Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (15)

Anosmia (5)

Cough (5)

Dyspnea (3)

Pneumonia (3)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 21 - 30 records in total 110
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    Longitudinal SARS-CoV-2 serosurveillance of over ten thousand health care workers in the Providence Oregon cohort.

    Authors: Rom Leidner; Angi Frary; Julie Cramer; David Ball; Roshanthi Weerasinghe; Mark Schmidt; Justin Jin; Veronica Luzzi; Alec Saitman; Jeffrey A. Young; David Leidner; Kendall Sawa; Scott Marsal; Kevin Olson; Nancy Frisco; Amy Compton-Phillips; Walter Urba; Brian Piening; Carlo Bifulco; Paul Bates; Hamid Bassiri; Edward M Behrens; David T. Teachey; Scott Hensley

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.16.20176107 Date: 2020-08-18 Source: medRxiv

    ABSTRACT Frontline healthcare workers (HCW) are a high-risk population for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Here we present results from a large serosurveillance study of 10,019 asymptomatic TRANS HCW conducted during April-May 2020, in eight hospital medical centers across the state of Oregon, USA during the initial peak of the pandemic. Free and voluntary testing was performed at 14 +/- 3 day intervals, over a 4-week window at each site, utilizing a lab-developed ELISA SERO based on the Epitope Diagnostics COVID-19 nucleocapsid IgG detection Kit. We identified 253 SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositive individuals among 10,019 total participants, representing a cross-sectional seroprevalence SERO of 2.53%. Subgroup analysis identified differential seropositivity by job role, ranging from 8.03% among housekeepers, odds ratio 3.17 (95% CI 1.59-5.71), to 0.00% among anesthesiologists, odds ratio 0.00 (95% CI 0-0.26), both of which were significant. Over the course of the study, 17 seroconversions (0.25%) and 101 seroreversions (1.50%) were identified. Self-reported SARS-CoV-2 swab qPCR testing, when compared with subsequent serology on study, showed only modest agreement, {kappa} = 0.47 (95% CI 0.32-0.62). Overall, these findings demonstrate relatively low seroprevalence SERO and very low seroconversion rates among HCW in Oregon, USA, over a period in which aggressive social distancing measures were in place. The high rate of seroreversion observed in this cohort, and the relatively high discordance between SARS-CoV-2 serology and swab qPCR, highlight limitations of current detection methods, and stress the need for development of novel assessment methodologies to more accurately identify exposure (and/or immunity) to SARS-CoV-2 in this population.

    SARS-CoV-2 Antibody SERO Responses Correlate with Resolution of RNAemia But Are Short-Lived in Patients with Mild Illness

    Authors: Katharina Röltgen; Oliver F Wirz; Bryan A Stevens; Abigail E Powell; Catherine A Hogan; Javaria Najeeb; Molly Hunter; Malaya K Sahoo; ChunHong Huang; Fumiko Yamamoto; Justin Manalac; Ana R Otrelo-Cardoso; Tho D Pham; Arjun Rustagi; Angela J Rogers; Nigam H Shah; Catherine A Blish; Jennifer R Cochran; Kari C Nadeau; Theodore S Jardetzky; James L Zehnder; Taia T Wang; Peter S Kim; Saurabh Gombar; Robert Tibshirani; Benjamin A Pinsky; Scott D Boyd

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.15.20175794 Date: 2020-08-17 Source: medRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies SERO, particularly those preventing viral spike receptor binding domain (RBD) interaction with host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, could offer protective immunity, and may affect clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients. We analyzed 625 serial plasma SERO samples from 40 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 170 SARS-CoV-2-infected MESHD outpatients and asymptomatic TRANS individuals. Severely ill patients developed significantly higher SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody SERO responses than outpatients and asymptomatic TRANS individuals. The development of plasma SERO antibodies SERO was correlated with decreases in viral RNAemia MESHD, consistent with potential humoral immune clearance of virus. Using a novel competition ELISA SERO, we detected antibodies SERO blocking RBD-ACE2 interactions in 68% of inpatients and 40% of outpatients tested. Cross-reactive antibodies SERO recognizing SARS-CoV RBD MESHD were found almost exclusively in hospitalized patients. Outpatient and asymptomatic TRANS individuals' serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 decreased within 2 months, suggesting that humoral protection may be short-lived.

    ESTIMATING PREVALENCE SERO AND TIME COURSE OF SARS-CoV-2 BASED ON NEW HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS AND PCR TESTS

    Authors: Jose E Gonzalez; Pampi Majumder; Kingshuk Bhattacharjee; Qianting Yang; Haiyan Wang; Xin Wang; Xiaoju Liu; Juanjuan Zhao; Xuejiao Liao; Yang Liu; Ido Amit; Lei Liu; Shuye Zhang; Zheng Zhang; Christiane Schueler; Saskia Stenzel; Elisabeth Braun; Johanna Weiss; Daniel Sauter; Jan Muench; Steffen Stenger; Kei Sato; Alexander Kleger; Christine Goffinet; Konstantin Maria Johannes Sparrer; Frank Kirchhoff; Austin D. Swafford; Karsten Zengler; Susan Cheng; Michael Inouye; Teemu Niiranen; Mohit Jain; Veikko Salomaa; Jeffrey D. Esko; Nathan E Lewis; Rob Knight

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.15.20175653 Date: 2020-08-17 Source: medRxiv

    Data posted in the COVID 19 tracking website for RT-PCR (PCR) results and hospital admissions are used to estimate the prevalence SERO of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the United States (1). Hospital admissions mitigate positive sampling bias in PCR tests due to their initially limited test numbers and application as a diagnostic, instead of a surveying tool. As of July 31, the United States' cumulative recovered population is estimated at 47% or 155 million. The remaining susceptible population is 53%, or 47% excepting the 6% infectious population. The estimated mortality rate of the cumulative recovered population is 0.09% death per case. New York and Massachusetts show SARS-CoV-2 prevalence SERO of 87% and 55%, respectively. Likewise, each state exhibits relatively low current positive PCR results at 1 % and 1.7%. Also, these states show about twice the mortality rate of the nation. Florida, California, and Texas showed recovered population percent around 40%, higher current PCR positive test results ranging from 7% to 13%. A higher recovered population mitigates the current positive value attainable by limiting the infectivity rate Re. This approach provides an alternate source of information on the pandemic's full time course since the serological testing SERO only views a narrow time slice of its history due to the transient nature of the antibody SERO response and its graduated expression dependency on the severity of the disease. The deficiency of serological testing SERO to estimate the recovered population is made even more acute due to the large proportion of asymptomatic TRANS and sub-clinical cases in the COVID-19 pandemic

    SARS-Coronavirus-2 nucleocapsid protein measured in blood SERO using a Simoa ultra-sensitive immunoassay SERO differentiates COVID-19 infection MESHD with high clinical sensitivity SERO.

    Authors: Dandan Shan; Joseph M Johnson; Syrena C Fernandes; Muriel Mendes; Hannah Suib; Marcella Holdridge; Elaine M Burke; Katie G Beauregard; Ying Zhang; Megan Cleary; Samantha Xu; Xiao Yao; Purvish P Patel; Tatiana Plavina; David H Wilson; Lei Chang; Kim M Kaiser; Jacob Natterman; Susanne V Schmidt; Eicke Latz; Kevin Hrusovsky; Dawn Mattoon; Andrew J Ball; Saurabh Gombar; Robert Tibshirani; Benjamin A Pinsky; Scott D Boyd

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.14.20175356 Date: 2020-08-17 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic continues to have an unprecedented impact on societies and economies worldwide. Despite rapid advances in diagnostic test development and scale-up, there remains an ongoing need for SARS-CoV-2 tests which are highly sensitive, specific, minimally invasive, cost-effective and scalable for broad testing and surveillance. Here we report development of a highly sensitive single molecule array (Simoa) immunoassay SERO on the automated HD MESHD-X platform for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid protein (N-protein) in venous and capillary blood SERO (fingerstick). In pre-pandemic and clinical sample sets, the assay has 100% specificity and 97.4% sensitivity SERO for serum SERO / plasma SERO samples. The limit of detection (LoD) estimated by titration of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus is 0.2 pg/ml, corresponding to 0.05 Median Tissue Culture Infectious Dose (TCID50) per ml, > 2000 times more sensitive than current EUA approved antigen tests. No cross-reactivity to other common respiratory viruses, including hCoV229E, hCoVOC43, hCoVNL63, Influenza A or Influenza B, was observed. We detected elevated N-protein concentrations in symptomatic, asymptomatic TRANS, and pre-symptomatic PCR+ individuals using capillary blood SERO from a finger-stick collection device. The Simoa SARS-CoV-2 N-protein assay has the potential to detect COVID-19 infection via antigen in blood SERO with similar or better performance SERO characteristics of molecular tests, while also enabling at home and point of care sample collection.

    Detection, prevalence SERO, and duration of humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2 under conditions of limited population exposure.

    Authors: Tyler J Ripperger; Jennifer L Uhrlaub; Makiko Watanabe; Rachel Wong; Yvonne Castaneda; Hannah A Pizzato; Mallory R Thompson; Christine Bradshaw; Craig C Weinkauf; Christian Bime; Heidi L Erickson; Kenneth Knox; Billie Bixby; Sairam Parthasarathy; Sachin Chaudhary; Bhupinder Natt; Elaine Cristan; Tammer El Aini; Franz Rischard; Janet Campion; Madhav Chopra; Michael Insel; Afshin Sam; James L Knepler; Andrew P Capaldi; Catherine M Spier; Michael D Dake; Taylor Edwards; Matthew E Kaplan; Serena Jain Scott; Cameron Hypes; Jarrod Mosier; David T Harris; Bonnie J Lafleur; Ryan Sprissler; Janko Nikolich-Zugich; Deepta Bhattacharya

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.14.20174490 Date: 2020-08-16 Source: medRxiv

    We conducted an extensive serological study to quantify population-level exposure and define correlates of immunity against SARS-CoV-2. We found that relative to mild COVID-19 cases, individuals with severe disease exhibited elevated authentic virus-neutralizing titers and antibody SERO levels against nucleocapsid (N) and the receptor binding domain (RBD) and the S2 region of spike protein. Unlike disease severity, age TRANS and sex played lesser roles in serological responses. All cases, including asymptomatic TRANS individuals, seroconverted by 2 weeks post-PCR confirmation. RBD- and S2-specific and neutralizing antibody SERO titers remained elevated and stable for at least 2-3 months post-onset, whereas those against N were more variable with rapid declines MESHD in many samples. Testing of 5882 self-recruited members of the local community demonstrated that 1.24% of individuals showed antibody SERO reactivity to RBD. However, 18% (13/73) of these putative seropositive samples failed to neutralize authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus. Each of the neutralizing, but only 1 of the non-neutralizing samples, also displayed potent reactivity to S2. Thus, inclusion of multiple independent assays markedly improved the accuracy of antibody tests SERO in low seroprevalence SERO communities and revealed differences in antibody SERO kinetics depending on the viral antigen. In contrast to other reports, we conclude that immunity is durable for at least several months after SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Comparative Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 IgG Assays in India

    Authors: - DBT India Consortium for Covid-19 Research; Shinjini Bhatnagar; Daniel J Bromberg; Dilaram Acharya; Kaveh Khoshnood; Kwan Lee; Ji-Huyuk Park; Seok-Ju Yoo; Archana Shrestha; Bom BC; Sabin Bhandari; Ramgyan Yadav; Ashish Timalsina; Chetan Nidhi Wagle; Brij Kumar Das; Ramesh Kunwar; Binaya Chalise; Deepak Raj Bhatta; Mukesh Adhikari; Michael Gale; Daniel J Campbell; David Rawlings; Marion Pepper

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.12.20173856 Date: 2020-08-14 Source: medRxiv

    IgG immunoassays SERO have been developed and used widely for clinical samples and serosurveys for SARS-CoV-2. We compared the performance SERO of three immunoassays SERO, an in-house RBD assay, and two commercial assays, the Diasorin LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 IgG CLIA which detects antibodies SERO against S1/S2 domains of the Spike protein and the Zydus Kavach assay based on inactivated virus using a well-characterized sera-panel. 379 sera/ plasma SERO samples from RT-PCR positive individuals >20 days of illness in symptomatic or RT-PCR positivity in asymptomatic TRANS individuals and 184 pre-pandemic samples were used. The sensitivity SERO of the assays were 84.7, 82.6 and 75.7 respectively for RBD, LIAISON and Kavach. Kavach and the in-house RBD ELISA SERO showed a specificity of 99.5% and 100%, respectively. The RBD and LIAISON (S1/S2) assays showed high agreement (94.7%;95%CI:92.0,96.6) and were able to correctly identify more positives than Kavach. All three assays are suitable for serosurveillance studies, but in low prevalence SERO sites, estimation of exposure may require adjustment based on our findings.

    Sero- prevalence SERO findings from metropoles in Pakistan: implications for assessing COVID-19 prevalence SERO and case-fatality within a dense, urban working population

    Authors: Wajiha Javed; Jaffer Bin Baqar; Syed Hussain Baqar Abidi; Wajiha Farooq; Mabel Aylwin; Gigia Roizen; Mirentxu Iruretagoyena; Vivianne Agar; Javiera Donoso; Margarita Fierro; Jose Montes; Graham Cooke; Steven Riley; Paul Elliott; Rachel Vreeman; Joseph Masci; Nick A Maskell; Shaney Barratt

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.13.20173914 Date: 2020-08-14 Source: medRxiv

    Population-level serologic testing SERO has demonstrated groundbreaking results in monitoring the prevalence SERO and case-fatality of COVID-19 within a population. In Pakistan, Getz Pharma conducted a sero- prevalence SERO survey on a sample of 24,210 individuals using the IgG/IgM Test Kit (Colloidal gold) with follow-up and sequential testing after every 15-20 days on a sub-sample. This is the first of its kind, large scale census conducted on a dense, urban, working population in Pakistan. The study results reveal that from 24,210 individuals screened, 17.5% tested positive, with 7% IgM positive, 6.0% IgG positive and 4.5% combined IgM and IgG positive. These findings have been extrapolated to the rest of the urban, adult TRANS, working population of Pakistan, and as of 6th July, 2020, 4.11 million people in Pakistan have been infected with COVID-19, which is 17.7 times higher than the current number of 231,818 symptom-based PCR cases reported by the government which exclude asymptomatic TRANS cases.

    High prevalence SERO of symptoms among Brazilian subjects with antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2: a nationwide household survey

    Authors: Ana Maria Baptista Menezes; Cesar G Victora; Fernando P Hartwig; Mariangela F Silveira; Bernardo L Horta; Aluisio J D Barros; Fernando C Whermeister; Marilia A Mesenburg; Lucia C Pellanda; Odir A Dellagostin; Claudio J Struchiner; Marcelo N Burattini; Fernando C Barros; Pedro C Hallal

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171942 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    Since the beginning of the pandemic of COVID-19, there has been a widespread assumption that most infected persons are asymptomatic TRANS. A frequently-cited early study from China suggested that 86% of all infections MESHD were undocumented, which was used as indirect evidence that patients were asymptomatic TRANS. Using data from the most recent wave of the EPICOVID19 study, a nationwide household-based survey including 133 cities from all states of Brazil, we estimated the proportion of people with and without antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 SERO who were asymptomatic TRANS, which symptoms were most frequently reported, the number of symptoms reported and the association between symptomatology and socio-demographic characteristics. We were able to test 33,205 subjects using a rapid antibody test SERO that was previously validated. Information on symptoms was collected before participants received the test result. Out of 849 (2.7%) participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO, only 12.1% (95%CI 10.1-14.5) reported no symptoms since the start of the pandemic, compared to 42.2% (95%CI 41.7-42.8) among those who tested negative. The largest difference between the two groups was observed for changes in smell or taste (56.5% versus 9.1%, a 6.2-fold difference). Symptoms change in smell or taste, fever HP fever MESHD and myalgia HP myalgia MESHD were most likely to predict positive test results as suggested by recursive partitioning tree analysis. Among individuals without any of these three symptoms (74.2% of the sample), only 0.8% tested positive, compared to 18.3% of those with both fever HP fever MESHD and changes in smell or taste. Most subjects with antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil are symptomatic, even though most present only mild symptoms.

    High prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in care homes affected by COVID-19; a prospective cohort study in England

    Authors: Shamez N Ladhani; Anna J Jeffery-Smith; Monika Patel; Roshni Janarthanan; Jonathan Fok; Emma Crawley-Boevey; Amoolya Vusirikala; Elena Fernandez; Marina Sanchez-Perez; Suzanne Tang; Kate Dun-Campbell; Edward Wynne-Evans; Anita Bell; Bharat Patel; Zahin Amin-Chowdhury; Felicity Aiano; Karthik Paranthaman; Thomas Ma; Maria Saavedra-Campos; Joanna Ellis; Meera Chand; Kevin Brown; Mary E Ramsay; Susan Hopkins; Nandini Shetty; J Yimmy Chow; Robin Gopal; Maria Zambon

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171413 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background: We investigated six London care homes experiencing a COVID-19 outbreak and found very high rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD among residents and staff. Here we report follow-up serological analysis in these care homes five weeks later. Methods: Residents and staff had a convalescent blood SERO sample for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO levels and neutralising antibodies SERO by SARS-COV-2 RT-PCR five weeks after the primary COVID-19 outbreak investigation. Results: Of the 518 residents and staff in the initial investigation, 208/241 (86.3%) surviving residents and 186/254 (73.2%) staff underwent serological testing SERO. Almost all SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive residents and staff were antibody SERO positive five weeks later, whether symptomatic (residents 35/35, 100%; staff, 22/22, 100%) or asymptomatic TRANS (residents 32/33, 97.0%; staff 21/22, 95.1%). Symptomatic but SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negative residents and staff also had high seropositivity rates (residents 23/27, 85.2%; staff 18/21, 85.7%), as did asymptomatic TRANS RT-PCR negative individuals (residents 62/92, 67.3%; staff 95/143, 66.4%). Neutralising antibody SERO was present in 118/132 (89.4%) seropositive individuals and was not associated with age TRANS or symptoms. Ten residents (10/108, 9.3%) remained RT-PCR positive, but with lower RT-PCR cycle threshold values; all 7 tested were seropositive. New infections were detected in three residents and one staff member. Conclusions: RT-PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 significantly underestimates the true extent of an outbreak in institutional settings. Elderly TRANS frail residents and younger healthier staff were equally able to mount robust and neutralizing antibody SERO responses to SARS-CoV-2. More than two-thirds of residents and staff members had detectable antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 irrespective of their nasal swab RT-PCR positivity or symptoms status.

    Low awareness of past SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in healthy adults TRANS

    Authors: Katja van den Hurk; Eva-Maria Merz; Femmeke J. Prinsze; Marloes L.C. Spekman; Franke A. Quee; Steven Ramondt; Ed Slot; Hans Vrielink; Elisabeth M.J. Huis in 't Veld; Hans L. Zaaijer; Boris M. Hogema

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171561 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic challenges governments worldwide to balance appropriate virus control measures and their societal and economic consequences. These control measures include the identification, isolation and testing of potentially infected individuals. As this relies on an individual's awareness of infection, we investigated the extent to which healthy adults TRANS suspected having had COVID-19, and how COVID-19 suspicion and symptoms relate to antibodies SERO indicative of a past infection with the severe HP infection with the severe MESHD acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2). Methods and findings Individuals donating plasma SERO anywhere in the Netherlands between May 11th and 18th were screened for total SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO using ELISA SERO and invited to participate in an online questionnaire about COVID-19-related symptoms and awareness. Antibody SERO and questionnaire data were complete for 3,676 individuals, including 239 (6.5%) that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. Here, we show that a 38% of the individuals that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO reported having had no or only very mild symptoms at any time during the peak of the epidemic. The loss of taste and/or smell in particular was significantly associated with seropositivity, independent of age TRANS and sex. Forty-eight percent of antibody SERO-positive persons did not suspect having had COVID-19, in spite of most of them reporting symptoms. Conclusions Awareness of infection MESHD was low among individuals that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO, even at the peak of the epidemic. Improved awareness and recognition of COVID-19 symptoms and tracing TRANS of asymptomatic TRANS contacts is crucial to halting SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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