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MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    The major predictors of testing positive for COVID-19 among symptomatic hospitalized patients

    Authors: Samson Barasa; David Tarazona; Faviola Valdivia Guerrero; Nancy Rojas Serrano; Dennis Carhuaricra; Lenin Maturrano Hernandez; Ronnie Gavilan Chavez

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.11.20192963 Date: 2020-09-13 Source: medRxiv

    The major predictors of testing positive for COVID-19 among symptomatic hospitalized patients Samson Barasa,1 Amy Ballard,1 Josephine Kiage-Mokaya, 1 Michael Friedlander,1 Geraldine Luna,2 1PeaceHealth Sacred Heart 2University of Illinois at Chicago Introduction: Increasing corona virus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pre-test probability can minimize testing patients who are less likely to have COVID-19 and therefore reducing personal protective equipment and COVID-19 testing kit use. The aim of this study was to identify patients who were likely to test positive for COVID-19 among symptomatic patients suspected of having COVID-19 during hospitalization by comparing COVID-19 positive and negative patients. Method: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients who were [≥]18 years old and underwent COVID-19 Polymerase chain reaction test because they presented with symptoms thought to be due to COVID-19. A Poisson regression analysis was conducted after clinical presentation, demographic, medical co-morbidities, laboratory and chest image data was retrieved from the medical records. Results: Charts of 277 and 18 COVID-19 negative and positive patients respectively were analyzed. Dyspnea HP Dyspnea MESHD (61%) was the most common symptom among COVID-19 negative patients, while 72% and 61% COVID-19 positive patients had cough HP cough MESHD and fever HP fever MESHD respectively. COVID-19 positive patients were more likely to present initially with cough HP [1.082 (1.022 - 1.145)], fever HP fever MESHD [1.066 (1.014 - 1.121)] and be 50 to 69 years old [1.094 (1.021 - 1.172)]. Dyspnea HP Dyspnea MESHD, weakness MESHD, lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD and bilateral chest image abnormality were not associated with COVID-19 positivity. COVID-19 positive patients were less likely to have non-COVID-19 respiratory viral illness [1.068 (1.019 - 1.119)], human immunodeficiency HP immunodeficiency MESHD virus [0.849 (0.765 - 0.943)] and heart failure MESHD history [0.093 (0.891 - 0.978)]. Other chronic medical problems ( hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD and coronary artery disease MESHD) were not associated with testing positive for COVID-19. Conclusion: Cough HP, fever HP fever MESHD and being 50 to 69 years old are better predictors of symptomatic COVID-19 positivity during hospitalization. Despite published studies reporting a high prevalence SERO of lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD among COVID-19 positive patients, lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD is not associated with the risk of testing positive for COVID-19. Key Words: COVID-19, Predictors, Symptomatic, Hospitalized

    Prevalence SERO of readily detected amyloid blood SERO clots in ‘unclotted’ Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus MESHD Diabetes Mellitus HP and COVID-19 plasma SERO

    Authors: Etheresia Pretorius; Chantelle Venter; Gert Jacobus Laubscher; Petrus Johannes Lourens; Janami Steenkamp; Douglas B Kell

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-64855/v1 Date: 2020-08-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus MESHD Diabetes Mellitus HP ( T2DM MESHD) is a well-known comorbidity to COVID-19 and coagulopathies MESHD are a common accompaniment to both T2DM MESHD and COVID-19. In addition, patients with COVID-19 are known to develop micro-clots within the lungs. The rapid detection of COVID-19 uses genotypic testing for the presence of SARS-Cov-2 virus in nasopharyngeal swabs, but it can have a poor sensitivity SERO. A rapid, host-based physiological test that indicated clotting severity and the extent of clotting pathologies in the individual who was infected MESHD or not would be highly desirable.Methods We show here that microclots can be detected in the native plasma SERO of COVID-19, as well as T2DM MESHD patients, without the addition of any clotting agent, and in particular that such clots are amyloid in nature as judged by a standard fluorogenic stain.Results In COVID-19 plasma SERO these microclots are significantly increased when compared to the levels in T2DM MESHD.Conclusions This fluorogenic test may provide a rapid and convenient test with 100% sensitivity SERO (P < 0.0001), and is consistent with the recognition that the early detection and prevention of such clotting can have an important role in therapy.

    Severe COVID-19 and Diabetes MESHD: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Three London Teaching Hospitals

    Authors: Chioma Izzi-Engbeaya; Walter Distaso; Anjali Amin; Wei Yang; Oluwagbemiga Idowu; Julia S Kenkre; Ronak J Shah; Evelina Woin; Christine Shi; Nael Alavi; Hala Bedri; Niamh Brady; Sophie Blackburn; Martina Leczycka; Sanya Patel; Elizaveta Sokol; Edward Toke-Bjolgerud; Ambreen Qayum; Mariana Abdel-Malek; David C D Hope; Nick S Oliver; Vasiliki Bravis; Shivani Misra; Tricia M Tan; Neil Hill; Victoria Salem; Dario S Zamboni; Rodrigo C Santana; Fernando C Vilar; Paulo Louzada-Junior; Rene D R Oliveira

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20160275 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    Patients with diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD admitted to hospital with COVID-19 caused by infection with the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have poorer outcomes. However, the drivers for this are not fully elucidated. We performed a retrospective cohort study, including detailed pre-hospital and presenting clinical and biochemical factors of 889 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in three constituent hospitals of a large London NHS Trust. 62% of patients with severe COVID-19 were of non-White ethnic backgrounds and the prevalence SERO of diabetes MESHD was 38%. 323 (36%) patients met the primary outcome of death MESHD or admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) within 30 days of diagnosis. Male TRANS gender TRANS, advancing age TRANS and the Clinical Frailty Scale, an established measure of multimorbidity, independently predicted poor outcomes on multivariate analysis. Diabetes MESHD did not confer an independent risk for adverse outcomes in COVID-19, although patients with diabetes MESHD and ischaemic heart disease MESHD were at particular risk. Additional risk factors which significantly and independently associated with poorer outcomes in patients with diabetes MESHD were age TRANS, male TRANS gender TRANS and lower platelet count. Antiplatelet medication was associated with a lower risk of death MESHD/ICU admission and should be evaluated in randomised clinical trials amongst high risk patient groups.

    Higher Comorbidities and Early Death is Characteristic of Hospitalized African-American Patients with COVID-19

    Authors: Raavi Gupta; Raag Agrawal; Zaheer Bukhari; Absia Jabbar; Donghai Wang; John Diks; Mohamed Alshal; Dokpe Yvonne Emechebe; F. Charles Brunicardi; Jason M Lazar; Robert Chamberlain; Aaliya Burza; M. A. Haseeb

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.15.20154906 Date: 2020-07-16 Source: medRxiv

    Background African-Americans/Blacks have suffered higher morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 than all other racial groups. This study aims to identify the causes of this health disparity, determine prognostic indicators, and assess efficacy of treatment interventions. Method We performed a retrospective cohort study of clinical features and laboratory data of COVID-19 patients admitted over a five-week period at the height of the pandemic in the United States. This study was performed at an urban academic medical center in New York City, declared a COVID-only facility, serving a majority Black population Result Of the 1,070 consecutive patients who tested positive for COVID-19, 496 critically ill patients were hospitalized and included in the study. 88% of patients were Black; and a majority (53%) were 61-80 years old with a mean body mass index in the ' obese MESHD' range. 97% had one or more comorbidities. Hypertension HP Hypertension MESHD was the most common (84%) pre-existing condition followed by diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (57%) and chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD (24%). Patients with chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD and end-stage renal disease MESHD who received hemodialysis were found to have significantly lower mortality, then those who did not receive it, suggesting benefit from hemodialysis (11%, OR, 0.35, CI, 0.17 - 0.69 P=0.001). Age TRANS >60 years and coronary artery disease MESHD were independent predictors of mortality in multivariate analysis. Cox Proportional Hazards modeling for time to death MESHD demonstrated a significantly high ratio for COPD MESHD/ Asthma HP, and favorable effects on outcomes for pre-admission ACE inhibitors and ARBs. CRP (180, 283 mg/L), LDH (551, 638 U/L), glucose (182, 163 mg/dL), procalcitonin (1.03, 1.68 ng/mL), and neutrophil / lymphocyte ratio (8.5, 10.0) were predictive of mortality on admission and at 48-96 hrs. Of the 496 inpatients, 48% died, one third of patients died within the first three days of admission. 54/488 patients received invasive mechanical ventilation, of which 87% died and of the remaining patients, 32% died. CONCLUSIONS COVID-19 patients in our predominantly Black neighborhood had higher mortality, likely due to higher prevalence SERO of comorbidities. Early dialysis and pre-admission intake of ACE inhibitors/ARBs improved patient outcomes. Early escalation of care based on comorbidities and key laboratory indicators is critical for improving outcomes in African-American patients.

    Red blood SERO cell distribution width (RDW) in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients

    Authors: Preethi Ramachandran; Mahesh Gajendran; Abhilash Perisetti; Karim Osama Elkholy; Abhishek Chakraborti; Giuseppe Lippi; Hemant Goyal

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.29.20143081 Date: 2020-07-03 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), is causing dramatic morbidity and mortality worldwide. The Red Blood SERO Cell Distribution Width (RDW) has been strongly associated with increased morbidity and mortality in multiple diseases. Objective: To assess if elevated RDW is associated with unfavorable outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19. Methods: We retrospectively studied clinical outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients for their RDW values. In-hospital mortality was defined as primary outcome, while septic shock MESHD shock HP, need for mechanical ventilation, and length of stay (LOS) were secondary outcomes. Results- A total of 294 COVID-19 patients were finally studied. Overall prevalence SERO of increased RDW was 49.7% (146/294). RDW was associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality (aOR, 4.5; 95%CI, 1.4-14.3) and septic shock MESHD shock HP (aOR, 4.6; 95%CI, 1.4-15.1) after adjusting for anemia HP anemia MESHD, ferritin, and lactate. The association remained unchanged even after adjusting for other clinical confounders such as age TRANS, sex, body mass index, coronary artery disease MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD. No association was found instead with mechanical ventilation and median LOS. Conclusion: Elevated RDW in hospitalized COVID-19 patients is associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality and septic shock MESHD shock HP.

    Clinical Features and Outcomes of COVID-19 in Older Adults TRANS: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Authors: Sunny Singhal; Pramod Kumar; Sumitabh Singh; Srishti Saha; Aparajit Ballav Dey

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-38971/v1 Date: 2020-06-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Few studies have focused on exploring the clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 in older patients. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to have a better understanding of the clinical characteristics of older COVID-19 patients.Methods A systematic search of PubMed and Scopus was performed from December 2019 to May 3rd, 2020. Observational studies including older adults TRANS ( age TRANS ≥60 years) with COVID-19 infection MESHD and reporting clinical characteristics or outcome were included. Primary outcome was assessing weighted pooled prevalence SERO (WPP) of severity and outcomes. Secondary outcomes were clinical features including comorbidities and need of respiratory support.Result 46 studies with 13,624 older patients were included. Severe infection HP infection MESHD was seen in 51% (95% CI– 36-65%, I2- 95%) patients while 22% (95% CI– 16-28%, I2- 88%) were critically ill. Overall, 11% (95% CI– 5-21%, I2- 98%) patients died. The common comorbidities were hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (48%, 95% CI– 36-60% I2- 92%), diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (22%, 95% CI– 13-32%, I2- 86%) and cardiovascular disease MESHD (19%, 95% CI – 11-28%, I2- 85%). Common symptoms were fever HP fever MESHD (83%, 95% CI– 66-97%, I2-91%), cough HP cough MESHD (60%, 95% CI– 50-70%, I2- 71%) and dyspnoea MESHD (42%, 95% CI– 19-67%, I2- 94%). Overall, 84% (95% CI– 60-100%, I2- 81%) required oxygen support and 21% (95% CI– 0-49%, I2- 91%) required mechanical ventilation. Majority of studies had medium to high risk of bias and overall quality of evidence was low for all outcomes.Conclusion Approximately half of older patients with COVID-19 have severe infection HP infection MESHD, one in five are critically ill and one in ten die. More high quality evidence is needed to study outcomes in this vulnerable patient population and factors affecting these outcomes.

    Outcomes and Cardiovascular Comorbidities MESHD in a Predominantly African-American Population with COVID-19

    Authors: Ann B. Nguyen; Gaurav A. Upadhyay; Ben Chung; Bryan Smith; Stephanie A. Besser; Julie A. Johnson; John Blair; R. Parker Ward; Jeanne DeCara; Tamar Polonsky; Amit R. Patel; Jonathan Grinstein; Luise Holzhauser; Rohan Kalathiya; Atman P. Shah; Jonathan Paul; Sandeep Nathan; James Liao; Roberto M. Lang; Krysta Wolfe; Ayodeji Adegunsoye; David Wu; Bhakti Patel; Monica E. Peek; Doriane Miller; Dinesh J. Kurian; Stephen R. Estime; Allison Dalton; Avery Tung; Michael F. O'Connor; John P. Kress; Francis J. Alenghat; Roderick Tung

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.28.20141929 Date: 2020-06-29 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Racial disparities in COVID-19 outcomes have been amplified during this pandemic and reports on outcomes in African-American (AA) populations, known to have higher rates of cardiovascular (CV) comorbidities, remain limited. Objective: To examine prevalence SERO of comorbidities, rates of hospitalization and survival, and incidence of CV manifestations of COVID-19 in a predominantly AA population in south metropolitan Chicago. Design, Setting, Participants: This was an observational cohort study of COVID-19 patients encountered from March 16 to April 16, 2020 at the University of Chicago. Deidentified data were obtained from an institutional data warehouse. Group comparisons and logistic regression modeling based on baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory and diagnostic testing was performed. Exposures: COVID-19 was diagnosed by nasopharyngeal swab testing and clinical management was at the discretion of treating physicians. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were hospitalization and in-hospital mortality, and secondary outcomes included incident CV manifestations of COVID-19 in the context of overall cardiology service utilization. Results: During the 30 day study period, 1008 patients tested positive for COVID-19 and 689 had available encounter data. Of these, 596 (87%) were AA and 356 (52%) were hospitalized, of which 319 (90%) were AA. Age TRANS > 60 years, tobacco use, BMI >40 kg/m2, diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD ( DM MESHD), insulin use, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD, coronary artery disease MESHD ( CAD MESHD), and atrial fibrillation HP atrial fibrillation MESHD ( AF MESHD) were more common in hospitalized patients. Age TRANS > 60 years, tobacco use, CAD MESHD, and AF MESHD were associated with greater risk of in-hospital mortality along with several elevated initial laboratory markers including troponin, NT-proBNP, blood SERO urea nitrogen, and ferritin. Despite this, cardiac manifestations of COVID-19 were uncommon, coincident with a 69% decrease in cardiology service utilization. For hospitalized patients, median length of stay was 6.2 days (3.4-11.9 days) and mortality was 13%. AA patients were more commonly hospitalized, but without increased mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: In this AA-predominant experience from south metropolitan Chicago, CV comorbidities and chronic diseases MESHD were highly prevalent and associated with increased hospitalization and mortality. Insulin-requiring DM MESHD and CKD emerged as novel predictors for hospitalization. Despite the highest rate of comorbidities reported to date, CV manifestations of COVID-19 and mortality were relatively low. The unexpectedly low rate of mortality merits further study.

    Clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Spain: results from the SEMI-COVID-19 Network.

    Authors: José Manuel Casas Rojo; Juan Miguel Antón Santos; Jesús Millán Núñez-Cortés; Carlos Lumbreras Bermejo; José Manuel Ramos Rincón; Emilia Roy-Vallejo; Arturo Artero Mora; Francisco Arnalich Fernández; José Miguel García Bruñén; Juan Antonio Vargas Núñez; Santiago J Freire Castro; Luis Manzano; Isabel Perales Fraile; Anxela Crestelo Vieitez; Francesc Puchades; Enrique Rodilla; Marta Nataya Solís Marquínez; David Bonet Tur; María del Pilar Fidalgo Moreno; Eva M Fonseca Aizpuru; Franscisco Javier Carrasco Sánchez; Elisa Rabadán Pejenaute; Manuel Rubio-Rivas; José David Torres Peńa; Ricardo Gómez Huelgas

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.24.20111971 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Spain has been one of the countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective. To create a registry of patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in Spain in order to improve our knowledge of the clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects of this disease. Methods. A multicentre retrospective cohort study, including consecutive patients hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 throughout Spain. Epidemiological and clinical data, additional tests at admission and at seven days, treatments administered, and progress at 30 days of hospitalization were collected from electronic medical records. Results. Up to April 30th 2020, 6,424 patients from 109 hospitals were included. Their median age TRANS was 69.1 years (range: 18-102 years) and 56.9% were male TRANS. Prevalences SERO of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, dyslipidemia MESHD, and diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD were 50.2%, 39.7%, and 18.7%, respectively. The most frequent symptoms were fever HP fever MESHD (86.2%) and cough HP (76.5%). High values of ferritin (72.4%), lactate dehydrogenase (70.2%), and D-dimer (61.5%), as well as lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD (52.6%), were frequent. The most used antiviral drugs were hydroxychloroquine (85.7%) and lopinavir/ritonavir (62.4%). 31.5% developed respiratory distress HP. Overall mortality rate was 21.1%, with a marked increase with age TRANS (50-59 years: 4.2%, 60-69 years: 9.1%, 70-79 years: 21.4%, 80-89 years: 42.5%, [≥] 90 years: 51.1%). Conclusions. The SEMI-COVID-19 Network provides data on the clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in Spain. Patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in Spain are mostly severe cases, as one in three patients developed respiratory distress HP respiratory distress MESHD and one in five patients died. These findings confirm a close relationship between advanced age TRANS and mortality.

    Risk factors affecting COVID-19 case fatality rate: A quantitative analysis of top 50 affected countries

    Authors: Hui Poh Goh; Wafiah Ilyani Mahari; Norhadyrah Izazie Ahad; Liling Chaw; Nurolaini Kifli; Bey Hing Goh; Siang Fei Yeoh; Long Chiau Ming

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.20.20108449 Date: 2020-05-25 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Latest clinical data on treatment on coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) indicated that older patients and those with underlying history of smoking, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD or diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD might have poorer prognosis of recovery from COVID-19. We aimed to examine the relationship of various prevailing population-based risk factors in comparison with mortality rate and case fatality rate (CFR) of COVID-19. Methods: Demography and epidemiology data which have been identified as verified or postulated risk factors for mortality of adult TRANS inpatients with COVID-19 were used. The number of confirmed cases TRANS and the number of deaths until April 16, 2020 for all affected countries were extracted from Johns Hopkins University COVID-19 websites. Datasets for indicators that are fitting with the factors of COVID-19 mortality were extracted from the World Bank database. Out of about 185 affected countries, only top 50 countries were selected to be analyzed in this study. The following seven variables were included in the analysis, based on data availability and completeness: 1) proportion of people aged TRANS 65 above, 2) proportion of male TRANS in the population, 3) diabetes MESHD prevalence SERO, 4) smoking prevalence SERO, 5) current health expenditure, 6) number of hospital beds and 7) number of nurses and midwives. Quantitative analysis was carried out to determine the correlation between CFR and the aforementioned risk factors. Results: United States shows about 0.20% of confirmed cases TRANS in its country and it has about 4.85% of CFR. Luxembourg shows the highest percentage of confirmed cases TRANS of 0.55% but a low 2.05% of CFR, showing that a high percentage of confirmed cases TRANS does not necessarily lead to high CFR. There is a significant correlation between CFR, people aged TRANS 65 and above (p = 0.35) and diabetes MESHD prevalence SERO (p = 0.01). However, in our study, there is no significant correlation between CFR of COVID-19, male TRANS gender TRANS (p = 0.26) and smoking prevalence SERO (p = 0.60). Conclusion: Older people above 65 years old and diabetic MESHD patients are significant risk factors for COVID-19. Nevertheless, gender TRANS differences and smoking prevalence SERO failed to prove a significant relationship with COVID-19 mortality rate and CFR. Keywords: Coronavirus, COVID-19, risk, epidemiology, fatality, age TRANS, diabetes MESHD

    Ethnicity and risk of death MESHD in patients hospitalised for COVID-19 infection: an observational cohort study in an urban catchment area

    Authors: Elizabeth Sapey; Suzy Gallier; Chris Mainey; Peter Nightingale; David McNulty; Hannah Crothers; Felicity Evison; Katharine Reeves; Domenico Pagano; Alastair K Denniston; Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar; Peter Diggle; Simon Ball

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.05.20092296 Date: 2020-05-09 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives. To determine if specific ethnic groups are at higher risk of mortality from COVID19 infection MESHD. Design. Retrospective cohort study Setting. University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust (UHB) in Birmingham, UK Participants. Patients with confirmed SARS CoV 2 infection MESHD requiring admission to UHB between 10th March 2020 and 17th April 2020 Exposure. Ethnicity Main outcome measures. Standardised Admission Ratio ( SAR TRANS) and Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) for each ethnicity was calculated using observed sex specific age TRANS distributions of COVID19 admissions/deaths and 2011 census data for Birmingham/Solihull. Hazard Ratio (aHR) for mortality was estimated for each ethnic group with white population as reference group, using Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for age TRANS, sex, social deprivation MESHD and co-morbidities, and propensity score matching. Results. 2217 patients admitted to UHB with a proven diagnosis of COVID19 were included. 58.2% were male TRANS, 69.5% White and the majority (80.2%) had co morbidities. 18.5% were of South Asian ethnicity, and these patients were more likely to be younger (median age TRANS 61 years vs.77 years), have no co morbidities (27.8% vs. 16.6%) but a higher prevalence SERO of diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (48.0% vs 28.2%) than White patients. SAR TRANS and SMR suggested more admissions and deaths in South Asian patients than would be predicted. South Asian patients were also more likely to present with severe disease despite no delay in presentation since symptom onset TRANS. South Asian ethnicity was associated with an increased risk of death; both by Cox regression (Hazard Ratio 1.66 (95%CI 1.32 to 2.10)) after adjusting for age TRANS, sex, deprivation and comorbidities and by propensity score matching, (Hazard ratio 1.68 (1.33 to 2.13), using the same factors but categorising ethnicity into South Asian or not. Conclusions. Current evidence suggests those of South Asian ethnicity may be at risk of worse COVID19 outcomes, further studies need to establish the underlying mechanistic pathways.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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