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Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Right Ventricular-Arterial Uncoupling Independently Predicts Survival in COVID-19 ARDS

    Authors: Michele D'Alto; Alberto Marra; Sergio Severino; Andrea Salzano; Emanuele Romeo; Rosanna C De Rosa; Francesca Stagnaro; Gianpiero Pagnano; Raffaele Verde; Patrizia Murino; Andrea Farro; Giovanni Ciccarelli; Maria Vargas; Giuseppe Fiorentino; Giuseppe Servillo; Ivan Gentile; Antonio Corcione; Antonio Cittadini; Robert Naeije; Paolo Golino

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-73451/v1 Date: 2020-09-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    Aim. To investigate the prevalence SERO and prognostic impact of right heart failure MESHD failure and right ventricular HP-arterial uncoupling in Corona Virus Infectious Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) complicated by an acute respiratory distress HP respiratory distress MESHD syndrome ( ARDS MESHD).Methods. Ninety-four consecutive patients (mean age TRANS 64 yrs) admitted for acute respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD on COVID-19 were enrolled. Coupling of right ventricular function to the pulmonary circulation was evaluated by a comprehensive trans-thoracic echocardiography with focus on the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) to systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PASP) ratio Results. The majority of patients needed ventilatory support, which was non-invasive in 22 and invasive in 37. There were 25 deaths, all in the invasively ventilated patients. Survivors were younger (62±13 vs 68±12 years, p=0.033), less often overweight HP or usual smokers, had lower NT-proBNP and interleukin-6, and higher arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired O2 (FIO2) ratio (270±104 vs 117±57 mmHg, p<0.001). In the non-survivors, PASP was increased (42±12 vs 30±7 mmHg, p<0.001), while TAPSE was decreased (19±4 vs 25±4 mm, p<0.001). Accordingly the TAPSE/PASP ratio was lower than in the survivors (0.51±0.22 vs 0.89±0.29 mm/mmHg, p<0.001). At univariate/multivariable analysis, the TAPSE/PASP (HR:0.026; 95%CI:0.01-0.579; p:0.019) and PaO2/FIO2 (HR:0.988; 95%CI:0.988-0.998; p:0.018) ratios were the only independent predictors of mortality, with ROC-determined cut-off values of 159 mmHg and 0.635 mm/mmHg respectively.Conclusions. COVID-19 ARDS is associated with clinically relevant uncoupling of right ventricular function from the pulmonary circulation; bedside echocardiography of TAPSE/PASP adds to the prognostic relevance of PaO2/FIO2 in ARDS on COVID-19.

    ASSOCIATION OF HYPERGLYCEMIA HP WITH HOSPITAL MORTALITY IN COVID-19 PATIENTS WITHOUT DIABETES MESHD: A COHORT STUDY

    Authors: Manju Mamtani; Ambarish M Athavale; Mohan Abraham; Jane Vernik; Amatur Amarah; Juan Ruiz; Amit Joshi; Matthew Itteera; Sara Zhukovsky; Ravi Prakash Madaiah; Peter Hart; Hemant Kulkarni

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.31.20185157 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: Diabetes MESHD is a known risk factor for mortality in Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Our objective was to identify prevalence SERO of hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD in COVID-19 patients with and without diabetes MESHD and quantify its association with COVID-19 disease course. Research Design and Methods: In this observational cohort study, all consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to John H Stroger Jr. Hospital, Chicago, IL from March 15, 2020 to May 15, 2020 were included. The primary outcome was hospital mortality and the main predictor was hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD (any blood SERO glucose [≥]7.78 mmol/L during hospitalization). Results: Of 403 COVID-19 patients studied, 228 (57%) developed hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD. Of these, 83 (21%) had hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD without diabetes MESHD. A total of 51 (12.7%) patients died. Compared to the reference group no- diabetes MESHD/no- hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD patients the no- diabetes MESHD/ hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD patients showed higher mortality (1.8% versus 20.5%, adjusted odds ratio 21.94 (95% confidence interval 4.04-119.0), p < 0.001); improved prediction of death (p=0.0162) and faster progression to death (p=0.0051). Hyperglycemia HP Hyperglycemia MESHD within the first 24 and 48 hours was also significantly associated with mortality (odds ratio 2.15 and 3.31, respectively). Further, compared to the same reference group, no- diabetes MESHD/ hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD patients had higher risk of ICU admission (p<0.001), mechanical ventilation (p<0.001) and acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome (p<0.001) and a longer hospital stay in survivors (p<0.001). Conclusions: Hyperglycemia HP Hyperglycemia MESHD in the absence of diabetes MESHD was common (21% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients) and was associated with an increased risk of and faster progression to death. Development of hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD in COVID-19 patients who do not have diabetes MESHD is an early indicator of poor prognosis.

    Prevalence SERO and correlation of symptoms and comorbidities in COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Mohammad Meshbahur Rahman; Badhan Bhattacharjee; Zaki Farhana; Mohammad Hamiduzzaman; Muhammad Abdul Bake Chowdhury; Mohammad Sorowar Hossain; Mahbubul H Siddiqee; Md. Ziaul Islam; Enayetur Raheem; Md. Jamal Uddin

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.19.20177980 Date: 2020-08-22 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The COVID-19 affected millions of people, and the patients present a constellation of symptoms and comorbidities. We aimed to chronicle the prevalence SERO and correlations of symptoms and comorbidities, and associated covariates among the patients. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis [PROSPERO registration: CRD42020182677]. Databases [PubMed, SCOPUS, EMBASE, WHO, Semantic Scholar, and COVID-19 Primer] were searched for clinical studies published in English from January 1 to April 20, 2020. The pooled prevalence SERO of symptoms and comorbidities were identified using the random effect model, and sub-groups analysis of patients age TRANS and locations were investigated. A multivariable factor analysis was also performed to show the correlation among symptoms, comorbidities and age TRANS of the COVID-19 patients. Findings: Twenty-nine articles [China (24); Outside of China (5)], with 4,884 COVID-19 patients were included in this systematic review. The meta-analysis investigated 33 symptoms, where fever HP fever MESHD [84%], cough HP cough MESHD/dry cough HP [61%], and fatigue HP fatigue MESHD/weakness [42%] were found frequent. Out of 43 comorbidities investigated, acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome ( ARDS MESHD) [61%] was a common condition, followed by hypertension HP hypertension MESHD [23%] and diabetes MESHD [12%]. According to the patients age TRANS, the prevalence SERO of symptoms like fatigue HP fatigue MESHD/weakness, dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD/shortness of breath, and anorexia HP anorexia MESHD were highly prevalent in older adults TRANS [[≥]50 years] than younger adults TRANS [<50 years]. Diabetes MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, coronary heart disease MESHD, and COPD MESHD/ lung disease MESHD were more prevalent comorbidities in older adults TRANS than younger adults TRANS. The patients from outside of China had significantly higher prevalence SERO [p<0.005] of diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD, fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, nausea HP nausea MESHD, sore throat, and dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD, and the prevalent comorbidities in that region were diabetes MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, coronary heart disease MESHD, and ARDS MESHD. The multivariable factor analysis showed positive association between a group of symptoms and comorbidities, and with the patients age TRANS. Interpretation: Epitomizing the correlation of symptoms of COVID-19 with comorbidities and patients age TRANS would help clinicians effectively manage the patients.

    Fighting COVID-19 spread among nursing home residents even in absence of molecular diagnosis: a retrospective cohort study.

    Authors: Alessio Strazzulla; Paul Tarteret; Maria Concetta Postorino; Marie Picque; Astrid de Pontfarcy; Nicolas Vignier; Catherine Chakvetadze; Coralie Noel; Cecile Drouin; Zine Eddine Benguerdi; Sylvain Diamantis

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-51305/v1 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Access to molecular diagnosis was limited out-of-hospital in France during the 2020 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. This study describes the evolution of COVID-19 outbreak in a nursing home in absence of molecular diagnosis. Methods A monocentric prospective study was conducted in a French nursing home from March 17th, 2020 to June 11th, 2020. Because of lack of molecular tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-Cov2) infection MESHD, probable COVID-19 cases were early identified considering only respiratory and not-respiratory symptoms and therefore preventing measures and treatments were enforced. Once available, serology tests were performed at the end of the study.A chronologic description of new cases and deaths MESHD was made together with a description of COVID-19 symptoms. Data about personal characteristics and treatments were collected and the following comparisons were performed: i) probable COVID-19 cases vs asymptomatic TRANS residents; ii) SARS-Cov2 seropositive residents vs seronegative residents. Results Overall, 32/66 (48.5%) residents and 19/39 (48.7%) members of health-care personnel were classified as probable COVID-19 cases. A total of 34/61 (55.7%) tested residents resulted seropositive. Death occurred in 4/66 (6%) residents. Diagnosis according to symptoms had 65% of sensitivity SERO, 78% of specificity, 79% of positive predictive value SERO and 64% of negative predictive value SERO.In resident population, the following symptoms were registered: 15/32 (46.8%) lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD, 15/32 (46.8%) fever HP fever MESHD, 8/32 (25%) fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, 8/32 (25%) cough HP, 6/32 (18.8%) diarrhoea MESHD, 4/32 (12.5%) severe respiratory distress HP requiring oxygen therapy, 4/32 (12.5%) fall HP, 3/32 (9.4%) conjunctivitis HP conjunctivitis MESHD, 2/32 (6.3%) abnormal pulmonary noise at chest examination and 2/32 (6,25%) abdominal pain HP abdominal pain MESHD. Probable COVID-19 cases were older (81.3 vs 74.9; p=0.007) and they had higher prevalence SERO of atrial fibrillation HP atrial fibrillation MESHD (8/32, 25% vs 2/34, 12%; p=0.030); insulin treatment (4/34, 12% vs 0, 0%; p=0.033) and positive SARS-Cov2 serology (22/32, 69% vs 12/34, 35%; p=0.001) than asymptomatic TRANS residents. Seropositive residents had lower prevalence SERO of diabetes MESHD (4/34, 12% vs 9/27, 33%; p=0.041) and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors’ intake (1/34, 1% vs 5/27, 19%; p=0.042). Conclusions During SARS-Cov2 epidemic, early detection of respiratory and not-respiratory symptoms allowed to enforce extraordinary measures. They achieved limiting contagion and deaths among nursing home residents, even in absence of molecular diagnosis.

    Clinical characteristics and Mortality risk factors among COVID-19 patients in Qom–Iran; The results of a Retrospective Cohort study

    Authors: Ahmad Hormati; SeyedYaser Foroghi Ghomi; masoudreza sohrabi; Ali Gholami; Saeede Jafari; Amir Jabbari; Reza AminNejad; Javad Khodadadi; Mansoureh shakeri; Alireza ShahHamzeh; Mahbobeh Afifian; Zohre Azad; Sajjad Ahmadpour; MohammadHadi Karbalai; MohammadReza Babaei; Parisa Karimzadeh; SeyedKamal Esshagh Hosseini

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-42497/v1 Date: 2020-07-13 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background & AimCoronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in the Middle East was initially reported in Qom-Iran. Clinical and epidemiologic and mortality risk factors details have not been already fully explained.MethodIn a retrospective study, the hospitalized adult TRANS patients with laboratory diagnosed COVID-19 between February 25 to March 20, 2020 were enrolled. A checklist including demographic, clinical, laboratorial, imaging, and treatment data was completed for each of the participant. The data were extracted from electronic medical records. In case of lack of information, a member of the research team contacted them via phone. All the dead patients and the first one hundred survived patients with these criteria were enrolled in the study. Outcome defined as death MESHD or discharge of patients.ResultsOf admitted patients, 200 patients who had been discharged or died were involved in this study. The majority of them were male TRANS (56%). The mean age TRANS of all patients was 62.63 ± 14.9. Co-morbidity was reported in 124 (62%) patients in which hypertension HP hypertension MESHD was the most common. The most frequent clinical presentations were dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD in 169 (84.5%), cough HP cough MESHD in 150 (75%), and fatigue HP fatigue MESHD/weakness in 123 (61.5%) patients. The main complications were respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD and acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome with prevalence SERO of 143 (71.5%) and 105 (52.5%), accordingly. Multiple logistic models showed that decline of hemoglobin level (OR = 10.09), neutrophilia HP (OR = 3.48), high blood SERO urea nitrogen (OR = 4.29,), SpO2 ≤ 90% (OR = 3.38), and presence of patchy consolidation (OR = 6.81) were associated with poor outcome.ConclusionCOVID-19 disease has multiple aspects. CT scan findings, complete blood SERO count with differential, high blood SERO urea nitrogen and SpO2 are related to mortality. Hence needs to pay serious attention during admitting and surveillance, particularly among elderly TRANS patients and who with preexisting morbidities.

    Critical Complications of COVID-19: A systematic Review and Meta-Analysis study

    Authors: Kimia Vakili; Mobina Fathi; Fatemeh Sayehmiri; Ashraf Mohamadkhani; Mohammadreza Hajiesmaeili; Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani; Aiyoub Pezeshgi

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.14.20130955 Date: 2020-06-16 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel coronavirus infection MESHD that has spread worldwide in a short period and caused a pandemic. The goal of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the prevalence SERO of most common symptoms and complications of COVID-19. Methods: All related studies assessing the clinical complications of COVID-19 have been identified through web search databases (PubMed and Scopus). Relevant data were extracted from these studies and analyzed by stata (ver 14) random-effects model. The heterogeneity of studies were assessed by I2 index. The publication bias was examined by Funnel plots and Eggers test. Results: 30 studies were in our meta-analysis including 6 389 infected MESHD patients. The prevalence SERO of most common symptoms were: fever HP 84.30% (95% CI: 77.13-90.37; I2=97.74%), cough HP 63.01% (95% CI: 57.63-68.23; I2=93.73%), dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD 37.16% (95% CI: 27.31-47.57%; I2=98.32%), fatigue HP fatigue MESHD 34.22% (95% CI: 26.29-42.62; I2=97.29%) and diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD 11.47 %(95% CI: 6.96-16.87; I2=95.58%), respectively. The most prevalent complications were acute respiratory distress HP syndrome (ARDS) 33.15% (95% CI: 23.35-43.73; I2=98.56%), acute cardiac injury 13.77% (95% CI: 9.66-18.45; I2=91.36%), arrhythmia HP 16.64% (95% CI: 9.34-25.5; I2=92.29%), heart failure 11.50% (95% CI: 3.45-22.83; I2=89.48%), and acute kidney injury HP (AKI) 8.40 %(95% CI: 5.15-12.31; I2=95.22%, respectively. According to our analysis, mortality rate of COVID-19 patients were 12.29% (95% CI: 6.20-19.99; I2=98.29%). Conclusion: We assessed the prevalence SERO of the main clinical complications of COVID-19 and found that after respiratory complications, cardiac and renal complications are the most common clinical complications of COVID-19.

    Prevalence SERO and mortality of Lung Comorbidities Among Patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Mohammed G Alkhathami; Shailesh Advani; Adil A Abalkhail; Fahad M Alkhathami; Mohammed K AlShehri; Ebtisam Albeashy; Jihad A Al Salamah

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.01.20119271 Date: 2020-06-03 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Background COVID-19 infections MESHD are seen across all age groups TRANS but they have shown to have a predisposition for the elderly TRANS and those with underlying comorbidities. Patients with severe COVID-19 infections MESHD and comorbidities are more prone to respiratory distress HP respiratory distress MESHD syndrome ( ARDS MESHD), mechanical ventilator use and ultimately succumb to these complications. Little evidence exists of the prevalence SERO of underlying lung comorbidities among COVID-19 patients and associated mortality. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature including PubMed (Medline), Embase (Ovid), Google Scholar and Cochrane Library. The last date for our search was 29th April 2020. We included all original research articles on COVID-19 and calculated prevalence SERO of chronic lung disease HP chronic lung disease MESHD patients among COVID-19 patients using random effects model. Further we assessed for mortality rates among COVID-19 patients associated with these lung comorbidities. Results The authors identified 29 articles that reported prevalence SERO of chronic lung conditions among COVID-19 patients. Among those, 26 were from China and 3 from the United States. The pooled prevalence SERO of lung comorbidities including Asthma HP, COPD, and lung cancer MESHD was 3% (95% CI=0-14%), 2.2% (95% CI=0.02-0.03%) and 2.1% (95% CI=0.00-0.21%) respectively. Mortality rates associated with these comorbidities was 30% (41/137) for COPD MESHD and 19% (7/37) for lung cancer MESHD respectively. No mortality rates were reported for patients with asthma HP asthma MESHD. Conclusion This study offers latest evidence of prevalence SERO of chronic lung conditions among patients with COVID-19. Asthma HP, followed by COPD MESHD and lung cancer MESHD, was the most common lung comorbidity associated with COVID-19, while the higher mortality rate was found in COPD. Future studies are needed to assess other lung comorbidities and associated mortality among patients diagnosed with COVID-19.

    Clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Spain: results from the SEMI-COVID-19 Network.

    Authors: José Manuel Casas Rojo; Juan Miguel Antón Santos; Jesús Millán Núñez-Cortés; Carlos Lumbreras Bermejo; José Manuel Ramos Rincón; Emilia Roy-Vallejo; Arturo Artero Mora; Francisco Arnalich Fernández; José Miguel García Bruñén; Juan Antonio Vargas Núñez; Santiago J Freire Castro; Luis Manzano; Isabel Perales Fraile; Anxela Crestelo Vieitez; Francesc Puchades; Enrique Rodilla; Marta Nataya Solís Marquínez; David Bonet Tur; María del Pilar Fidalgo Moreno; Eva M Fonseca Aizpuru; Franscisco Javier Carrasco Sánchez; Elisa Rabadán Pejenaute; Manuel Rubio-Rivas; José David Torres Peńa; Ricardo Gómez Huelgas

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.24.20111971 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Spain has been one of the countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective. To create a registry of patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in Spain in order to improve our knowledge of the clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects of this disease. Methods. A multicentre retrospective cohort study, including consecutive patients hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 throughout Spain. Epidemiological and clinical data, additional tests at admission and at seven days, treatments administered, and progress at 30 days of hospitalization were collected from electronic medical records. Results. Up to April 30th 2020, 6,424 patients from 109 hospitals were included. Their median age TRANS was 69.1 years (range: 18-102 years) and 56.9% were male TRANS. Prevalences SERO of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, dyslipidemia MESHD, and diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD were 50.2%, 39.7%, and 18.7%, respectively. The most frequent symptoms were fever HP fever MESHD (86.2%) and cough HP (76.5%). High values of ferritin (72.4%), lactate dehydrogenase (70.2%), and D-dimer (61.5%), as well as lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD (52.6%), were frequent. The most used antiviral drugs were hydroxychloroquine (85.7%) and lopinavir/ritonavir (62.4%). 31.5% developed respiratory distress HP. Overall mortality rate was 21.1%, with a marked increase with age TRANS (50-59 years: 4.2%, 60-69 years: 9.1%, 70-79 years: 21.4%, 80-89 years: 42.5%, [≥] 90 years: 51.1%). Conclusions. The SEMI-COVID-19 Network provides data on the clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in Spain. Patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in Spain are mostly severe cases, as one in three patients developed respiratory distress HP respiratory distress MESHD and one in five patients died. These findings confirm a close relationship between advanced age TRANS and mortality.

    Vitamin D deficiency in critically ill MESHD patients diagnosed with COVID -19. Are we doing enough? A retrospective analysis of 226 patients.

    Authors: Tomás Cuñat; Antonio Ojeda; Andrea Calvo

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-30390/v1 Date: 2020-05-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Vitamin D deficiency MESHD is common in critically ill patients, and its role in COVID-19 patients could be important. Its deficiency has been associated with respiratory distress HP respiratory distress MESHD syndrome, pulmonary fibrosis HP pulmonary fibrosis MESHD (through activation of the renin-angiotensin system), increased levels of IL-2, and cardiovascular adverse events. Various scientific societies recommend the screening of vitamin D in individuals at risk for deficiency. Despite that, the demographics of Vitamin D levels amongst critically ill patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 are currently unknown. We propose a study to determine the prevalence SERO of vitamin D deficiency MESHD in a consecutive population of COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care units and to evaluate its relationship with clinical outcomes. We study 226 COVID-19 patients between March 16 and April 26, 2020. The prevalence SERO of vitamin D deficiency could not be determined because the value of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was obtained in a few patients (17 patients, 7,5%). However, all patients with serum SERO determinations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D presented a level lower than 20 ng/ml and thirteen patients (76,5%) levels < 12,5 ng/ml. We conclude that undiagnosed vitamin D deficiency MESHD is common in critically ill COVID-19 patients, and physicians should be conscious of the relevance of its monitoring and supplementation.

    Clinical features of 162 fatal cases of COVID-19: a multi-center, retrospective study

    Authors: Xianlong Zhou; Guoyong Ding; Qing Fang; Jun Guo; Luyu Yang; Ping Wang; Shouzhi Fu; Ang Li; Jian Xia; Jiangtao Yu; Jianyou Xia; Min Ma; Zhuanzhuan Hu; Lei Huang; Ruining Liu; Cheng Jiang; Shaoping Li; Mingxia Yu; Xizhu Xu; Yan Zhao; Quan Hu; Weijia Xing; Zhigang Zhao

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-29357/v1 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Understanding the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of fatal cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 is import to develop appropriate preventable intervention programs in hospitals. Demographic data, clinical symptoms, clinical course, co-morbidities, laboratory findings, CT scans, treatments and complications of 162 fatal cases were retrieved from electric medical records in 5 hospitals of Wuhan, China. The median age TRANS was 69.5 years old (IQR: 63.0-77.25; range: 29-96). 112 (69.1%) cases were men. Hypertension HP Hypertension MESHD (45.1%) was the most common co-morbidity, but 59 (36.4%) cases had no co-morbidity. At admission, 131 (81.9%) cases were assessed as severe or critical. However, 39 (18.1%) were assessed as moderate. Moderate cases had a higher prevalence SERO of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and chronic lung disease HP lung disease MESHD comparing with severe or critical cases (P<0.05, respectively). 126 (77.8%) and 132 (81.5%) cases received antiviral treatment and glucocorticoids, respectively. 116 (71.6%) cases were admitted to ICU and 137 (85.1%) cases received mechanical ventilation. Respiratory failure HP Respiratory failure MESHD or acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome (93.2%) was the most common complication. The young cases of COVID-19, without co-morbidity and in a moderate condition at admission could develop fatal outcome. We need to be more cautious in case management of COVID-19 for preventing the fatal outcomes.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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