Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (14)

Anosmia (5)

Cough (4)

Dyspnea (3)

Pneumonia (3)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 11 - 20 records in total 107
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    Systematic evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein derived peptides for diagnosis of COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Yang Li; Danyun Lai; Qing Lei; Zhaowei Xu; Hongyan Hou; Hong Shan; Feng Wang; Xionglin Fan; Sheng-ce Tao; Yulong Lian; Sarah Connelly; Elena Sheldon; Jamie Hall; Emma Young; Andrew Bentley; Kirsty Challen; Chris Fitzsimmons; Tim Harris; Fiona Lecky; Andrew Lee; Ian Maconochie; Darren Walter; Dilek Telci; Fikrettin Sahin; Koray Yalcin; Ercument Ovali

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.01.20186387 Date: 2020-09-03 Source: medRxiv

    Serological test SERO plays an essential role in monitoring and combating COVID-19 pandemic. Recombinant spike protein (S protein), especially S1 protein is one of the major reagents for serological tests SERO. However, the high cost in production of S protein, and the possible cross-reactivity with other human coronaviruses poses unneglectable challenges. Taking advantage of a peptide microarray of full spike protein coverage, we analyzed 2,434 sera from 858 COVID-19 patients, sera from 63 asymptomatic TRANS patients and 610 controls collected from multiple clinical centers. Based on the results of the peptide microarray, we identified several S protein derived 12-mer peptides that have high diagnosis performance SERO. Particularly, for monitoring IgG response, one peptide (aa 1148-1159 or S2-78) has a comparable sensitivity SERO (95.5%, 95% CI 93.7-96.9%) and specificity (96.7%, 95% CI 94.8-98.0%) to that of S1 protein for detection of both COVID-19 patients and asymptomatic TRANS infections. Furthermore, the performance SERO of S2-78 IgG for diagnosis was successfully validated by ELISA SERO with an independent sample cohort. By combining S2-78/ S1 with other peptides, a two-step strategy was proposed to ensure both the sensitivity SERO and specificity of S protein based serological assay SERO. The peptide/s identified in this study could be applied independently or in combination with S1 protein for accurate, affordable, and accessible COVID-19 diagnosis.

    SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO seroprevalence SERO and stability in a tertiary care hospital-setting

    Authors: Samreen Siddiqui; Salwa Naushin; Shalini Pradhan; Archa Misra; Akansha Tyagi; Menka Loomba; Swati Waghdhare; Rajesh Pandey; Shantanu Sengupta; Sujeet Jha; Edward Burn; Paula Casajust; Dalia Dawoud; Scott L DuVall; Thomas Falconer; Sergio Fernandez-Bertolin; Asieh Golozar; Mengchun Gong; Lana Yin Hui Lai; Jennifer C.E Lane; Kristine E Lynch; Michael E Matheny; Paras P Mehta; Daniel R Morales; Karthik Natarjan; Fredrik Nyberg; Jose D Posada; Christian G Reich; Lisa M Schilling; Karishma Shah; Nigham H Shah; Vignesh Subbian; Lin Zhang; Hong Zhu; Patrick Ryan; Daniel Prieto-Alhambra; Kristin Kostka; Talita Duarte-Salles

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.02.20186486 Date: 2020-09-03 Source: medRxiv

    Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD has caused 64,469 deaths in India, with 7, 81, 975 active cases till 30th August 2020, lifting it to 3rd rank globally. To estimate the burden of the disease with time it is important to undertake a longitudinal seroprevalence SERO study which will also help to understand the stability of anti SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. Various studies have been conducted worldwide to assess the antibody SERO stability. However, there is very limited data available from India. Healthcare workers (HCW) are the frontline workforce and more exposed to the COVID-19 infection (SARS-CoV-2) compared to the community. This study was conceptualized with an aim to estimate the seroprevalence SERO in hospital and general population and determine the stability of anti SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in HCW. Methods: Staff of a tertiary care hospital in Delhi and individuals visiting that hospital were recruited between April to August 2020. Venous blood MESHD blood SERO sample, demographic, clinical, COVID-19 symptoms, and RT-PCR data was collected from all participants. Serological testing SERO was performed using the electro-chemiluminescence based assay developed by Roche Diagnostics, in Cobas Elecsys 411. Seropositive participants were followed- upto 83 days to check for the presence of antibodies SERO. Results: A total of 780 participants were included in this study, which comprised 448 HCW and 332 individuals from the general population. Among the HCW, seroprevalence SERO rates increased from 2.3% in April to 50.6% in July. The cumulative prevalence SERO was 16.5% in HCW and 23.5% (78/332) in the general population with a large number of asymptomatic TRANS individuals. Out of 74 seropositive HCWs, 51 were followed-up for the duration of this study. We observed that in all seropositive cases the antibodies SERO were sustained even up to 83 days. Conclusion: The cumulative prevalence SERO of seropositivity was lower in HCWs than the general population. There were a large number of asymptomatic TRANS cases and the antibodies SERO developed persisted through the duration of the study. More such longitudinal serology studies are needed to better understand the antibody SERO response kinetics.

    Insights into the practical effectiveness of RT-PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 from serologic data, a cohort study

    Authors: Zhen Zhang; Qifang Bi; Shisong Fang; Lan Wei; Xin Wang; Jianfan He; Yongsheng Wu; Xiaojian Liu; Wei Gao; Renli Zhang; Qiru Su; Andrew Azman; Justin Lessler; Xuan Zou; Wenfeng Gong; Brenda Clemente; Jerel Vega; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.01.20182469 Date: 2020-09-03 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Virologic detection of SARS-CoV-2 through Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) has limitations for surveillance. Serologic tests SERO can be an important complementary approach. Objective: Assess the practical performance SERO of RT-PCR based surveillance protocols, and the extent of undetected SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS in Shenzhen, China. Design: Cohort study nested in a public health response. Setting: Shenzhen, China; January-May 2020. Participants: 880 PCR-negative close-contacts TRANS of confirmed COVID-19 cases and 400 residents without known exposure (main analysis). Fifty-seven PCR-positive case contacts (timing analysis). Measurements: Virological testing by RT-PCR. Measurement of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in PCR-negative contacts 2-15 weeks after initial testing using total Ab ELISA SERO. Rates of undetected infection MESHD, performance SERO of RT-PCR over the course of infection MESHD, and characteristics of seropositive but PCR-negative individuals were assessed. Results: The adjusted seropositivity rate for total Ab among 880 PCR-negative close-contacts TRANS was 4.1% (95%CI, 2.9% to 5.7%), significantly higher than among residents without known exposure to cases (0.0%, 95%CI, 0.0% to 1.0%). PCR-positive cases were 8.0 times (RR; 95% CI, 5.3 to 12.7) more likely to report symptoms than the PCR-negative individuals who were seropositive, but otherwise similar. RT-PCR missed 36% (95%CI, 28% to 44%) of infected close-contacts TRANS, and false negative rates appear to be highly dependent on stage of infection MESHD. Limitations: No serological data were available on PCR-positive cases. Sample size was limited, and only 20% of PCR-negative contacts met inclusion criteria. Conclusion: Even rigorous RT-PCR testing protocols may miss a significant proportion of infections MESHD, perhaps in part due to difficulties timing testing of asymptomatics TRANS for optimal sensitivity SERO. Surveillance and control protocols relying on RT-PCR were, nevertheless, able to contain community spread in Shenzhen.

    Population-based seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 is more than halfway through the herd immunity threshold in the State of Maranhao, Brazil

    Authors: Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva; Lídio Gonçalves Lima Neto; Conceição de Maria Pedrozo e Silva de Azevedo; Léa Márcia Melo da Costa; Maylla Luana Barbosa Martins Bragança; Allan Kardec Duailibe Barros Filho; Bernardo Bastos Wittlin; Bruno Feres de Souza Sr.; Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de Oliveira; Carolina Abreu de Carvalho; Érika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz; Eudes Alves Simões Neto; Jamesson Ferreira Leite Júnior; Lécia Maria Sousa Santos Cosme; Marcos Adriano Garcia Campos; Rejane Christine de Sousa Queiroz; Sérgio Souza Costa; Vitória Abreu de Carvalho; Vanda Maria Ferreira Simóes; Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto e Alves; Alcione Miranda dos Santos; Alberto Pasqualetto; Maylin Koo; Virginia Esteve; Arnau Antoli; Rafael Moreno; Sergi Yun; Pau Cerda; Mariona Llaberia; Francesc Formiga; Marta Fanlo; Abelardo Montero; David Chivite; Olga Capdevila; Ferran Bolao; Xavier Pinto; Josep Llop; Antoni Sabate; Jordi Guardiola; Josep M Cruzado; Josep Comin-Colet; Salud Santos; Ramon Jodar; Xavier Corbella

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.28.20180463 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Few population-based studies on the prevalence SERO of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) have been performed to date, and most of them have used lateral flow immunoassays SERO with finger-prick, which may yield false-negative results and thus underestimate the true infection rate. Methods: A population-based household survey was performed in the State of Maranhao, Brazil, from 27 July 2020 to 8 August 2020 to estimate the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 using a serum SERO testing electrochemiluminescence immunoassay SERO. A three-stage cluster sampling stratified by four state regions was used. The estimates took clustering, stratification, and non-response into account. Qualitative detection of IgM and IgG antibodies SERO was performed in a fully-automated Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 electrochemiluminescence immunoassay SERO on the Cobas e601 analyser (Roche Diagnostics). Findings: A total of 3156 individuals were interviewed. Seroprevalence SERO of total antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 was 40.4% (95%CI 35.6-45.3). Population adherence to non-pharmaceutical interventions was higher at the beginning of the pandemic than in the last month. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD rates were significantly lower among mask wearers and among those who maintained social and physical distancing in the last month compared to their counterparts. Among the infected, 62.2% had more than three symptoms, 11.1% had one or two symptoms, and 26.0% were asymptomatic TRANS. The infection MESHD fatality rate was 0.17%, higher for males TRANS and advanced age groups TRANS. The ratio of estimated infections MESHD to reported cases was 22.2. Interpretation: To the best of our knowledge, the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 estimated in this population-based survey was the highest and the closest to the herd immunity threshold reported to date. Our results suggest that the herd immunity threshold is not as low as 20%, but at least higher than or equal to around 40%. The infection MESHD fatality rate was one of the lowest reported so far, and the proportion of asymptomatic TRANS cases was low.

    Seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 in Palestine: a cross-sectional seroepidemiological study

    Authors: Nouar Qutob; Faisal Awartani; Zaidoun Salah; Mohammad Asia; Imad Abu Khader; Khaled Herzallah; Nadeen Balqis; Husam Sallam; William Wade; Jennifer Gallagher; Cecile Viboud; Hongjie Yu; Lars I Eriksson; Anna Norrby-Teglund; Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren; Niklas K Bjorkstrom; Soo Aleman; Marcus Buggert; Jonas Klingstrom; Kristoffer Stralin; Johan K. Sandberg

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.28.20180083 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    Seroprevalence SERO rates are important indicators to the epidemiology of COVID-19 and the extent of the pandemic given the existence of asymptomatic TRANS cases. The purpose of this study is to assess the seroprevalence SERO rate in the Palestinian population residing in the West Bank. Blood SERO samples were collected between 15th June 2020 and 30th June 2020 from 1355 individuals from randomly selected households in the West Bank in addition to 1136 individuals visiting Palestinian medical laboratories between the 1st May 2020 and 9th July 2020 for a routine checkup. Out of the 2491 blood SERO samples collected, serological tests SERO for 2455 adequate serum samples SERO were done using an Immunoassay SERO for qualitative detection of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 .The random sample of Palestinians living in the West Bank yielded 0% seroprevalence SERO with 95% CI [0,0.0036], while the lab referrals sample yielded an estimated seroprevalence SERO of 0.354% with 95% CI [0.0011,0096]. Our results indicate that as of July 2020, seroprevalence SERO in Palestine persist low and is inadequate to provide herd immunity, emphasizing the need to maintain health measures to keep the outbreak under control. Population-based seroprevalence SERO studies are to be conducted periodically to monitor the SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO in Palestine and inform policy makers about the efficacy of their surveillance system.

    Antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans: a systematic review

    Authors: Nathan Post; Danielle Eddy; Catherine Huntley; May C. I. van Schalkwyk; Madhumita Shrotri; David Leeman; Samuel Rigby; Sarah V. Williams; William H. Bermingham; Paul Kellam; John Maher; Adrian M Shields; Gayatri Amirthalingam; Sharon J. Peacock; Sharif A. Ismail; Holly Shelton; Anna Barbara Ludi; G Wilsden; Clare Browning; Adrian Zagrajek; Dagmara Bialy; Sushant Bhat; Phoebe Stevenson-Leggett; Philippa Hollinghurst; Matthew Tully; Katy Moffat; Chris Chiu; Ryan Waters; Ashley Gray; Mehreen Azhar; Valerie Mioulet; Joseph Newman; Amin S Asfor; Alison Burman; Sylvia Crossley; John Hammond; Elma Tchilian; Bryan Charleston; Dalan Bailey; Tobias J Tuthill; Simon Graham; Tomas Malinauskas; Jiandong Huo; Julia Tree; Karen Buttigieg; Ray Owens; Miles Carroll; Rod Daniels; John McCauley; Kuan-Ying A Huang; Mark Howarth; Alain Townsend

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.25.20178806 Date: 2020-08-30 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Progress in characterising the humoral immune response to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been rapid but areas of uncertainty persist. This review comprehensively evaluated evidence describing the antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2 published from 01/01/2020-26/06/2020. Methods Systematic review. Keyword-structured searches were carried out in MEDLINE, Embase and COVID-19 Primer. Articles were independently screened on title, abstract and full text by two researchers, with arbitration of disagreements. Data were double-extracted into a pre-designed template, and studies critically appraised using a modified version of the MetaQAT tool, with resolution of disagreements by consensus. Findings were narratively synthesised. Results 150 papers were included. Most studies (75%) were observational in design, and included papers were generally of moderate quality based on hospitalised patients. Few considered mild or asymptomatic TRANS infection. Antibody SERO dynamics were well described in the acute phase, and up to around 3 months from disease onset, although inconsistencies remain concerning clinical correlates. Development of neutralising antibodies SERO following SARS-CoV-2 infection is typical, although titres may be low. Specific and potent neutralising antibodies SERO have been isolated from convalescent plasma SERO. Cross reactivity but limited cross neutralisation occurs with other HCoVs. Evidence for protective immunity in vivo is limited to small, short-term animal studies, which show promising initial results in the immediate recovery phase. Interpretation Published literature on immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 is of variable quality with considerable heterogeneity with regard to methods, study participants, outcomes measured and assays used. Antibody SERO dynamics have been evaluated thoroughly in the acute phase but longer follow up and a comprehensive assessment of the role of demographic characteristics and disease severity is needed. The role of protective neutralising antibodies SERO is emerging, with implications for therapeutics and vaccines. Large, cross-national cohort studies using appropriate statistical analysis and standardised serological assays SERO and clinical classifications should be prioritised.

    Genetic testing and serological SERO screening for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in a COVID-19 outbreak in a nursing facility in Japan

    Authors: Yong Chong; Naoki Tani; Hideyuki Ikematsu; Nobuto Terazawa; Hitoshi Nakashima; Nobuyuki Shimono; Koichi Akashi; Yosuke Tanaka

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-64266/v1 Date: 2020-08-23 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The Pandemic of coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), has critically impacted the spread of infection within nursing facilities. We evaluated the usefulness of genetic and serological tests SERO conducted during a COVID-19 outbreak in a nursing facility in Japan.Methods: After the first identification of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, a comprehensive, facility- and/or unit-wide PCR testing from nasopharyngeal swabs was repeatedly performed in a three-unit facility including 99 residents with dementia HP dementia MESHD and 53 healthcare personnel. Additionally, PCR testing was conducted separately for residents and staff with fever HP fever MESHD of ≥37.5 oC. Facility-wide serological testing SERO, including rapid kit testing and quantitative assay, was conducted twice over 1 month apart.Results: A total of 322 PCR and 257 antibody tests SERO were performed. 37 (24.3%) of the 152 individuals (25/99 residents, 25.3%; 12/53 staff, 22.6%) were identified as PCR-positive. Seven residents died with a mortality of 7.1% (7/99). Among the 37 individuals, 10 (27.0%) were asymptomatic TRANS at the time of testing. PCR positivity was concentrated on one unit (Unit 1) (20/30 residents, 66.7%; 9/14 staff, 64.3%). The other units showed a limited spread of infection MESHD. In unit-wide and separate tests, PCR positivity detection was highly prevalent (22.9% and 44.4%, respectively) in Unit 1, compared with that in the other units. Serological testing SERO identified two additional infected residents with a negative PCR result and showed that no staff was newly identified as infected.Conclusions: Thorough PCR testing, in combination with comprehensive and separate tests, is critical for managing COVID-19 outbreaks in nursing facilities, particularly, in units considered an epicenter. Serological testing SERO is also beneficial for tracing contacts TRANS, confirming the number of infected individuals, and authorizing the termination of the outbreak.

    Longitudinal SARS-CoV-2 serosurveillance of over ten thousand health care workers in the Providence Oregon cohort.

    Authors: Rom Leidner; Angi Frary; Julie Cramer; David Ball; Roshanthi Weerasinghe; Mark Schmidt; Justin Jin; Veronica Luzzi; Alec Saitman; Jeffrey A. Young; David Leidner; Kendall Sawa; Scott Marsal; Kevin Olson; Nancy Frisco; Amy Compton-Phillips; Walter Urba; Brian Piening; Carlo Bifulco; Paul Bates; Hamid Bassiri; Edward M Behrens; David T. Teachey; Scott Hensley

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.16.20176107 Date: 2020-08-18 Source: medRxiv

    ABSTRACT Frontline healthcare workers (HCW) are a high-risk population for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Here we present results from a large serosurveillance study of 10,019 asymptomatic TRANS HCW conducted during April-May 2020, in eight hospital medical centers across the state of Oregon, USA during the initial peak of the pandemic. Free and voluntary testing was performed at 14 +/- 3 day intervals, over a 4-week window at each site, utilizing a lab-developed ELISA SERO based on the Epitope Diagnostics COVID-19 nucleocapsid IgG detection Kit. We identified 253 SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositive individuals among 10,019 total participants, representing a cross-sectional seroprevalence SERO of 2.53%. Subgroup analysis identified differential seropositivity by job role, ranging from 8.03% among housekeepers, odds ratio 3.17 (95% CI 1.59-5.71), to 0.00% among anesthesiologists, odds ratio 0.00 (95% CI 0-0.26), both of which were significant. Over the course of the study, 17 seroconversions (0.25%) and 101 seroreversions (1.50%) were identified. Self-reported SARS-CoV-2 swab qPCR testing, when compared with subsequent serology on study, showed only modest agreement, {kappa} = 0.47 (95% CI 0.32-0.62). Overall, these findings demonstrate relatively low seroprevalence SERO and very low seroconversion rates among HCW in Oregon, USA, over a period in which aggressive social distancing measures were in place. The high rate of seroreversion observed in this cohort, and the relatively high discordance between SARS-CoV-2 serology and swab qPCR, highlight limitations of current detection methods, and stress the need for development of novel assessment methodologies to more accurately identify exposure (and/or immunity) to SARS-CoV-2 in this population.

    SARS-CoV-2 Antibody SERO Responses Correlate with Resolution of RNAemia But Are Short-Lived in Patients with Mild Illness

    Authors: Katharina Röltgen; Oliver F Wirz; Bryan A Stevens; Abigail E Powell; Catherine A Hogan; Javaria Najeeb; Molly Hunter; Malaya K Sahoo; ChunHong Huang; Fumiko Yamamoto; Justin Manalac; Ana R Otrelo-Cardoso; Tho D Pham; Arjun Rustagi; Angela J Rogers; Nigam H Shah; Catherine A Blish; Jennifer R Cochran; Kari C Nadeau; Theodore S Jardetzky; James L Zehnder; Taia T Wang; Peter S Kim; Saurabh Gombar; Robert Tibshirani; Benjamin A Pinsky; Scott D Boyd

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.15.20175794 Date: 2020-08-17 Source: medRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies SERO, particularly those preventing viral spike receptor binding domain (RBD) interaction with host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, could offer protective immunity, and may affect clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients. We analyzed 625 serial plasma SERO samples from 40 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 170 SARS-CoV-2-infected MESHD outpatients and asymptomatic TRANS individuals. Severely ill patients developed significantly higher SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody SERO responses than outpatients and asymptomatic TRANS individuals. The development of plasma SERO antibodies SERO was correlated with decreases in viral RNAemia MESHD, consistent with potential humoral immune clearance of virus. Using a novel competition ELISA SERO, we detected antibodies SERO blocking RBD-ACE2 interactions in 68% of inpatients and 40% of outpatients tested. Cross-reactive antibodies SERO recognizing SARS-CoV RBD MESHD were found almost exclusively in hospitalized patients. Outpatient and asymptomatic TRANS individuals' serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 decreased within 2 months, suggesting that humoral protection may be short-lived.

    ESTIMATING PREVALENCE SERO AND TIME COURSE OF SARS-CoV-2 BASED ON NEW HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS AND PCR TESTS

    Authors: Jose E Gonzalez; Pampi Majumder; Kingshuk Bhattacharjee; Qianting Yang; Haiyan Wang; Xin Wang; Xiaoju Liu; Juanjuan Zhao; Xuejiao Liao; Yang Liu; Ido Amit; Lei Liu; Shuye Zhang; Zheng Zhang; Christiane Schueler; Saskia Stenzel; Elisabeth Braun; Johanna Weiss; Daniel Sauter; Jan Muench; Steffen Stenger; Kei Sato; Alexander Kleger; Christine Goffinet; Konstantin Maria Johannes Sparrer; Frank Kirchhoff; Austin D. Swafford; Karsten Zengler; Susan Cheng; Michael Inouye; Teemu Niiranen; Mohit Jain; Veikko Salomaa; Jeffrey D. Esko; Nathan E Lewis; Rob Knight

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.15.20175653 Date: 2020-08-17 Source: medRxiv

    Data posted in the COVID 19 tracking website for RT-PCR (PCR) results and hospital admissions are used to estimate the prevalence SERO of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the United States (1). Hospital admissions mitigate positive sampling bias in PCR tests due to their initially limited test numbers and application as a diagnostic, instead of a surveying tool. As of July 31, the United States' cumulative recovered population is estimated at 47% or 155 million. The remaining susceptible population is 53%, or 47% excepting the 6% infectious population. The estimated mortality rate of the cumulative recovered population is 0.09% death per case. New York and Massachusetts show SARS-CoV-2 prevalence SERO of 87% and 55%, respectively. Likewise, each state exhibits relatively low current positive PCR results at 1 % and 1.7%. Also, these states show about twice the mortality rate of the nation. Florida, California, and Texas showed recovered population percent around 40%, higher current PCR positive test results ranging from 7% to 13%. A higher recovered population mitigates the current positive value attainable by limiting the infectivity rate Re. This approach provides an alternate source of information on the pandemic's full time course since the serological testing SERO only views a narrow time slice of its history due to the transient nature of the antibody SERO response and its graduated expression dependency on the severity of the disease. The deficiency of serological testing SERO to estimate the recovered population is made even more acute due to the large proportion of asymptomatic TRANS and sub-clinical cases in the COVID-19 pandemic

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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