Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (15)

Anosmia (5)

Cough (5)

Dyspnea (3)

Pneumonia (3)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Community-level SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence SERO Survey in urban slum dwellers of Buenos Aires City, Argentina: a participatory research.

    Authors: Silvana Figar; Vanina Pagotto; Lorena Luna; Julieta Salto; Magdalena Wagner Manslau; Alicia Mistchenko; ANDREA GAMARNIK; Ana Maria Gomez Saldano; Fernan Quiros

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.14.20153858 Date: 2020-07-16 Source: medRxiv

    Background By July 1st, the incidence rate of RT-qPCR SARS-CoV-2 infection was 5.9% in Barrio Padre Mugica, one of the largest slums in Buenos Aires City. This study aimed to establish the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 three months after the first case was reported. Methods Between June 10th and July 1st, a cross-sectional design was carried out on people over 14 years old, selected from a probabilistic sample of households. A finger prick sample was tested by ELISA SERO to detect IgG-class antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2. Multilevel model was applied to understand sector, household and individual conditions associated with seroconvert. Results Prevalence SERO based on IgG was 53.4% (95%IC 52.8% to 54.1%). Among the IgG positive cases, 15% reported having compatible symptoms at some point in the past two months. There is evidence of within-household clustering effect (rho=0.52; 95% IC 0.36-0.67); living with a PCR- confirmed case TRANS doubled the chance of being SARS-CoV2 IgG positive (OR 2.13; 95% IC 1.17-3.85). The highest risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD was found in one of the most deprived areas of the slum, the Bajo autopista sector. Discussion High seroprevalence SERO is shown, for each symptomatic RT-qPCR-confirmed diagnosis, 9 people were IgG positive, indicating a high rate of undetected (probable asymptomatic TRANS) infections. Given that transmission TRANS among family members TRANS is a leading driver of the disease`s spread, it is unsurprising that crowded housing situations in slums are directly associated with higher risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD and consequently high seroprevalence SERO levels. This study contributes to the understanding of population immunity against SARS-CoV2, its relation to living conditions and viral spread, for future decision making.

    Clinical Ordering Practices of the SARS-CoV-2 Antibody SERO Test at a Large Academic Medical Center

    Authors: Joesph R Wiencek; Carter L Head; Costi D Sifri; Andrew S Parsons

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.12.20152165 Date: 2020-07-14 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The novel severe acute respiratory coronavirus MESHD 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes COVID-19 originated in December 2019 and has now infected over 3 million people in the United States. In Spring of 2020, private laboratories and some hospitals began antibody testing SERO despite lacking evidence-based guidance. Objective: To describe clinician-described indications for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO testing, including cost implications, immediately following testing availability. Design: Retrospective chart review of patients who received antibody testing SERO from May 14, 2020 to June 15, 2020. Setting: A large academic medical center, one of the first in the US to provide antibody testing SERO capability to individual clinicians. Patients: 447 consecutive patients who received SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO testing. Measurements: Clinician-described indications for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO testing, cost implications, and comparison with current expert-based guidance from the IDSA and CDC. Results: Of 444 individual antibody test SERO results meeting inclusion criteria, the two most commonly described indications for ordering the antibody test SERO, apart from public health epidemiology studies (n=223), were for patients with a now resolved COVID-19 compatible illness (n=105) with no previous molecular testing and in asymptomatic TRANS patients believed to have had a past exposure or contact with a person with COVID-19 compatible illness (n=60). The rate of positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO testing among those indications consistent with current IDSA and CDC guidance was 17% compared with 5% (p<0.0001) among those indications inconsistent with current IDSA and CDC guidance. Total cost estimates ranged from $57,720 to $97,680, of which 42% was for testing inconsistent with current expert-based guidance. Limitations: The duration of antibody SERO response following infection is unclear and asymptomatic TRANS individuals may not develop a positive antibody SERO response. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate a dissociation between clinician described indications for testing and expert-based guidance and a significantly different rate of positive testing between these two groups. Clinical curiosity and patient preference appear to have played a significant role in testing decisions and substantially contributed to testing costs.

    Unusual Presentation of Kawasaki Disease MESHD with Multisystem Inflammation MESHD and Antibodies SERO Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2: A Case Report

    Authors: Haena Kim; Jung Yeon Shim; Jae-Hoon Ko; Aram Yang; Jae Won Shim; Deok Soo Kim; Hye Lim Jung; Ji Hee Kwak; In Suk Sol

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-41276/v1 Date: 2020-07-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Since mid-April 2020, cases of multisystem inflammatory syndrome MESHD in children TRANS (MIS-C) associated with coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) that mimic Kawasaki disease MESHD ( KD MESHD) have been reported in Europe and North America. However, no cases have been in East Asia, where KD MESHD is more prevalent.Case presentation: A previously healthy 11-year-old boy was admitted with a 4-day history of fever HP fever MESHD and abdominal pain HP abdominal pain MESHD. He had no contact history to any patient with COVID-19. Blood SERO acute inflammatory markers were highly elevated. He was treated with antibiotics for suspected bacterial enteritis MESHD, but he suddenly developed hypotension HP hypotension MESHD. Inotropics and intravenous immunoglobulin were administered to manage septic shock MESHD shock HP. On hospitalization day 6, he developed signs and symptoms of KD MESHD (conjunctival injection, strawberry tongue HP, cracked lip MESHD, and coronary artery dilatation MESHD dilatation HP) in addition to pleural/pericardial effusion MESHD pericardial effusion HP and mesenteric lymphadenitis HP lymphadenitis MESHD. The results of microbiologic tests, including reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), were negative. Fluorescent immunoassay SERO and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO revealed abundant IgG antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 in his serum SERO, but no IgM antibodies SERO. He was discharged successfully on day 13.Conclusion: MIS-C may occur in children TRANS with a previously asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 infection MESHD. A high index of suspicion is required for this novel syndrome in unusual cases of KD MESHD or KD shock syndrome MESHD shock HP syndrome with multisystem inflammation MESHD, even when there is no clear history of contact or symptoms of COVID-19.

    Antibody SERO dynamics to SARS-CoV-2 in Asymptomatic TRANS and Mild COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Qing Lei; Yang Li; Hongyan Hou; Feng Wang; Yandi Zhang; Danyun Lai; Banga Ndzouboukou Jo-Lewis; Zhaowei Xu; Bo Zhang; Hong Chen; Zhuqing Ouyang; Junbiao Xue; Xiaosong Lin; Yunxiao Zheng; Zhongjie Yao; Xuening Wang; Caizheng Yu; Jeremy Jiang; Hainan Zhang; Huan Qi; Shujuan Guo; Shenghai Huang; Ziyong Sun; Sheng-ce Tao; Xionglin Fan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.20149633 Date: 2020-07-11 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Importance Asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 infections have a long duration of viral shedding and contribute substantially to disease transmission TRANS. However, the missing asymptomatic TRANS cases have been significantly overlooked because of imperfect sensitivity SERO of nucleic acid testing. We aimed to investigate the humoral immunity in asymptomatics TRANS, which will help us develop serological tests SERO and improve early identification, understand the humoral immunity to COVID-19, and provide more rational control strategies for the pandemic. Objective To better control the pandemic of COVID-19, dynamics of IgM and IgG responses to 23 proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and neutralizing antibody SERO in asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 infections after exposure time were investigated. Design, setting, and participants 63 asymptomatic TRANS individuals were screened by RT-qPCR and ELISA SERO for IgM and IgG from 11,776 personnel returning to work, and close contacts TRANS with the confirmed cases TRANS in different communities of Wuhan by investigation of clusters and tracing TRANS infectious sources. 63 healthy contacts with both negative results for NAT and antibodies SERO were selected as negative controls. 51 mild patients without any preexisting conditions were also screened as controls from 1056 patients during hospitalization in Tongji Hospital. A total of 177 participants were enrolled in this study and serial serum samples SERO (n=213) were collected. The research was conducted between 17 February 2020 and 28 April 2020. Serum SERO IgM and IgG profiles of 177 participants were further probed using a SARS-CoV-2 proteome microarray. Neutralizing antibody SERO responses in different population were detected by a pseudotyped virus neutralization assay system. The dynamics of IgM and IgG antibodies SERO and neutralizing antibodies SERO were analyzed with exposure time or symptoms onset TRANS. Results Asymptomatics TRANS were classified into four subgroups based on NAT and serological tests SERO. In particular, only 19% had positive NAT results while approximately 81% detected positive IgM/IgG responses. Comparative SARS-CoV-2 proteome microarray further demonstrated that there was a significantly difference of antibody SERO dynamics responding to S1 or N proteins among three populations, although IgM and IgG profiles could not be used to differentiate them. S1 specific IgM responses were elicited in asymptomatic TRANS individuals as early to the seventh day after exposure and peaked on days from 17d to 25d, which might be used as an early diagnostic biomarker and give an additional 36.5% seropositivity. Mild patients produced stronger both S1 specific IgM and neutralizing antibody SERO responses than asymptomatic TRANS individuals. Most importantly, S1 specific IgM/IgG responses and the titers of neutralizing antibody SERO in asymptomatic TRANS individuals gradually vanished in two months. Conclusions and relevance Our findings might have important implications for the definition of asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 infections, diagnosis, serological survey, public health and immunization strategies.

    Differential occupational risks to healthcare workers from SARS-CoV-2: A prospective observational study

    Authors: David W Eyre; Sheila F Lumley; Mark Campbell; Elizabeth Sims; Elaine Lawson; Fiona Warren; Tim J James; Stuart Cox; Alison Howarth; George Doherty; Stephanie B Hatch; James Kavanagh; Kevin K Chau; Philip W Fowler; Jeremy Swann; Denis Volk; Dan Yang-Turner; Nicole E Stoesser; Philippa C Matthews; Maria Dudareva; Timothy Davies; Robert H Shaw; Leon Peto; Louise O Downs; Alexander Vogt; Ali Amini; Bernadette C Young; Philip Drennan; Alexander J Mentzer; Donal Skelly; Fredrik Karpe; Matthew J Neville; Monique Andersson; Andrew J Brent; Nicola Jones; Lucas Martins Ferreira; Thomas Christott; Brian Marsden; Sarah Hoosdally; Richard Cornall; Derrick W Crook; Dave Stuart; Gavin Screaton; - Oxford University Hospitals Staff Testing Group; Timothy EA Peto; Bruno Holthof; Daniel Ebner; Christopher P Conlon; Katie Jeffery; Timothy M Walker

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.24.20135038 Date: 2020-06-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background Personal protective equipment (PPE) and social distancing are key measures designed to mitigate the risk of occupational SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitals. Why healthcare workers nevertheless remain at increased risk is uncertain. Methods We conducted voluntary Covid-19 testing programmes for symptomatic and asymptomatic TRANS staff at a large UK teaching hospital using nasopharyngeal PCR testing and immunoassays SERO for IgG antibodies SERO. A positive result by either modality was used as a composite outcome. Risk factors for Covid-19 were investigated using multivariable logistic regression. Results 1083/9809(11.0%) staff had evidence of Covid-19 at some time and provided data on potential risk-factors. Staff with a confirmed household contact TRANS were at greatest risk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.63 [95%CI 3.30-6.50]). Higher rates of Covid-19 were seen in staff working in Covid-19-facing areas (21.2% vs. 8.2% elsewhere) (aOR 2.49 [2.00-3.12]). Controlling for Covid-19-facing status, risks were heterogenous across the hospital, with higher rates in acute medicine (1.50 [1.05-2.15]) and sporadic outbreaks in areas with few or no Covid-19 patients. Covid-19 intensive care unit (ICU) staff were relatively protected (0.46 [0.29-0.72]). Positive results were more likely in Black (1.61 [1.20-2.16]) and Asian (1.58 [1.34-1.86]) staff, independent of role or working location, and in porters and cleaners (1.93 [1.25-2.97]). Contact tracing TRANS around asymptomatic TRANS staff did not lead to enhanced case identification. 24% of staff/patients remained PCR-positive at [≥]6 weeks post-diagnosis. Conclusions Increased Covid-19 risk was seen in acute medicine, among Black and Asian staff, and porters and cleaners. A bundle of PPE-related interventions protected staff in high-risk ICU areas.

    Estimation of Covid-19 Prevalence SERO from Serology Tests: A Partial Identification Approach

    Authors: Panos Toulis

    id:2006.16214v1 Date: 2020-06-29 Source: arXiv

    We propose a partial identification method for estimating disease prevalence SERO from serology studies. Our data are results from antibody tests SERO in some population sample, where the test parameters, such as the true/false positive rates, are unknown. Our method scans the entire parameter space, and rejects parameter values using the joint data density as the test statistic. The proposed method is conservative for marginal inference, in general, but its key advantage over more standard approaches is that it is valid in finite samples even when the underlying model is not point identified. Moreover, our method requires only independence of serology test results, and does not rely on asymptotic TRANS arguments, normality assumptions, or other approximations. We use recent Covid-19 serology studies in the US, and show that the parameter confidence set is generally wide, and cannot support definite conclusions. Specifically, recent serology studies from California suggest a prevalence SERO anywhere in the range 0%-2% (at the time of study), and are therefore inconclusive. However, this range could be narrowed down to 0.7%-1.5% if the actual false positive rate of the antibody test SERO was indeed near its empirical estimate (~0.5%). In another study from New York state, Covid-19 prevalence SERO is confidently estimated in the range 13%-17% in mid-April of 2020, which also suggests significant geographic variation in Covid-19 exposure across the US. Combining all datasets yields a 5%-8% prevalence SERO range. Our results overall suggest that serology testing on a massive scale can give crucial information for future policy design, even when such tests are imperfect and their parameters unknown.

    COVID-19 Antibody SERO in Thai Community Hospitals

    Authors: Tanawin Nopsopon; Krit Pongpirul; Korn Chotirosniramit; Narin Hiransuthikul

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.24.20139188 Date: 2020-06-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO data has been scarce, especially in less developed countries with a relatively low infection MESHD rate. Methods: A locally developed rapid IgM/IgG test SERO kit was used for screening hospital staff and patients who required procedural treatment or surgery in 52 hospitals in Thailand from April 8 to June 26, 2020. A total of 857 participants were tested--675 were hospital staff and 182 were pre-procedural patients. (Thai Clinical Trials Registry: TCTR20200426002) Results Overall, 5.5% of the participants (47 of 857) had positive immunoglobulin M (IgM), 0.2% (2 of 857) had positive immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM. Hospitals located in the Central part of Thailand had the highest IgM seroprevalence SERO (11.9%). Preprocedural patients had a higher rate of positive IgM than the hospital staff (12.1% vs. 3.7%). Participants with present upper respiratory tract symptoms had a higher rate of positive IgM than those without (9.6% vs. 4.5%). Three quarters (80.5%, 690 of 857) of the participants were asymptomatic TRANS, of which, 31 had positive IgM (4.5%) which consisted of 20 of 566 healthcare workers (3.5%) and 11 of 124 preprocedural patients (8.9%). Conclusions COVID-19 antibody test SERO could detect a substantial number of potential silent spreaders in Thai community hospitals. Antibody testing SERO should be encouraged for mass screening, especially in asymptomatic TRANS individuals.

    Factors Affecting SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Pandemic, including Zoonotic, Human Transmission and Chain TRANS of Infection. Reducing Public Health Risk by Serum SERO Antibody Testing SERO, Avoiding Screening in Unhygienic Places and False PCR Reporting. A Scientific Review

    Authors: Kamran Mahmood Ahmed Aziz; Abdullah Othman; Waleed Alqahtani; Sumaiya Azhar

    id:10.20944/preprints202006.0284.v1 Date: 2020-06-23 Source: Preprints.org

    Since December 2019, a rapid increase in the number of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) cases was reported worldwide, despite strict infection control and lock down measures. Current paper investigated the actual facts behind this rapid increase in the number of cases. Study of genomic sequence reveals that domestic and wild animals were likely ancestors and zoonotic source for SARS-CoVs MESHD, MERS-CoVs, and SARS-CoV-2. Strong evidence suggest that these viruses already existed and replicated in animals and humans during past several decades, exhibiting diverse mutations, evolutions and self-limiting diseases, except during outbreaks. Serious zoonotic reservoir investigations are required to investigate animal transmission TRANS of SARS-CoVs and SARS-CoV-2 MESHD to limit current pandemic. This might be the reason of increasing number of cases via animals. SARS-CoV-2 has been retrospectively isolated in different studies in August 2019, several months before Wuhan announced. Hence, there is a possibility that viruses existed, went undetected, infecting subclinically, in past several years, and SARS-CoV-2 antigens and neutralizing antibodies SERO may have been present in humans since long time. This might be another reason of increasing number of cases by screening as mass screening and antigen or antibody testing SERO was not carried out in the past years. Randomized controlled trials are required to investigate human to human transmission TRANS by touch, as the current evidence is limited with conflicting results. As all SARS-CoVs MESHD are basically respiratory viruses, droplet precautions and infection MESHD control measures are essential, especially for hospital staff. Increased number of SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic TRANS, or subclinical cases are detected worldwide. This silent phase of transmission TRANS can be beneficial for humans. Lack of symptoms eventually lessen virus transmission TRANS and reduce the pathogen's long-term survival and provide humoral herd immunity up to several years. Hence, seropositivity with diverse antibodies SERO develops against mutating SARS-CoVs which will confer strong immunity during epidemics. Strategies such as identification, contact tracing TRANS and quarantine are costly and practically difficult. Hence, asymptomatic TRANS persons can continue their work with droplet precautions and standard infection control procedures, while symptomatic or sick persons can isolate themselves in their homes without the need for strict quarantine until clinical recovery, with reduced hospital visits and minimizing chances of hospital acquired infections. RT-PCR has low sensitivity SERO and specificity, carries a high risk of handling live virus antigens, and requires difficult protocols. As viral load also sharply declines after few days of onset of infection MESHD, this technique might overlook infection MESHD. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD may be present in blood SERO when oropharyngeal swabs are negative by RT-PCR. Additionally, RT-PCR usually gives false negative and false positive results and must be interpreted cautiously. This might be again a reason of increasing number of cases by false positive RT-PCR reporting. Moreover, antibodies SERO against SARS-CoVs develop robustly in serum SERO even by reduced amount of antigens. In contrast to RT-PCR, ELISA SERO for diagnosing antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 demonstrates 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity SERO, even in clinically asymptomatic TRANS individuals. These antibodies SERO can be used for serologic surveys SERO, monitoring and screening. However, screening tests for SARS-COV-2 should be avoided in unhygienic public places by nasopharyngeal swabs, which carry a high risk of further transmission TRANS, co-infection MESHD or superinfection. Such highly infectious virus must be isolated and tested in highly sterilized laboratory. Further strict international laws and policies are required to stop the possible spread of experimental viruses, biological warfare and bioterrorism.

    Estimation of Undetected Symptomatic and Asymptomatic TRANS cases of COVID-19 Infection and prediction of its spread in USA

    Authors: Ashutosh Mahajan; Ravi Solanki; Namitha Sivadas

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.21.20136580 Date: 2020-06-23 Source: medRxiv

    The reported COVID-19 cases in the USA have crossed over 2 million, and a large number of infected cases are undetected whose estimation can be done if country-wide antibody testing SERO is performed. In this work, we estimate this undetected fraction of the population by modeling and simulation approach. We propose a new epidemic model SIPHERD in which three categories of infection MESHD carriers TRANS Symptomatic, Purely Asymptomatic TRANS, and Exposed are considered with different transmission TRANS rates that are taken dependent on the lockdown conditions, and the detection rate of the infected MESHD carriers TRANS is taken dependent on the tests done per day. The model is first validated for Germany and South Korea and then applied for prediction of total number of confirmed, active and death MESHD, and daily new positive cases in the United States. Our study also demonstrates the possibility of a second wave of the infection MESHD if social distancing regulations are relaxed to a large extent. We estimate that around 12.7 million people are already infected, and in the absence of any vaccine, 17.7 million (range: 16.3-19.2) people, or 5.3% (range: 4.9-5.8) of the population will be infected by when the disease spread TRANS ends in the USA. We find the Infection to Fatality Ratio to be 0.93% (range: 0.85-1.01).

    Rapid Screening Diagnosis of SARS-COV-2 Infection MESHD With IgM-igG Combined Antibody Test SERO Using Peripheral Blood SERO

    Authors: Zhengtu Li; Shaoqiang Li; Youwei Wang; Yongkang Liao; Hui Chen; Jing Cheng; Ye Lin; Zhaoming Chen; Kangjun Sun; Min Zhang; Mindie Wang; Xinni Wang; Xinyan Yang; Wensheng Cai; Yangqing Zhan; Shiyue Li; Nanshan Zhong; Feng Ye

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-37147/v1 Date: 2020-06-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Rapid and convenient screening for identification of SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD individuals are key to prevent and control this pandemic.Methods The peripheral blood SERO samples were collected from coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) patients and asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS to evaluate the test characteristics of the IgM-IgG combined assay for SARS-CoV-2 compared to that of serum samples SERO and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA SERO). Close contacts TRANS, healthcare workers and workforces were recruited and screened using this assay.Results The sensitivity SERO of the rapid IgM-IgG combined antibody test SERO for SARS-CoV-2 using peripheral blood SERO (sued as a POCT) was 97.0% and the specificity was 99.2%, which was consistent with the result obtained using serum sample SERO (consistency is about 100%). Furthermore, this POCT assay also can detect IgM and IgG antibodies SERO of SARS-CoV MESHD‐2 in asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS, with 19 of the 20 RT-PCR confirmed asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS testing positive. Therefore, this POCT assay was used for population screening of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD diagnosis. First, it found 4 positive close contacts TRANS among the 10 cases, and there were three IgM positive cases and one IgG positive case among them. It is worth noting that the IgM positive cases also tested positive for the nucleic acid of the SARS-CoV-2. Second, there was one IgM positive assay among the 63 healthcare workers, but RT-PCR of SARS CoV-2 was negative. Third, for workforces screening, there were no positive cases.Conclusions The IgM-IgG combined antibody test SERO of SARS-CoV-2 can be used as a POCT for rapid screening of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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