Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (17)

Pneumonia (7)

Anosmia (7)

Cough (6)

Falls (5)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 261 - 270 records in total 381
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    Cumulative incidence and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in New York

    Authors: Eli S Rosenberg; James M Tesoriero; Elizabeth M Rosenthal; Rakkoo Chung; Meredith A Barranco; Linda M Styer; Monica M Parker; Shu-Yin John Leung; Johanne Morne; Danielle Greene; David R Holtgrave; Dina Hoefer; Jessica Kumar; Tomoko Udo; Brad Hutton; Howard A Zucker

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.25.20113050 Date: 2020-05-29 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: New York State (NYS) is an epicenter of the United States' COVID-19 epidemic. Reliable estimates of cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the population are critical to tracking the extent of transmission TRANS and informing policies, but US data are lacking, in part because societal closure complicates study conduct. Objective: To estimate the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and percent of infections diagnosed in New York State, overall and by region, age TRANS, sex, and race and ethnicity. Design: Statewide cross-sectional seroprevalence SERO study, conducted April 19-28, 2020. Setting: Grocery stores (n=99) located in 26 counties throughout NYS, which were essential businesses that remained open during a period of societal closure and attract a heterogenous clientele. Participants: Convenience sample of patrons >=18 years and residing in New York State, recruited consecutively upon entering stores and via an in-store flyer. Exposures: Region (New York City, Westchester/Rockland, Long Island, Rest of New York State), age TRANS, sex, race and ethnicity. Main Outcomes: Primary outcome: cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, based on dry- blood SERO spot (DBS) SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO reactivity; secondary outcome: percent of infections diagnosed. Results: Among 15,101 adults TRANS with suitable DBS specimens, 1,887 (12.5%) were reactive using a validated SARS-CoV-2 IgG microsphere immunoassay SERO ( sensitivity SERO 87.9%, specificity 99.75%). Following post-stratification weighting on region, sex, age TRANS, and race and ethnicity and adjustment for assay characteristics, estimated cumulative incidence through March 29 was 14.0% (95% CI: 13.3-14.7%), corresponding to 2,139,300 (95% CI: 2,035,800-2,242,800) infection-experienced adults TRANS. Cumulative incidence was higher among Hispanic/Latino (29.2%, 95% CI: 27.2-31.2%), non-Hispanic black/African American (20.2% 95% CI, 18.1-22.3%), and non-Hispanic Asian (12.4%, 95% CI: 9.4-15.4%) adults TRANS than non-Hispanic white adults TRANS (8.1%, 95% CI: 7.4-8.7%, p

    Development and validation of IMMUNO-COV: a high-throughput clinical assay for detecting antibodies that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 SERO

    Authors: Rianna Vandergaast; Timothy Carey; Samantha Reiter; Patrycja Lech; Clement Gnanadurai; Mulu Tesfay; Jason Buehler; Lukkana Suksanpaisan; Shruthi Naik; Bethany Brunton; Jordan Recker; Michelle Haselton; Christopher Ziegler; Anne Roesler; John R. Mills; Elitza Theel; Scott C. Weaver; Grace Rafael; Matthew M. Roforth; Clavin Jerde; Sheryl Tran; Rosa Maria Diaz; Alice Bexon; Alina Baum; Christos A. Kyratsous; Kah-Whye Peng; Stephen J. Russell

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.26.117549 Date: 2020-05-27 Source: bioRxiv

    We here describe the development and validation of IMMUNO-COV, a high-throughput clinical test to quantitatively measure SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies SERO, the specific subset of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO that block viral infection MESHD. The test measures the capacity of serum SERO or purified antibodies to neutralize SERO a recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus MESHD Stomatitis HP Virus ( VSV MESHD) encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. This recombinant virus ( VSV MESHD-SARS-CoV-2-S-{Delta}19CT) induces fusion in Vero cell monolayers, which is detected as luciferase signal using a dual split protein (DSP) reporter system. VSV MESHD-SARS-CoV-2-S-{Delta}19CT infection MESHD was blocked by monoclonal -SARS-CoV-2-spike antibodies SERO and by plasma SERO or serum SERO from SARS-CoV-2 convalescing individuals. The assay exhibited 100% specificity in validation tests, and across all tests zero false positives were detected. In blinded analyses of 230 serum samples SERO, only two unexpected results were observed based on available clinical data. We observed a perfect correlation between results from our assay and 80 samples that were also assayed using a commercially available ELISA SERO. To quantify the magnitude of the anti-viral response, we generated a calibration curve by adding stepped concentrations of -SARS-CoV-2-spike monoclonal antibody SERO to pooled SARS-CoV-2 seronegative serum SERO. Using the calibration curve and a single optimal 1:100 serum SERO test dilution, we reliably measured neutralizing antibody SERO levels in each test sample. Virus neutralization units (VNUs) calculated from the assay correlated closely (p < 0.0001) with PRNTEC50 values determined by plaque reduction neutralization test against a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the IMMUNO-COV assay accurately quantitates SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies SERO in human sera and therefore is a potentially valuable addition to the currently available serological tests SERO. The assay can provide vital information for comparing immune responses to the various SARS-CoV-2 vaccines that are currently in development, or for evaluating donor eligibility in convalescent plasma SERO therapy studies.

    Detection of asymptomatic TRANS Leishmania infection MESHD in Bangladesh by novel antigen and antibody SERO diagnostic tools shows strong association with PKDL patients

    Authors: Sophie I Owen; Faria Hossain; Prakash Ghosh; Rajashree Chowdhury; Md. Sakhawat Hossain; Christopher Jewell; Isra Cruz; Albert Picado; Dinesh Mondal; Emily R Adams

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.26.20113431 Date: 2020-05-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Asymptomatic TRANS Leishmania infections MESHD outnumber clinical infections on the Indian sub-continent (ISC) where disease reservoirs are anthroponotic. Diagnostics which detect active asymptomatic TRANS infection MESHD, which are suitable for monitoring and surveillance, may be of benefit to the visceral leishmaniasis MESHD ( VL MESHD) elimination campaign on the ISC. Methodology/Principal Findings: Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), the direct agglutination test (DAT), and the Leishmania antigen ELISA SERO were carried out on blood SERO and urine samples collected from 720 household and neighbouring contacts of 276 VL MESHD and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis MESHD (PKDL) index cases, with no symptoms or history of VL MESHD and PKDL, in endemic regions of Bangladesh between September 2016 and March 2018. Of the 720 contacts of index cases, asymptomatic TRANS infection MESHD was detected in 69 (9.6%) participants by a combination of qPCR (1.0%), LAMP (2.1%), DAT (3.9%), and Leishmania antigen ELISA SERO (3.3%). Only 1 (0.1%) participant was detected positive by all 4 diagnostic tests. Poor agreement between tests was calculated using Cohen's kappa statistics, however the Leishmania antigen ELISA SERO and DAT in combination capture all participants positive by more than one test. We find strong evidence for association between the index case being a PKDL case (OR 1.94, p = 0.009), specifically macular PKDL (OR 2.12, p = 0.004) and being positive for at least one of the four tests. Conclusions/Significance: Leishmania antigen ELISA SERO detects active asymptomatic TRANS infection MESHD, requires a non-invasive sample, and therefore may be of benefit for monitoring transmission TRANS and surveillance in an elimination setting in combination with serology. Development of an antigen detection test in RDT format would be of benefit to the elimination campaign.

    Evaluation of performance SERO of two SARS-CoV-2 Rapid whole- blood SERO finger-stick IgM-IgGCombined Antibody Tests SERO

    Authors: Thierry Prazuck; Mathilda Colin; Susanna Giache; Camelia Gubavu; Aymeric Seve; Vincent Rzepecki; Marie Chevereau-Choquet; Catherine Kiani; Victor Rodi; Elsa Lyonnet; Laura Courtellemont; Jerome Guinard; Gilles Pialoux; Laurent Hocqueloux

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.27.20112888 Date: 2020-05-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background The SARS-CoV-2 virus is responsible for the infectious respiratory disease MESHD called COVID-19 ( COronaVIrus Disease MESHD). In response to the growing COVID-19 pandemic, Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) have been developed to detect specific antibodies, IgG and IgM SERO, to SARS-CoV-2 virus in human whole blood SERO. We conducted a real-life study to evaluate the performance SERO of two RDTs, COVID-PRESTO and COVID-DUO, compared to the gold standard, RT-PCR. Methods RT-PCR testing of SARS-Cov-2 was performed from nasopharyngeal swab specimens collected in adult TRANS patients visiting the infectious disease department at the hospital (Orleans, France). Fingertip whole blood SERO samples taken at different time points after onset of the disease were tested with RDTs. The specificity and sensitivity SERO of the rapid test SERO kits compared to test of reference (RT-PCR) were calculated. Results Among 381 patients with symptoms of COVID-19 who went to the hospital for a diagnostic, 143 patients were RT-PCR negative. Results of test with RDTs were all negative for these patients, indicating a specificity of 100% for both RDTs. In the RT-PCR positive subgroup (n=238), 133 patients were tested with COVID-PRESTO and 129 patients were tested with COVID-DUO (24 patients tested with both). The further the onset of symptoms TRANS was from the date of collection, the greater the sensitivity SERO. The sensitivity SERO of COVID-PRESTO test ranged from 10.00% for patients having experienced their 1st symptoms from 0 to 5 days ago to 100% in patients where symptoms had occurred more than 15 days before the date of tests. For COVID-DUO test, the sensitivity SERO ranged from 35.71% [0-5 days] to 100% (> 15 days). Conclusion COVID-PRESTO and DUO RDTs turned out to be very specific (none false positive) and to be sensitive enough after 15 days from onset of symptom TRANS. These easy to use IgG/IgM combined test kits are the first ones allowing a screening with capillary blood SERO sample, by typing from a finger prick. These rapid tests SERO are particularly interesting for screening in low resource settings.

    Mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 reveals inflammatory role of type I interferon signaling

    Authors: Benjamin Goldman-Israelow; Eric Song; Tianyang Mao; Peiwen Lu; Amit Meir; Feimei Liu; Mia Madel Alfajaro; Jin Wei; Huiping Dong; Robert Homer; Aaron Ring; Craig B Wilen; Akiko Iwasaki

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.27.118893 Date: 2020-05-27 Source: bioRxiv

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus MESHD 2 (SARS-Cov-2) has caused over 5,000,000 cases of Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) with significant fatality rate.1-3 Due to the urgency of this global pandemic, numerous therapeutic and vaccine trials have begun without customary safety and efficacy studies.4 Laboratory mice have been the stalwart of these types of studies; however, they do not support infection MESHD by SARS-CoV-2 due to the inability of its spike (S) protein to engage the mouse ortholog of its human entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2). While hACE2 transgenic mice support infection MESHD and pathogenesis,5 these mice are currently limited in availability and are restricted to a single genetic background. Here we report the development of a mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 based on adeno associated virus (AAV)-mediated expression of hACE2. These mice support viral replication and antibody SERO production and exhibit pathologic findings found in COVID-19 patients as well as non-human primate models. Moreover, we show that type I interferons are unable to control SARS-CoV2 replication and drive pathologic responses. Thus, the hACE2-AAV mouse model enables rapid deployment for in-depth analysis following robust SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD with authentic patient-derived virus in mice of diverse genetic backgrounds. This represents a much-needed platform for rapidly testing SERO prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to combat COVID-19.

    Convalescent plasma SERO therapy for the treatment of patients with COVID-19: Assessment of methods available for antibody SERO detection and their correlation with neutralising antibody SERO levels

    Authors: Heli Harvala; Matthew Robb; Nicholas Watkins; Samreen Ijaz; Steven Dicks; Mokika Patel; Pyadai Supasa; Wanwisa Dejnirattisai; Chang Liu; Juthathip Mongkolsapaya; Abbie Brown; Daniel Bailey; Richard Vipond; Nicholas Grayson; Nigel Temperton; Jai Bolton; Alex Fyfe; Robin Gopal; Peter Simmonds; Gavin Screaton; Craig P Thompson; Tim Brooks; Maria Zambon; Gail Miflin; David Roberts

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.20.20091694 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction. The lack of approved specific therapeutic agents to treat COVID-19 associated with SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD has led to the rapid implementation and/or randomised controlled trials of convalescent plasma SERO therapy (CPT) in many countries including the UK. Effective CPT is likely to require high titres of neutralising antibody SERO levels in convalescent donations. Understanding the relationship between functional neutralising antibodies SERO and antibody SERO levels to specific SARS-CoV-2 proteins in scalable assays will be crucial for the success of large-scale collection and use of convalescent plasma SERO. We assessed whether neutralising antibody SERO titres correlated with reactivity in a range of ELISA assays SERO targeting the spike (S) protein, the main target for human immune response. Methods. Blood SERO samples were collected from 52 individuals with a previous laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD at least 28 days after symptom resolution. These were assayed for SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies SERO by microneutralisation and pseudotype assays, and for antibodies SERO by four different ELISAs SERO. ROC analysis was used to further identify sensitivity SERO and specificity of selected assays to identify samples containing high neutralising antibody SERO levels suitable for clinical use of convalescent plasma SERO. Results. All samples contained SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO, whereas neutralising antibody SERO titres of greater than 1:20 were detected in 43 samples (83% of those tested) and >1:100 in 22 samples (42%). The best correlations were observed with EUROimmun IgG ELISA SERO S/CO reactivity (Spearman Rho correlation co-efficient 0.88; p<0.001). Based on ROC analysis, EUROimmun would detect 60% of samples with titres of >1:100 with 100% specificity using a reactivity index of 9.1 (13/22). Discussion. Robust associations between virus neutralising antibody SERO titres and reactivity in several ELISA SERO-based antibody tests SERO demonstrate their possible utility for scaled-up production of convalescent plasma SERO containing potentially therapeutic levels of anti- SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies SERO.

    Evaluation of ELISA SERO tests for the qualitative determination of IgG, IgM and IgA to SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Francesca Colavita; Alessandra Brogi; Daniele Lapa; Licia Bordi; Giulia Matusali; Silvia Meschi; Patrizia Marsella; Giulia Tesi; Tommaso Bandini; Antonino Di Caro; Maria Rosaria Capobianchi; Concetta Castilletti

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.24.20111682 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Serological assays SERO for anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO are now of critical importance to support diagnosis, guide epidemiological intervention, and understand immune response to natural infection MESHD and vaccine administration. We developed and validated new anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, IgM and IgA ELISA SERO tests (ENZY-WELL SARS-CoV-2 ELISA SERO, DIESSE Diagnostica Senese S.p.a.) based on whole-virus antigens. We used a total of 553 serum samples SERO including samples from COVID-19 suspected and confirmed cases TRANS, healthy donors, and patients positive for other infections MESHD or autoimmune conditions. Overall, the assays showed good concordance with the indirect immunofluorescence reference test in terms of sensitivity SERO and specificity. Especially for IgG and IgA, we observed high sensitivity SERO (92.5 and 93.6%, respectively); specificity was high (>96%) for all antibody SERO types ELISAs SERO. In addition, sensitivity SERO was linked to the days from symptoms onset TRANS (DSO) due to the seroconversion window, and for ENZY-WELL SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA ELISAs SERO resulted 100% in those samples collected after 10 and 12 DSO, respectively. The results showed that ENZY-WELL SARS-CoV-2 ELISAs SERO may represent a valid option for both diagnostic and epidemiological purposes, covering all different antibody SERO types developed in SARS-CoV-2 immune response.

    COVID-19 serology at population scale: SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody SERO responses in saliva

    Authors: Pranay R Randad; Nora Pisanic; Kate Kruczynski; Yukari C Manabe; David Thomas; Andrew Pekosz; Sabra Klein; Michael J Betenbaugh; William A Clarke; Oliver Laeyendecker; Patrizio P Caturegli; H Benjamin Larman; Barbara Detrick; Jessica K Fairley; Amy C Sherman; Nadine Rouphael; Srilatha Edupuganti; Douglas A Granger; Steve W Granger; Matthew Collins; Christopher D Heaney

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.24.20112300 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Non-invasive SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO testing is urgently needed to estimate the incidence and prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD at the general population level. Precise knowledge of population immunity could allow government bodies to make informed decisions about how and when to relax stay-at-home directives and to reopen the economy. We hypothesized that salivary antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO could serve as a non-invasive alternative to serological testing SERO for widespread monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD throughout the population. We developed a multiplex SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO immunoassay SERO based on Luminex technology and tested 167 saliva and 324 serum samples SERO, including 134 and 118 negative saliva and serum samples SERO, respectively, collected before the COVID-19 pandemic, and 33 saliva and 206 serum samples SERO from participants with RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. We evaluated the correlation of results obtained in saliva vs. serum SERO and determined the sensitivity SERO and specificity for each diagnostic media, stratified by antibody SERO isotype, for detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD based on COVID-19 case designation for all specimens. Matched serum SERO and saliva SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific IgG responses were significantly correlated. Within the 10-plex SARS-CoV-2 panel, the salivary anti-nucleocapsid (N) protein IgG response resulted in the highest sensitivity SERO for detecting prior SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD (100% sensitivity SERO at [≥]10 days post-SARS-CoV-2 symptom onset TRANS). The salivary anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG response resulted in 100% specificity. Among individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection confirmed TRANS with RT-PCR, the temporal kinetics of IgG, IgA, and IgM in saliva were consistent with those observed in serum SERO. SARS-CoV-2 appears to trigger a humoral immune response resulting in the almost simultaneous rise of IgG, IgM and IgA levels both in serum SERO and in saliva, mirroring responses consistent with the stimulation of existing, cross-reactive B cells. SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO testing in saliva can play a critically important role in large-scale 'sero'-surveillance to address key public health priorities and guide policy and decision-making for COVID-19.

    Study on the expression levels of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 at different period of disease and its related factors in 192 cases of COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Jingyi Ou; Mingkai Tan; Haolan He; Haiyan Tan; Jiewen Mai; Yaoxiang Long; Xiaowen Jiang; Qing He; Ying Huang; Yan Li; Renshen Chen; Liya Li; Fang Li; Yaling Shi

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.22.20102525 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: In 2020 the current outbreak of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019(COVID-19) has constituted a global pandemic. But the question about the immune mechanism of patients with COVID-19 is unclear and cause particular concern to the world. Here, we launched a follow-up analysis of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 of 192 COVID-19 patients, aiming to depict a kinetics profile of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 and explore the related factors of antibodies SERO expression against SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patient. Methods: A total of 192 COVID-19 patients enrolled in the designated hospital of Guangzhou , Guangzhou Eighth People MESHD's Hospital, from January to February 2020 were selected as the study cohort. A cohort of 130 COVID-19 suspects who had been excluded from SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD by negative RT-PCR result and 209 healthy people were enrolled in this study. Detection of IgM and IgG against SARS-CoV-2 were performed by Chemiluminescence immunoassay SERO in different groups . Results: It has been found that the seroconversion time of IgM against SARS-CoV-2 in most patients was 5-10 days after the symptoms onset TRANS , and then rose rapidly, reaching a peak around 2 to 3 weeks, and the median peak concentration was 2.705 AU / mL. The peak of IgM maintained within one week, and then enters the descending channel. IgG seroconverted later than or synchronously with IgM, reaching peaks around 3 to 4 weeks.The median peak concentration was 33.998AU / ml,which was higher than that of IgM . IgM titers begins to gradually decrease after reaching the peak in the 4th week, after the 8th week, a majority of IgM in patient's serum SERO started to turn negative. On the contrary, titers of IgG began to decline slightly after the fifth week, and more than 90% of results of patients were positive after 8 weeks. Additionally, the concentration of antibodies SERO positively correlated with the severity of the disease and the duration of virus exist in host. Conclusion: We depict a kinetics profile of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients and found out that the levels of antibodies SERO were related to the disease severity, age TRANS, gender TRANS and virus clearance or continuous proliferation of COVID-19 patients.

    Diagnostic performances SERO and thresholds: the key to harmonization in serological SARS-CoV-2 assays?

    Authors: Mario Plebani; Andrea Padoan; Davide Negrini; Benedetta Carpinteri; Laura Sciacovelli

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.22.20106328 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The evaluation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD ( SARS-CoV-2) specific antibody SERO (Ab) assay performances SERO is of the utmost importance in establishing and monitoring virus spread in the community. In this study focusing on IgG antibodies SERO, we compare reliability of three chemiluminescent (CLIA) and two enzyme linked immunosorbent ( ELISA) assays SERO. Methods: Sera from a total of 271 subjects, including 64 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed SARS-CoV-2 patients were tested for specific Ab using Maglumi (Snibe), Liaison (Diasorin), iFlash (Yhlo), Euroimmun (Medizinische Labordiagnostika AG) and Wantai (Wantai Biological Pharmacy) assays. Diagnostic sensitivity SERO and specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios were evaluated using manufacturers' and optimized thresholds. Results: Optimized thresholds (Maglumi 2 kAU/L, Liaison 6.2 kAU/L and iFlash 15.0 kAU/L) allowed us to achieve a negative likelihood ratio and an accuracy of: 0.06 and 93.5% for Maglumi; 0.03 and 93.1% for Liaison; 0.03 and 91% for iFlash. Diagnostic sensitivities SERO and specificities were above 93.8% and 85.9%, respectively for all CLIA assays SERO. Overall agreement was 90.3% (Cohen's kappa = 0.805 and SE = 0.041) for CLIA, and 98.4% (Cohen's kappa = 0.962 and SE = 0.126) for ELISA SERO. Conclusions: The results obtained indicate that, for CLIA assays SERO, it might be possible to define thresholds that improve the negative likelihood ratio. Thus, a negative test result enables the identification of subjects at risk of being infected, who should then be closely monitored over time with a view to preventing further viral spread. Redefined thresholds, in addition, improved the overall inter-assay agreement, paving the way to a better harmonization of serologic tests SERO.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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