Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (15)

Anosmia (5)

Cough (5)

Dyspnea (3)

Pneumonia (3)


    displaying 41 - 50 records in total 110
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    Diagnostic accuracy of two commercially available rapid assays for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies SERO to SARS-CoV-2 compared to ELISA SERO in a low- prevalence SERO population

    Authors: Klaus Hackner; Peter Errhalt; Martin Willheim; Maria-Anna Grasl; Jasmina Lagumdzija; Waltraud Riegler; Michael Ecker; Matthias Wechdorn; Florian Thalhammer; Ojan Assadian

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: New commercially available point-of-care (POC) immunodiagnostic tests are appearing, which may yield rapid results for anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of rapid antibody SERO detection tests compared to a validated laboratory-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO) and to investigate infections amongst healthcare workers (HCWs) after unprotected close contact TRANS to COVID-19 patients. Methods: Blood SERO serum SERO and whole blood SERO of 130 participants were tested with NADAL® COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test SERO and mö-screen 2019-NCOV Corona Virus Test against a validated ELISA SERO test. Infection status was evaluated using real-time polymerase-chain-reaction.Results: Acute COVID-19 infection MESHD was detected in 2.4% of exposed HCWs. Antibody tests SERO showed an overall frequency of IgG and IgM in 5.3%, with 1.6% asymptomatic TRANS infections MESHD. The NADAL® test showed a sensitivity SERO (IgM/ IgG) of 100% (100%/ 100%), a specificity (IgM/ IgG) of 98.8% (97.6%/ 100 %), a PPV of 76.9% (57.1%/ 100%), an NPV of 100% (100%/ 100%), and a diagnostic accuracy of 98.8% (97.7%/ 100%). The mö-screen test had a sensitivity SERO (IgM/IgG) of 90.9% (80%/ 100%), a specificity (IgM/IgG) of 98.8% (97.6%/ 100%), a PPV of 76.9% (57.1%/ 100%), an NPV of 99.6% (99.2%/ 100%), and a diagnostic accuracy of 98.5% (96.9%/ 100%). Conclusions: The frequency of COVID-19 infections MESHD in HCWs after unprotected close contact TRANS is higher than in the general population of a low- prevalence SERO country. Both POC tests SERO were useful for detecting IgG, but did not perform well for IgM, mainly due to false positive results.

    SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO responses determine disease severity in COVID-19 infected individuals

    Authors: Cecilie Bo Hansen; Ida Jarlhelt; Laura Pérez-Alós; Lone Hummelshøj Landsy; Mette Loftager; Anne Rosbjerg; Charlotte Helgstrand; Jais Rose Bjelke; Thomas Egebjerg; Joseph G. Jardine; Charlotte Sværke Jørgensen; Kasper Iversen; Rafael Bayarri-Olmos; Peter Garred; Mikkel-Ole Skjoedt

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20162321 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has had extreme consequences for the healthcare system and calls for diagnostic tools to monitor and understand the transmission TRANS, pathogenesis and epidemiology, as well as to evaluate future vaccination strategies. Here we have developed novel flexible ELISA SERO-based assays for specific detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO against the receptor-binding domain (RBD): An antigen sandwich- ELISA SERO relevant for large population screening and three isotype-specific assays for in-depth diagnostics. Their performance SERO was evaluated in a cohort of 350 convalescent participants with previous COVID-19 infection, ranging from asymptomatic TRANS to critical cases. We mapped the antibody SERO responses to different areas on protein N and S and showed that the IgM, A and G antibody SERO responses against RBD are significantly correlated to the disease severity. These assays-and the data generated from them-are highly relevant for diagnostics and prognostics and contribute to the understanding of long-term COVID-19 immunity.

    Asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19; We Don’t Know What We Don’t Know

    Authors: Olen R. Brown

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0681.v1 Date: 2020-07-28 Source:

    Decisions affecting the COVID-19 pandemic, by the individual and those with highest authority, are being made on the basis of unreliable data. Data about cases and deaths MESHD are collected daily but represent only a sample of reality. Statistics convert sample data into more reliable estimates. However, statistics have no magical powers; reliability requires dependable data. It is futile to rail against this darkness; COVID-19 is not a scientific experiment. However, we must do better both with data collection and data analysis. In this review, I focus on one element of the data, the asymptomatic TRANS case of COVID-19. Without reliable information about this number, decision makers are significantly blinded. By its nature, the asymptomatic TRANS case is hidden but contaminating to understanding COVID-19. The true case rate and death rate per case are unknowable without knowing the fraction of cases that are asymptomatic TRANS. The best estimate of asymptomatic TRANS cases is in the CDC document: COVID-19 Pandemic Planning Scenarios. For four different scenarios the estimates range from 10% to 70%, with the best estimate of 40% for asymptomatic TRANS cases. However, even the definition of the asymptomatic TRANS case is problematic. In simplest terms, two elements are required: an infection MESHD and no symptoms. How is “no symptoms” to be usefully defined? It appears to be analogous to pontificating about black swans from studying only white swans. It implies infection MESHD, but how is infection defined? Is it presence of the virus, replication of the virus, or presence of antibodies SERO? Is asymptomatic TRANS disease an oxymoron? Without extensive, purposeful screening for specifically defined, essential symptoms and appropriate virus and antibody testing SERO over time, the class of asymptomatic TRANS cases remains unknown. Current estimates range from <20% to ˃80%. If low, it can be ignored; if high, it dramatically and proportionately lowers the case rate and the death MESHD rate per case. Consequentially, the asymptomatic TRANS rate dramatically affects our societal and political responses. In this focused review, we assess the limitations of the published estimates, bring attention to the importance of obtaining accurate data, and exhort that high priority be given in the scientific community to understanding the issue, asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 cases.

    Longitudinal COVID-19 Surveillance and Characterization in the Workplace with Public Health and Diagnostic Endpoints

    Authors: Manjula Gunawardana; Jessica Breslin; John M Cortez; Sofia Rivera; Simon Webster; F Javier Ibarrondo; Otto O Yang; Richard B Pyles; Christina M Ramirez; Amy P Adler; Peter A Anton; Marc M Baum

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.25.20160812 Date: 2020-07-28 Source: medRxiv

    Background The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) and the associated coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) have precipitated a global pandemic heavily challenging our social behavior, economy, and healthcare infrastructure. Public health practices currently represent the primary interventions for managing the spread of the pandemic. We hypothesized that frequent, longitudinal workplace disease MESHD surveillance would represent an effective approach to controlling SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS among employees and their household members, reducing potential economic consequences and loss of productivity of standard isolation methods, while providing new insights into viral-host dynamics. Methodology and Findings On March 23, 2020 a clinical study (OCIS-05) was initiated at a small Southern California organization. Results from the first 3 months of the ongoing study are presented here. Study participants (27 employees and 27 household members) consented to provide frequent nasal or oral swab samples that were analyzed by RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using CDC protocols. Only participants testing negative were allowed to enter the "safe zone" workplace facility. Optional blood SERO samples were collected at baseline and throughout the 3-month study. Serum SERO virus-specific antibody SERO concentrations (IgG, IgM, and IgA) were measured using a selective, sensitive, and quantitative ELISA assay SERO developed in house. A COVID-19 infection MESHD model, based on traditional SEIR compartmental models combined with Bayesian non-linear mixed models and modern machine learning, was used to predict the number of employees and household members who would have become infected in the absence of workplace surveillance. Two study participants were found to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 during the study. One subject, a household member, tested positive clinically by RT-qPCR prior to enrollment and experienced typical COVID-19 symptoms that did not require hospitalization. While on study, the participant was SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive for at least 71 days and had elevated virus-specific antibody SERO concentrations (medians: IgM, 9.83 ug mL-1; IgG, 11.5 ug mL-1; IgA, 1.29 ug mL-1) in serum samples SERO collected at three timepoints. A single, unrelated employee became positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA over the course of the study, but remained asymptomatic TRANS with low associated viral RNA copy numbers. The participant did not have detectable serum SERO IgM and IgG concentrations, and IgA concentrations decayed rapidly (half-life: 1.3 d). The employee was not allowed entry to the safe zone workplace until testing negative three consecutive times over 7 d. No other employees or household members contracted COVID-19 over the course of the study. Our model predicted that under the current prevalence SERO in Los Angeles County without surveillance intervention, up to 7 employees (95% CI = 3-10) would have become infected with at most 1 of them requiring hospitalizations and 0 deaths. Conclusions Our clinical study met its primary objectives by using intense longitudinal testing to provide a safe work environment during the COVID-19 pandemic, and elucidating SARS-CoV-2 dynamics in recovering and asymptomatic TRANS participants. The surveillance plan outlined here is scalable and transferrable. The study represents a powerful example on how an innovative public health initiative can be dovetailed with scientific discovery.

    Evaluating SARS-CoV-2 spike MESHD and nucleocapsid proteins as targets for IgG antibody SERO detection in severe and mild COVID-19 cases using a Luminex bead-based assay

    Authors: Joachim Marien; Johan Michiels; Leo Heyndrickx; Karen Kerkhof; Nikki Foque; Marc-Alain Widdowson; Isabelle Desombere; Hilde Jansens; Marjan Van Esbroeck; Kevin K. Arien

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.25.20161943 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: medRxiv

    Large-scale serosurveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) will only be possible if serological tests SERO are sufficiently reliable, rapid and inexpensive. Current assays are either labour-intensive and require specialised facilities (e.g. virus neutralization assays), or expensive with suboptimal specificity (e.g. commercial ELISAs SERO). Bead-based assays offer a cost-effective alternative and allow for multiplexing to test for antibodies SERO of other pathogens. Here, we compare the performance SERO of four antigens for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies SERO in a panel of sera that includes both severe (n=40) and mild (n=52) cases, using a neutralization and a Luminex bead-based assay. While we show that neutralising antibody SERO levels are significantly lower in mild than in severe cases, we demonstrate that a combination of recombinant nucleocapsid protein (NP), receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the whole spike protein (S1S2) results in a highly sensitive (96%) and specific (99%) bead-based assay that can detect IgG antibodies SERO in both groups. Although S1-specific IgG levels correlate most strongly with neutralizing antibody SERO levels, they fall HP below the detection threshold in 10% of the cases in our Luminex assay. In conclusion, our data supports the use of RBD, NP and S1S2 for the development of SARS-CoV-2 serological bead-based assays. Finally, we argue that low antibody SERO levels in mild/ asymptomatic TRANS cases might complicate the epidemiological assessment of large-scale surveillance studies.

    Massive cerebral venous thrombosis HP cerebral venous thrombosis MESHD related to oligosymptomatic COVID-19 infection: a case report

    Authors: Simone Beretta; Fulvio Da Re; Valentina Francioni; Paolo Remida; Benedetta Storti; Lorenzo Fumagalli; Maria Luisa Piatti; Patrizia Santoro; Diletta Cereda; Claudia Cutellè; Fiammetta Pirro; Danilo Antonio Montisano; Francesca Beretta; Francesco Pasini; Annalisa Cavallero; Ildebrando Appollonio; Carlo Ferrarese

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The development of thrombotic coagulopathy MESHD is frequent in COVID-19 patients, but the timing after infection, cerebral venous system involvement MESHD, treatment and outcome are uncertain.Case Presentation: We report a case of massive cerebral venous thrombosis HP cerebral venous thrombosis MESHD occurring in the late phase of COVID-19 infection MESHD. Mild respiratory symptoms, without fever HP, started three weeks before headache HP headache MESHD and acute neurological deficits MESHD. She had no dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD, although she was hypoxic MESHD and with typical COVID-19 associated interstitial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Brain CT scan showed a left parietal hypodense lesion with associated sulcal subarachnoid haemorrhage MESHD. CT angiography showed a massive cerebral vein thrombosis MESHD. An asymptomatic TRANS concomitant right internal iliac vein thrombosis MESHD was found. Both cerebral venous thrombosis HP cerebral venous thrombosis MESHD and deep venous thrombosis HP deep venous thrombosis MESHD were effectively treated with unfractionated heparin started on the day of admission, then shifted to low molecular weight heparin, with a favorable clinical course. Nasopharyngel swab, repeated twice, tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Serological tests SERO confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Conclusions: Our case supports active surveillance and prevention of thrombotic complications MESHD associated with COVID-19, which may affect both peripheral and cerebral venous system MESHD. Early initiation of unfractionated heparin may lead to good neurological outcome.

    Detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO is insufficient for the diagnosis of active or prior COVID-19

    Authors: Pilar Escribano; Ana Alvarez-Uria; Roberto Alonso; Pilar Catalán; Luis Alcala; Patricia Muñoz; Jesus Guinea

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    We assessed the performance SERO of Abbott's SARS-CoV-2 MESHD IgG assay and the PanbioTM COVID-19 IgG/IgM rapid test SERO device for the diagnosis of active and past/cured COVID-19. Three cohorts of patients were chosen. Cohort 1, patients (n=65) who attended the emergency department on March 30, 2020 with clinical suspicion of active COVID-19 (n=56 with proven/probable COVID-19). Cohort 2, hospital workers (n=92) who had either been (n=40) or not (n=52) diagnosed with proven/probable COVID-19 and were asymptomatic TRANS at the time of the sampling. Cohort 3, patients (n=38) cared at the hospital before the start of the COVID pandemic. Detection of serum SERO antibodies SERO was done using Abbott´s SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay and the PanbioTM COVID-19 IgG/IgM device. Both methods showed 98% agreement for IgG detection. No antibodies SERO were detected in the 38 samples from hospitalized pre-COVID subjects. The diagnostic performance SERO of IgGs detected by Abbott´s SARS-CoV-2 assay in Cohorts 1/2 was: sensitivity SERO (60.7%/75%) and specificity (100%/84.6%). The diagnostic performance SERO of IgM by PanbioTM COVID-19 in Cohorts 1/2 was: sensitivity SERO (16%/17.5%) and specificity (100%/98.1%). We show that IgG detection alone is insufficient for the diagnosis of active or past COVID-19. IgM detection has a limited diagnostic value. 

    Seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 IgG Antibodies SERO in Utsunomiya City, Greater Tokyo, after first pandemic in 2020 (U-CORONA): a household- and population-based study

    Authors: Nobutoshi Nawa; Jin Kuramochi; Shiro Sonoda; Yui Yamaoka; Yoko Nukui; Yasunari Miyazaki; Takeo Fujiwara

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.20.20155945 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The number of confirmed cases TRANS of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in Japan are substantially lower in comparison to the US and UK, potentially due to the under-implementation of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Studies reported that more than half of the SARS-CoV-2 infections are asymptomatic TRANS, confirming the importance for conducting seroepidemiological studies. Although the seroepidemiological studies in Japan observed a reported prevalence SERO of 0.10% in Tokyo, 0.17% in Osaka, and 0.03% in Miyagi, sampling bias was not considered. The study objective was to assess the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 in a random sample of households in Utsunomiya City in Tochigi Prefecture, Greater Tokyo, Japan. Methods: We launched the Utsunomiya COVID-19 seROprevalence SERO Neighborhood Association (U-CORONA) Study to assess the seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Utsunomiya City. The survey was conducted between 14 June 2020 and 5 July 2020, in between the first and second wave of the pandemic. Invitations enclosed with a questionnaire were sent to 2,290 people in 1,000 households randomly selected from Utsunomiya basic resident registry. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. The level of IgG antibodies SERO to SARS-CoV-2 was assessed by chemiluminescence immunoassay SERO analysis. Results: Among 2,290 candidates, 753 returned the questionnaire and 742 received IgG tests (32.4 % participation rate). Of the 742 participants, 86.8% were 18 years or older, 52.6% were women, 71.1% were residing within 10 km from the test clinic, and 89.2% were living with another person. The age TRANS and sex distribution, distance to clinic and police district were similar with those of non-participants, while the proportion of single-person households was higher among non-participants than participants (16.2% vs. 10.8%). We confirmed three positive cases through quantitative antibody testing SERO. No positive cases were found among the people who live in the same household as someone with positive. All cases were afebrile. The estimated unweighted and weighted prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection were 0.40% (95% confidence interval: 0.08-1.18%) and 1.23% (95% confidence interval: 0.17-2.28%), respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests the importance of detecting all cases using PCR or antigen testing, not only at a hospital, but also in areas where people assemble. Further prospective studies using this cohort are needed to monitor SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO levels.

    Covid-19 serology in nephrology health care workers

    Authors: Thomas Reiter; Sahra Pajenda; Ludwig Wagner; Martina Gaggl; Johanna Atamaniuk; Barbara Holzer; Irene Zimpernik; Daniela Gerges; Katharina Mayer; Christof Aigner; Robert Strassl; Sonja Jansen-Skoupy; Manuela Födinger; Gere Sunder-Plassmann; Alice Schmidt

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.20136218 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Chronic kidney disease HP Chronic kidney disease MESHD patients show a high mortality in case of a SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Thus, to be informed on Nephrology personnel's sero-status might be crucial for patient protection. However, limited information exists about the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in asymptomatic TRANS individuals. Methods: We examined the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies SERO among health care workers of a tertiary care kidney center during the peak phase of the Covid-19 crisis in Austria using an orthogonal test strategy and a total of 12 commercial nucleocapsid protein or spike glycoprotein based assays as well as Western blotting and a neutralization assay. Results: At baseline 60 of 235 study participants (25.5%, 95% CI: 20.4-31.5) were judged to be borderline positive or positive for IgM or IgG using a high sensitivity SERO/low specificity threshold in one test system. Follow-up analysis after about two weeks revealed IgG positivity in 12 (5.1%, 95% CI: 2.9-8.8) and IgM positivity in six (2.6%, 95% CI: 1.1-5.6) in at least one assay. 2.1% (95% CI: 0.8-5.0) of health care workers showed IgG nucleocapsid antibodies SERO in at least two assays. By contrast, positive controls with proven Covid-19 showed antibody SERO positivity among almost all test systems. Moreover, serum samples SERO obtained from health care workers did not show SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing capacity, in contrast to positive controls. Conclusions: Using a broad spectrum of antibody tests SERO the present study revealed inconsistent results for SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO among asymptomatic TRANS individuals, while this was not the case among Covid-19 patients.

    Stringent thresholds for SARS-CoV-2 IgG assays result in under-detection of cases reporting loss of taste/smell

    Authors: David W Eyre; Sheila F Lumley; Nicole E Stoesser; Philippa C Matthews; Alison Howarth; Stephanie B Hatch; Brian D Marsden; Stuart Cox; Tim James; Richard Cornall; David I Stuart; Gavin Screaton; Daniel Ebner; Derrick W Crook; Christopher P Conlon; Katie Jeffery; Timothy M Walker; Tim EA Peto

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.20159038 Date: 2020-07-25 Source: medRxiv

    Thresholds for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO assays have typically been determined using samples from symptomatic, often hospitalised, patients. Assay performance SERO following mild/ asymptomatic TRANS infection is unclear. We assessed IgG responses in asymptomatic TRANS healthcare workers with a high pre-test probability of Covid-19, e.g. 807/9292(8.9%) reported loss of smell/taste. The proportion reporting anosmia HP anosmia MESHD/ageusia increased at antibody SERO titres below diagnostic thresholds for both an in-house ELISA SERO and the Abbott Architect chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay SERO (CMIA): 424/903(47%) reported anosmia HP anosmia MESHD/ageusia with a positive ELISA SERO, 59/387(13.2%) with high-negative titres, and 324/7943(4.1%) with low-negative results. Adjusting for the proportion of staff reporting anosmia HP anosmia MESHD/ageusia suggests the sensitivity SERO of both assays is lower than previously reported: Oxford ELISA SERO 90.8% (95%CI 86.1-92.1%) and Abbott CMIA 80.9% (77.5-84.3%). However, the sensitivity SERO may be lower if some anosmia HP anosmia MESHD/ageusia in those with low-negative titres is Covid-19-associated. Samples from individuals with mild/ asymptomatic TRANS infection MESHD should be included in SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO evaluations. Reporting equivocal SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO results should be considered.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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