection HP in the majority of individuals, which progresses to a severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS) in 10-15% of patients. Inflammation MESHD plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of ARDS, with immune dysregulation HP in severe COVID-19 leading to a hyperinflammatory response. A comprehensive understanding of the inflammatory process in COVID-19 is lacking. Methods In this prospective, multicenter observational study, patients with PCR-proven or clinically presumed COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) or clinical wards were included. Demographic and clinical data were obtained and plasma SERO was serially collected. Concentrations of IL-6, TNF-, complement components C3a, C3c and the terminal complement complex (TCC) were determined in plasma SERO by ELISA SERO. Additionally, 269 circulating biomarkers were assessed using targeted proteomics. Results were compared between ICU and non ICU patients. Findings A total of 119 (38 ICU and 91 non ICU) patients were included. IL-6 plasma SERO concentrations were elevated in COVID-19 (ICU vs. non ICU, median 174.5 pg/ml [IQR 94.5-376.3 vs. 40.0 pg/ml [16.5-81.0]), whereas TNF- concentrations were relatively low and not different between ICU and non ICU patients (median 24.0 pg/ml [IQR 16.5-33.5] and 21.5 pg/ml [IQR 16.0-33.5], respectively). C3a and terminal complement complex (TCC) concentrations were significantly higher in ICU vs. non ICU patients (median 556.0 ng/ml [IQR 333.3-712.5]) vs. 266.5 ng/ml [IQR 191.5-384.0 for C3a and 4506 mAU/ml [IQR 3661-6595 vs. 3582 mAU/ml [IQR 2947-4300] for TCC) on the first day of blood SERO sampling. Targeted proteomics demonstrated that IL-6 (logFC 2.2), several chemokines and hepatocyte growth factor (logFC 1.4) were significantly upregulated in ICU vs. non ICU patients. In contrast, stem cell factor was significantly downregulated (logFC -1.3) in ICU vs. non ICU patients, as were DPP4 (logFC -0.4) and protein C inhibitor (log FC -1.0), the latter two factors also being involved in the regulation of the kinin-kallikrein pathway. Unsupervised clustering pointed towards a homogeneous pathogenetic mechanism in the majority of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, with patient clustering mainly based on disease MESHD severity. Interpretation We identified important pathways involved in dysregulation of inflammation MESHD in patients with severe COVID-19, including the IL-6, complement system and kinin-kallikrein pathways. Our findings may aid the development of new approaches to host-directed therapy.

    Novel ACE2-Independent Carbohydrate-Binding of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein to Host Lectins and Lung Microbiota

    Authors: Fabrizio Chiodo; Sven C.M Bruijns; Ernesto Rodriguez; R.J. Eveline Li; Antonio Molinaro; Alba Silipo; Flaviana Di Lorenzo; Dagmar Garcia-Rivera; Yury Valdes-Balbin; Vicente Verez-Bencomo; Yvette van Kooyk

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.13.092478 Date: 2020-05-14 Source: bioRxiv

    The immediate call for translational research in the field of coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) pandemic, needs new and unexplored angles to support and contribute to this important worldwide health problem. The aim of this study is to better understand the pathogenic mechanisms underlying COVID-19, deciphering the carbohydrate-mediated interactions of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We studied the carbohydrate-binding receptors that could be important for viral entry and for immune-modulatory responses, and we studied the interactions of the spike protein with the host lung microbiota. Exploring solid-phase immunoassays SERO, we evaluated the interactions between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and a library of 12 different human carbohydrate-binding proteins (C-type lectins and Siglecs) involved in binding, triggering and modulation of innate and adaptive immune-responses. We revealed a specific binding of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to the receptors DC-SIGN, MGL, Siglec-9 and Siglec-10 that are all expressed on myeloid immune cells. In addition, because the lung microbiota can promote or modulate viral infection MESHD, we studied the interactions between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and a library of Streptococcus pneumoniae MESHD pneumoniae HP capsular polysaccharides, as well as other bacterial glyco-conjugates. We show specific binding of the spike protein to different S. pneumoniae MESHD pneumoniae HP capsular polysaccharides (serotypes 19F and 23F but not to serotype 14). Moreover we demonstrated a specific binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to the lipopolysaccharide from the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the leading cause of acute nosocomial infections MESHD and pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Interestingly, we identified rhamnosylated epitopes as one of the discriminating structures in lung microbiota to bind SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. In conclusion, we revealed novel ACE2-independent carbohydrate-mediated interactions with immune modulating lectins expressed on myeloid cells, as well as host lung microbiota glyco-conjugates. Our results identified new molecular pathways using host lectins and signalling, that may contribute to viral infection MESHD and subsequent immune exacerbation. Moreover we identified specific rhamnosylated epitopes in lung microbiota to bind SARS-CoV-2, providing a hypothetical link between the presence of specific lung microbiota and SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and severity.

    The Epidemiology, Evolution, Transmission TRANS and Therapeutics of COVID-19 Outbreak: An Update on the Status

    Authors: Karan Singh Labana; Amit Kumar Mittal; Akash Gujral

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0525.v1 Date: 2020-04-30 Source:

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an etiologic agent of the respiratory disease MESHD in humans that is known as coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID19). The first outbreak of the disease MESHD was initially documented in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in late December 2019 where people had experienced SARS pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP-like symptoms with unknown etiology. Since then it has been observed that COVID-19 positive patients have been showing mild to severe upper respiratory illness symptoms. The type of virus is known to make its transfer from animals to humans and for the concerned virus; researchers have claimed its origin from bat coronavirus at whole-genome level with a 96 % sequence identity. The COVID-19 virus is very contagious and communicable in nature and has been spread throughout the globe since its first outbreak in China. On March 9, 2020, WHO declared it as a Pandemic, and within a month it was already reported to have shown its presence in 213 countries and territories or areas. As of April 29, 2020, this novel virus infected 3,218,183 people and caused 228,029 mortalities worldwide with a variable mortality rate from 3-13 % across the planet and also varied by age TRANS and gender TRANS. Diagnosis of the disease MESHD is a key component in understanding and controlling the spread of the virus and several techniques have been devised including RT-PCR, ELISA SERO, and sequencing-based approaches. To cure COVID-19 patients as of now we do not have proven to be a safe and effective treatment. Therapeutic options currently under investigation in various parts of the world. However, there are various effective therapeutic targets to repurpose the present antiviral therapy for developing potential interventions against SARS-CoV-2. Boosting the immune system can also help to prevent and spread of COVID-19 using various medication and exercises. In this review, our goal to summarize and discussed the present scientific advancements to fight against this novel pandemic.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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