Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (12)

Pneumonia (6)

Anosmia (5)

Falls (4)

Cough (4)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 270
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    Clinical Utility of a Highly Sensitive Lateral Flow Immunoassay SERO as determined by Titer Analysis for the Detection of anti- SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies SERO at the Point-of-Care

    Authors: Amanda Haymond; Claudius Mueller; Hannah Steinberg; K. Alex Hodge; Caitlin W Lehman; Shih-Chao Lin; Lucia Collini; Heather Branscome; Tuong Vi Nguyen; Sally Rucker; Lauren Panny; Rafaela Flor; Raouf Guirguis; Richard Hoefer; Giovanni Lorenzin; Emanuel Petricoin; Fatah Kashanchi; Kylene Kehn-Hall; Paolo Lanzafame; Lance Liotta; Alessandra Luchini

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20163824 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), became a pandemic in early 2020. Lateral flow immunoassays SERO for antibody testing SERO have been viewed as a cheap and rapidly deployable method for determining previous infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2; however, these assays have shown unacceptably low sensitivity SERO. We report on nine lateral flow immunoassays SERO currently available and compare their titer sensitivity SERO in serum SERO to a best-practice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO) and viral neutralization assay. For a small group of PCR-positive, we found two lateral flow immunoassay SERO devices with titer sensitivity SERO roughly equal to the ELISA SERO; these devices were positive for all PCR-positive patients harboring SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies SERO. One of these devices was deployed in Northern Italy to test its sensitivity SERO and specificity in a real-world clinical setting. Using the device with fingerstick blood SERO on a cohort of 27 hospitalized PCR-positive patients and seven hospitalized controls, ROC curve analysis gave AUC values of 0.7646 for IgG. For comparison, this assay was also tested with saliva from the same patient population and showed reduced discrimination between cases and controls with AUC values of 0.6841 for IgG. Furthermore, during viral neutralization testing, one patient was discovered to harbor autoantibodies to ACE2, with implications for how immune responses are profiled. We show here through a proof-of-concept study that these lateral flow devices can be as analytically sensitive as ELISAs SERO and adopted into hospital protocols; however, additional improvements to these devices remain necessary before their clinical deployment.

    Comparison of sixteen serological SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays SERO in sixteen clinical laboratories

    Authors: Lene Holm Harritshoej; Mikkel Gybel-Brask; Shoaib Afzal; Pia R. Kamstrup; Charlotte Svaerke Joergensen; Marianne K. Thomsen; Linda M. Hilsted; Lennart J. Friis-Hansen; Pal B. Szecsi; Lise Pedersen; Lene Nielsen; Cecilie B. Hansen; Peter Garred; Trine-Line Korsholm; Susan Mikkelsen; Kirstine O. Nielsen; Bjarne K. Moeller; Anne T. Hansen; Kasper K. Iversen; Pernille B. Nielsen; Rasmus B. Hasselbalch; Kamille Fogh; Jakob B. Norsk; Jonas H. Kristensen; Kristian Schoenning; Nikolai S. Kirkby; Alex C.Y. Nielsen; Lone H. Landsy; Mette Loftager; Dorte K. Holm; Anna C. Nilsson; Susanne G. Saekmose; Birgitte Grum-Svendsen; Bitten Aagaard; Thoeger G. Jensen; Dorte M. Nielsen; Henrik Ullum; Ram BC Dessau

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165373 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    Serological SARS-CoV-2 assays are needed to support clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigations. Recently, assays for the large-volume detection of total antibodies SERO (Ab) and immunoglobulin (Ig) G and M against SARS-CoV-2 antigens have been developed, but there are limited data on the diagnostic accuracy of these assays. This study was organized as a Danish national collaboration and included fifteen commercial and one in-house anti-SARS-CoV-2 assays in sixteen laboratories. Sensitivity SERO was evaluated using 150 serum samples SERO from individuals diagnosed with asymptomatic TRANS, mild or moderate nonhospitalized (n=129) or hospitalized (n=31) COVID-19, confirmed by nucleic acid amplification tests, collected 13-73 days from symptom onset TRANS. Specificity and cross-reactivity were evaluated in samples collected prior to the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic from > 586 blood SERO donors and patients with autoimmune diseases MESHD or CMV or EBV infections MESHD. Predefined specificity criteria of [≥]99% were met by all total-Ab and IgG assays except one (Diasorin/LiaisonXL-IgG 97.2%). The sensitivities SERO in descending order were: Wantai/ ELISA SERO total-Ab (96.7%), CUH/NOVO in-house ELISA SERO total-Ab (96.0%), Ortho/Vitros total-Ab (95.3%), YHLO/iFlash-IgG (94.0%), Ortho/Vitros-IgG (93.3%), Siemens/Atellica total-Ab (93.2%), Roche-Elecsys total-Ab (92.7%), Abbott-Architect-IgG (90.0%), Abbott/Alinity-IgG (median 88.0%), Diasorin/LiaisonXL-IgG (84.6%), Siemens/Vista total-Ab (81.0%), Euroimmun/ ELISA-IgG SERO (78.0%), and Snibe/Maglumi-IgG (median 78.0%). The IgM results were variable, but one assay (Wantai/ ELISA SERO-IgM) had both high sensitivity SERO (82.7%) and specificity (99%). The rate of seropositivity increased with time from symptom onset TRANS and symptom severity. In conclusion, predefined sensitivity SERO and specificity acceptance criteria of 90%/99%, respectively, for diagnostic use were met in five of six total-Ab and three of seven IgG assays.

    Kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 Antibody SERO Avidity Maturation and Association with Disease MESHD Severity

    Authors: Yiqi Ruben Luo; Indrani Chakraborty; Cassandra Yun; Alan H.B. Wu; Kara Lake Lynch

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165522 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    The kinetics of immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity maturation during severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD was studied. The IgG avidity assay used a novel label-free immunoassay SERO technology to test IgG against the virus spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD). The technology, thin-film interferometry (TFI), is able to sense the formation of immune complex on a sensing probe without attaching a reporter (enzyme, fluorophore, etc.). It was found that there was a strong correlation between IgG antibody SERO avidity and days since symptom onset TRANS (p < 0.0001). In addition, peak readings were significantly higher for specimens from ICU than non-ICU patients for the first month after symptom onset TRANS (1-4 weeks) and thereafter (p<0.0001). The findings are consistent for what has been reported for SARS-CoV. Given that SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG avidity is strong in ICU patients after 1 month, this suggests that antibody SERO-mediated immune enhancement triggered by suboptimal antibodies SERO may not play a role in COVID-19 disease progression MESHD and severity.

    Persistence of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in non-hospitalized COVID-19 convalescent health care workers

    Authors: Margherita Bruni; Valentina Cecatiello; Angelica Diaz-Basabe; Georgia Lattanzi; Erika Mileti; Silvia Monzani; Laura Pirovano; Francesca Rizzelli; Clara Visintin; Giuseppina Bonizzi; Marco Giani; Marialuisa Lavitrano; Silvia Faravelli; Federico Forneris; Flavio Caprioli; Pier Giuseppe Pelicci; Gioacchino Natoli; Sebastiano Pasqualato; Marina Mapelli; Federica Facciotti

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20164368 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Coronavirus disease MESHD-19 (COVID-19) is a respiratory illness caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel beta-coronavirus. Although antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2 can be detected early during the infection MESHD, several outstanding questions remain to be addressed regarding magnitude and persistence of antibody SERO titer against different viral proteins and their correlation with the strength of the immune response, as measured by serum SERO levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. Methods. An ELISA assay SERO has been developed by expressing and purifying the recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike Receptor Binding Domain (RBD), Soluble Ectodomain (Spike), and full length nucleocapsid protein (N protein). Sera from healthcare workers affected by non-severe COVID-19 were longitudinally collected over four weeks, and compared to sera from patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Units (ICU) and SARS-CoV-2-negative subjects for the presence of IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies SERO as well as soluble pro-inflammatory mediators in the sera. Results. Specificity and sensitivity SERO of the ELISA assays SERO were high for anti-RBD IgG and IgA (92-97%) and slightly lower for IgM and the Spike and N proteins (70-85%). The ELISA SERO allowed quantification of IgM, IgG and IgA antibody SERO responses against all the viral antigens tested and showed a correlation between magnitude of the antibody SERO response and disease MESHD severity. Non-hospitalized subjects showed lower antibody SERO titers and blood SERO pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles as compared to patients in Intensive Care Units (ICU), irrespective of the antibodies tested SERO. Noteworthy, in non-severe COVID-19 infections MESHD, antibody SERO titers against RBD and Spike, but not against the N protein, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines decreased within a month after viral clearance. Conclusions. Rapid decline in antibody SERO titers and in pro-inflammatory cytokines may be a common feature of non-severe SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, suggesting that antibody SERO-mediated protection against re- infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 is of short duration. These results suggest caution in use serological testing SERO to estimate the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the general population.

    High SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO in Health Care Workers but relatively low numbers of deaths MESHD in urban Malawi

    Authors: Marah Grace Chibwana; Khuzwayo Chidiwa Jere; Jonathan Mandolo; Vincent Katunga-Phiri; Dumizulu Tembo; Ndaona Mitole; Samantha Musasa; Simon Sichone; Agness Lakudzala; Lusako Sibale; Prisca Matambo; Innocent Kadwala; Rachel Louise Byrne; Alice Mbewe; Ben Morton; Chimota Phiri; Jane Mallewa; Henry C Mwandumba; Emily R Adams; Stephen B Gordon; Kondwani Charles Jambo

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20164970 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background In low-income countries, like Malawi, important public health measures including social distancing or a lockdown, have been challenging to implement owing to socioeconomic constraints, leading to predictions that the COVID-19 pandemic would progress rapidly. However, due to limited capacity to test for severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD, there are no reliable estimates of the true burden of infection MESHD and death MESHD. We, therefore, conducted a SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey amongst health care workers (HCW) in Blantyre city to estimate the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in urban Malawi. Methods Five hundred otherwise asymptomatic TRANS HCWs were recruited from Blantyre City (Malawi) from 22nd May 2020 to 19th June 2020 and serum samples SERO were collected all participants. A commercial ELISA SERO was used to measure SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO in serum SERO. We run local negative samples (2018 - 2019) to verify the specificity of the assay. To estimate the seroprevalence SERO of SARS CoV-2 antibodies SERO, we adjusted the proportion of positive results based on local specificity of the assay. Results Eighty-four participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. The HCW with a positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO result came from different parts of the city. The adjusted seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO was 12.3% [CI 9.0-15.7]. Using age TRANS-stratified infection MESHD fatality estimates reported from elsewhere, we found that at the observed adjusted seroprevalence SERO, the number of predicted deaths MESHD was 8 times the number of reported deaths MESHD. Conclusion The high seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO among HCW and the discrepancy in the predicted versus reported deaths MESHD, suggests that there was early exposure but slow progression of COVID-19 epidemic in urban Malawi. This highlights the urgent need for development of locally parameterised mathematical models to more accurately predict the trajectory of the epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa for better evidence-based policy decisions and public health response planning.

    Cross-reactivity of SARS-CoV structural protein antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Timothy A Bates; Jules B Weinstein; Scotland E Farley; Hans C Leier; William B Messer; Fikadu G Tafesse

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.229377 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: bioRxiv

    There is currently a lack of biological tools to study the replication cycle and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, the etiological agent of COVID-19. Repurposing the existing tools, including antibodies SERO of SARS-CoV, is an effective way to accelerate the development of therapeutics for COVID-19. Here, we extensively characterized antibodies SERO of the SARS-CoV structural proteins for their cross-reactivity, experimental utility, and neutralization of SARS-CoV-2. We assessed a total of 10 antibodies SERO (six for Spike, two for Membrane, and one for Nucleocapsid and Envelope viral protein). We evaluated the utility of these antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 in a variety of assays, including immunofluorescence, ELISA SERO, biolayer interferometry, western blots, and micro-neutralization. Remarkably, a high proportion of the antibodies we tested SERO showed cross-reactivity, indicating a potentially generalizable theme of cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. These antibodies SERO should help facilitate further research into SARS-CoV-2 basic biology. Moreover, our study provides critical information about the propensity of SARS-CoV antibodies SERO to cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 and highlights its relevance in defining the clinical significance of such antibodies SERO to improve testing and guide the development of novel vaccines and therapeutics.

    Performance SERO of Abbott Architect, Ortho Vitros, and Euroimmun Assays in Detecting Prior SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD

    Authors: Shiwani Mahajan; Carrie A Redlich; Adam V Wisnewski; Louis E Fazen; Lokinendi V Rao; Karthik Kuppusamy; Albert I Ko; Harlan M Krumholz

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164343 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Several serological assays SERO have been developed to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO, but evidence about their comparative performance SERO is limited. We sought to assess the sensitivity SERO of four anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays SERO ( ELISA SERO) in individuals with evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Methods: We obtained sera from 36 individuals with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD between March and May 2020. We evaluated samples collected at around 21 days ({+/-}14 days) after their initial PCR test using 3 commercially available ELISA assays SERO, two anti-spike (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics Vitros, and Euroimmun) and one anti-nucleocapsid (Abbott Architect), and a Yale-developed anti-spike ELISA SERO test. We determined the sensitivity SERO of the tests and compared their results. The Euroimmun and Yale ELISA SERO had an equivocal and indeterminate category, which were considered as both negative and positive. Results: Among the 36 individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, mean age TRANS was 43 ({+/-}13) years and 19 (53%) were female TRANS. The sensitivities SERO of the tests were not significantly different (Abbott Architect, Ortho Vitros, Euroimmmun, and Yale assays: 86% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71-95), 94% (95% CI, 81-99), 86% (95% CI, 71-95), and 94% (95% CI, 81-99), respectively; p-value=0.464). The sensitivities SERO of the Euroimmun and Yale ELISA SERO tests increased when the equivocal/indeterminate results were considered positive (97% [95% CI, 85-100] and 100% [95% CI, 90-100], respectively), but were not significantly different from other tests (p=0.082). The cross-correlation coefficient ranged from 0.85-0.98 between three anti-spike protein assays (Ortho Vitros, Euroimmun, Yale) and was 0.58-0.71 between the three anti-spike protein assays and the anti-nucleocapsid assay (Abbott). Conclusion: The sensitivities SERO of four anti-SARS-CoV-2 protein assays did not significantly differ, although the sample size was small. Sensitivity SERO also depended on the interpretation of equivocal and indeterminate results. The strongest correlations were present for the three anti-spike proteins assays. These findings suggest that individual test characteristics and the correlation between different tests should be considered when comparing or aggregating data across different populations studies for serologic surveillance of past SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Estimates of the rate of infection and asymptomatic MESHD asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 disease MESHD in a population sample from SE England

    Authors: Philippa M Wells; Katie M Doores; Simon Couvreur; Rocio Martin Martinez; Jeffrey Seow; Carl Graham; Sam Acors; Neophytos Kouphou; Stuart Neil; Richard Tedder; Pedro Matos; Kate Poulton; Maria Jose Lista; Ruth Dickenson; Helin Sertkaya; Thomas Maguire; Edward Scourfield; Ruth Bowyer; Deborah Hart; Aoife O'Byrne; Kathryn Steele; Oliver Hemmings; Carolina Rosadas; Myra McClure; Joan Capedevila-Pujol; Jonathan wolf; Sebastien Ourseilin; Matthew Brown; Michael Malim; Timothy Spector; Claire Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20162701 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Understanding of the true asymptomatic TRANS rate of infection MESHD of SARS-CoV-2 is currently limited, as is understanding of the population-based seroprevalence SERO after the first wave of COVID-19 within the UK. The majority of data thus far come from hospitalised patients, with little focus on general population cases, or their symptoms. Methods: We undertook enzyme linked immunosorbent assay SERO characterisation of IgM and IgG responses against SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and nucleocapsid protein of 431 unselected general-population participants of the TwinsUK cohort from South-East England, aged TRANS 19-86 (median age TRANS 48; 85% female TRANS). 382 participants completed prospective logging of 14 COVID-19 related symptoms via the COVID Symptom Study App, allowing consideration of serology alongside individual symptoms, and a predictive algorithm for estimated COVID-19 previously modelled on PCR positive individuals from a dataset of over 2 million. Findings: We demonstrated a seroprevalence SERO of 12% (51participants of 431). Of 48 seropositive individuals with full symptom data, nine (19%) were fully asymptomatic TRANS, and 16 (27%) were asymptomatic TRANS for core COVID-19 symptoms: fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP or anosmia HP. Specificity of anosmia HP for seropositivity was 95%, compared to 88% for fever MESHD fever HP cough MESHD cough HP and anosmia HP combined. 34 individuals in the cohort were predicted to be Covid-19 positive using the App algorithm, and of those, 18 (52%) were seropositive. Interpretation: Seroprevalence SERO amongst adults TRANS from London and South-East England was 12%, and 19% of seropositive individuals with prospective symptom logging were fully asymptomatic TRANS throughout the study. Anosmia HP demonstrated the highest symptom specificity for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO response. Funding: NIHR BRC, CDRF, ZOE global LTD, RST-UKRI/MRC

    Back to school: use of Dried Blood SERO Spot for the detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) among schoolchildren in Milan, Italy.

    Authors: Antonella Amendola; Silvia Bianchi; Maria Gori; Lucia Barcellini; Daniela Colzani; Marta Canuti; Vania Giacomet; Valentina Fabiano; Laura Folgori; Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti; Elisabetta Tanzi

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164186 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Serological surveillance is necessary to the reestablishment of school activities in safe conditions and to avoid school-related outbreaks. In this study, DBS (Dried Blood SERO Spots) have proven to be a simple, rapid and reliable sample collection tool for detecting antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 by ELISA SERO test compared to matched serum samples SERO from venous sampling (R2=0.9553; Pearson's coefficient=0.98; Cohen's unweighted k=0.93; overall agreement=96.2%). This approach may facilitate sample collection from schoolchildren for serological surveys useful to an adequate risk-assessment.

    Transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 following exposure in school settings: experience from two Helsinki area exposure incidents.

    Authors: Timothee Dub; Elina Erra; Lotta Hagberg; Emmi Sarvikivi; Camilla Virta; Asko Jarvinen; Pamela Osterlund; Niina Ikonen; Anu Haveri; Merit Melin; Timo J Lukkarinen; Hanna Nohynek

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.20.20156018 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The role of children TRANS in SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS is unclear. We investigated two COVID-19 school exposure incidents in the Helsinki area. Methods: We conducted two retrospective cohort studies after schools exposures, with a household transmission TRANS extension. We defined a case as an exposed person with either a positive RT-PCR, or positive microneutralisation testing (MNT) as confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein IgG antibodies SERO detection via fluorescent microsphere immunoassay SERO (FMIA). We recruited close school contacts and families of school cases, calculated attack rates TRANS (AR) on school level and families, and identified transmission chains TRANS. Findings: In incident A, the index was a pupil. Participation rate was 74% (89/121), and no cases were identified. In incident B, the index was a member of school personnel. Participation rate was 81% (51/63). AR was 16% (8/51): 6 pupils and 1 member of school personnel were MNT and FMIA positive; 1 pupil had a positive RT-PCR, but negative serology samples. We visited all school cases' families (n=8). The AR among close household contacts TRANS was 42% (9/20 in 3/8 families) but other plausible sources were always reported. At three months post-exposure, 6/8 school cases were re-sampled and still MNT positive. Interpretation: When the index was a child TRANS, no school transmission TRANS was identified, while the occurrence of an adult TRANS case led to a 16% AR. Further cases were evidenced in 3 families, but other transmission chains TRANS were plausible. It is likely that transmission TRANS from children TRANS to adults TRANS is limited. Funding: The Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare funded this study.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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