Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Infections (432)

Disease (140)

Death (97)

Coronavirus Infections (69)

Fever (52)


Human Phenotype

Fever (52)

Cough (38)

Hypertension (27)

Anosmia (23)

Pneumonia (22)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 449
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    High prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in care homes affected by COVID-19; a prospective cohort study in England

    Authors: Shamez N Ladhani; Anna J Jeffery-Smith; Monika Patel; Roshni Janarthanan; Jonathan Fok; Emma Crawley-Boevey; Amoolya Vusirikala; Elena Fernandez; Marina Sanchez-Perez; Suzanne Tang; Kate Dun-Campbell; Edward Wynne-Evans; Anita Bell; Bharat Patel; Zahin Amin-Chowdhury; Felicity Aiano; Karthik Paranthaman; Thomas Ma; Maria Saavedra-Campos; Joanna Ellis; Meera Chand; Kevin Brown; Mary E Ramsay; Susan Hopkins; Nandini Shetty; J Yimmy Chow; Robin Gopal; Maria Zambon

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171413 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background: We investigated six London care homes experiencing a COVID-19 outbreak and found very high rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD among residents and staff. Here we report follow-up serological analysis in these care homes five weeks later. Methods: Residents and staff had a convalescent blood SERO sample for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO levels and neutralising antibodies SERO by SARS-COV-2 RT-PCR five weeks after the primary COVID-19 outbreak investigation. Results: Of the 518 residents and staff in the initial investigation, 208/241 (86.3%) surviving residents and 186/254 (73.2%) staff underwent serological testing SERO. Almost all SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive residents and staff were antibody SERO positive five weeks later, whether symptomatic (residents 35/35, 100%; staff, 22/22, 100%) or asymptomatic TRANS (residents 32/33, 97.0%; staff 21/22, 95.1%). Symptomatic but SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negative residents and staff also had high seropositivity rates (residents 23/27, 85.2%; staff 18/21, 85.7%), as did asymptomatic TRANS RT-PCR negative individuals (residents 62/92, 67.3%; staff 95/143, 66.4%). Neutralising antibody SERO was present in 118/132 (89.4%) seropositive individuals and was not associated with age TRANS or symptoms. Ten residents (10/108, 9.3%) remained RT-PCR positive, but with lower RT-PCR cycle threshold values; all 7 tested were seropositive. New infections MESHD were detected in three residents and one staff member. Conclusions: RT-PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 significantly underestimates the true extent of an outbreak in institutional settings. Elderly TRANS frail residents and younger healthier staff were equally able to mount robust and neutralizing antibody SERO responses to SARS-CoV-2. More than two-thirds of residents and staff members had detectable antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 irrespective of their nasal swab RT-PCR positivity or symptoms status.

    Seroprevalence SERO of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO in children TRANS with household exposition to adults TRANS with COVID-19: preliminary findings

    Authors: danilo buonsenso; Piero Valentini; Cristina De Rose; Davide Pata; Dario Sinatti; Domenico Speziale; Rosalba Ricci; Angelo Carfi; Francesco Landi; Maurizio Sanguinetti; Michela Sali

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20169912 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    wheather children TRANS are easily susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is still a debated question and a currently a hot topic, particularly in view of important decisions on school opening. For this reason, we decide to describe preliminary data showing the prevalence SERO of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in children TRANS with known household exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Interestingly, our report shows that household transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 is high in both adults TRANS and children TRANS, with similar rates of SARS-CoV-2 IgG in all age groups TRANS, including the younger children TRANS. A total of 44 out of 80 household contacts TRANS (55%) of index patients had anti SARS-CoV-2 IgG. In particular, 16 (59,26%) adult TRANS partners had IgG antibodies SERO compared with 28 (52,83%) of pediatric contacts (P > 0.05). Among the pediatric population, children TRANS [≥] 5 years of age TRANS had similar probability of having SARS-CoV-2 IgG (21/39, 53.8%) compared with those < 5 years (7/14, 50%) (P > 0.05). Adult TRANS partners and children TRANS also had a probability of having SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Interestingly, 35.7% of children TRANS and 33.3% of adults TRANS with SARS-CoV-2 IgG were previously diagnosed as COVID-19 cases. Since this evidence of high rate of IgG in children TRANS exposed to SARS-CoV-2 has public health implication, with this comment we highlight the need of establishing appropriate guidelines for school opening and other social activities related to childhood.

    High prevalence SERO of symptoms among Brazilian subjects with antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2: a nationwide household survey

    Authors: Ana Maria Baptista Menezes; Cesar G Victora; Fernando P Hartwig; Mariangela F Silveira; Bernardo L Horta; Aluisio J D Barros; Fernando C Whermeister; Marilia A Mesenburg; Lucia C Pellanda; Odir A Dellagostin; Claudio J Struchiner; Marcelo N Burattini; Fernando C Barros; Pedro C Hallal

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171942 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    Since the beginning of the pandemic of COVID-19, there has been a widespread assumption that most infected persons are asymptomatic TRANS. A frequently-cited early study from China suggested that 86% of all infections MESHD were undocumented, which was used as indirect evidence that patients were asymptomatic TRANS. Using data from the most recent wave of the EPICOVID19 study, a nationwide household-based survey including 133 cities from all states of Brazil, we estimated the proportion of people with and without antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 SERO who were asymptomatic TRANS, which symptoms were most frequently reported, the number of symptoms reported and the association between symptomatology and socio-demographic characteristics. We were able to test 33,205 subjects using a rapid antibody test SERO that was previously validated. Information on symptoms was collected before participants received the test result. Out of 849 (2.7%) participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO, only 12.1% (95%CI 10.1-14.5) reported no symptoms since the start of the pandemic, compared to 42.2% (95%CI 41.7-42.8) among those who tested negative. The largest difference between the two groups was observed for changes in smell or taste (56.5% versus 9.1%, a 6.2-fold difference). Symptoms change in smell or taste, fever MESHD fever HP and myalgia MESHD myalgia HP were most likely to predict positive test results as suggested by recursive partitioning tree analysis. Among individuals without any of these three symptoms (74.2% of the sample), only 0.8% tested positive, compared to 18.3% of those with both fever MESHD fever HP and changes in smell or taste. Most subjects with antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil are symptomatic, even though most present only mild symptoms.

    A Monte Carlo approach to model COVID-19 deaths MESHD and infections MESHD using Gompertz functions

    Authors: Tulio Rodrigues; Otaviano Helene

    id:2008.04989v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: arXiv

    This study describes the dynamics of COVID-19 deaths MESHD and infections MESHD via a Monte Carlo approach. The analyses include death MESHD's data from USA, Brazil, Mexico, UK, India and Russia, which comprise the four countries with the highest number of deaths MESHD/ confirmed cases TRANS, as of Aug 07, 2020, according to the WHO. The Gompertz functions were fitted to the data of weekly averaged confirmed deaths MESHD per day by mapping the $\chi^2$ values. The uncertainties, variances and covariances of the model parameters were calculated by propagation. The fitted functions for the average deaths MESHD per day for USA and India have an upward trend, with the former having a higher growth rate and quite huge uncertainties. For Mexico, UK and Russia, the fits are consistent with a slope down pattern. For Brazil we found a subtle trend down, but with significant uncertainties. The USA, UK and India data shown a first peak with a higher growth rate when compared to the second one, demonstrating the benefits of non-pharmaceutical interventions of sanitary measures and social distance flattening the curve. For USA, a third peak seems quite plausible, most likely related with the recent relaxation policies. Brazil's data are satisfactorily described by two highly overlapped Gompertz functions with similar growth rates, suggesting a two-steps process for the pandemic spreading. The 95% CI for the total number of deaths MESHD ($\times 10^3$) predicted by the model for Aug 31, 2020 are 160 to 220, 110 to 130, 59 to 62, 46.6 to 47.3, 54 to 63 and 16.0 to 16.7 for USA, Brazil, Mexico, UK, India and Russia, respectively. Our estimates for the prevalences SERO of infections MESHD are in reasonable agreement with some preliminary reports from serological studies carried out in USA and Brazil. The method represents an effective framework to estimate the line-shape of the infection MESHD curves and the uncertainties of the relevant parameters based on the actual data.

    Proteinuria MESHD Proteinuria HP in COVID-19: prevalence SERO, characterization and prognostic role

    Authors: Justine Huart; Antoine Bouquegneau; Laurence Lutteri; Pauline Erpicum; Stéphanie Grosch; Guillaume Résimont; Patricia Wiesen; Christophe Bovy; Jean-Marie Krzesinski; Marie Thys; Bernard Lambermont; Benoit Misset; Hans Pottel; Christophe Mariat; Etienne Cavalier; Stéphane Burtey; François Jouret; Pierre Delanaye

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-57181/v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Proteinuria MESHD Proteinuria HP has been commonly reported in patients with COVID-19, suggesting a renal involvement in this infection MESHD. However, only dipstick tests have been used thus far. Here, the quantification and characterization of proteinuria MESHD proteinuria HP and hematuria MESHD hematuria HP are investigated. Their potential association with mortality was assessed. Methods: This retrospective, observational and monocentric study includes 153 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between March 28th and April 30th 2020, in whom total proteinuria MESHD proteinuria HP and urine α1-microglobulin (a marker of tubular injury) have been measured. Association with mortality was evaluated with a follow-up until May 7th 2020. Results: According to the Kidney Disease MESHD Improving Global Outcomes staging, 14% (n=21) had stage 1 proteinuria MESHD proteinuria HP (<150 mg/g of urine creatinine), 42% (n=64) had stage 2 (between 150 and 500 mg/g) and 44% (n=68) had stage 3 (over 500 mg/g). Urine α1-microglobulin concentration was higher than 10 or 15 mg/g in 94% and 89% of patients, respectively. After a median follow-up of 27 [14;30] days, the mortality rate reached 18%. Total proteinuria MESHD proteinuria HP and urine α1-microglobulin (as continuous and/or categorical variables) were associated with mortality in unadjusted and adjusted models. This association was even stronger in subgroups of patients with normal renal function or without urinary catheter. Conclusions: Proteinuria MESHD Proteinuria HP is frequent in patients with COVID-19. Its characterization suggests a tubular origin with increased urine α1-microglobulin. Tubular proteinuria MESHD proteinuria HP seems associated with mortality in COVID-19.

    CRISPR-based and RT-qPCR surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic TRANS individuals uncovers a shift in viral prevalence SERO among a university population

    Authors: Jennifer N Rauch; Eric Valois; Jose Carlos Ponce-Rojas; Zach Aralis; Ryan L Lach; Francesca Zappa; Morgane Audouard; Sabrina C Solley; Chinmay Vaidya; Michael Costello; Holly Smith; Ali Javanbakht; Betsy Malear; Laura Polito; Stewart Comer; Katherine Arn; Kenneth S Kosik; Diego Acosta-Alvear; Maxwell Z Wilson; Lynn Fitzgibbons; Carolina Arias

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20169771 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The progress of the COVID-19 pandemic profoundly impacts the health of communities around the world, with unique impacts on colleges and universities. Transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 by asymptomatic TRANS people is thought to be the underlying cause of a large proportion of new infections MESHD. However, the local prevalence SERO of asymptomatic TRANS and pre-symptomatic carriers TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 is influenced by local public health restrictions and the community setting. Objectives: This study has three main objectives. First, we looked to establish the prevalence SERO of asymptomatic TRANS SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD on a university campus in California. Second, we sought to assess the changes in viral prevalence SERO associated with the shifting community conditions related to non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). Third, we aimed to compare the performance SERO of CRISPR- and PCR-based assays for large-scale virus surveillance sampling in COVID-19 asymptomatic TRANS persons. Methods: We enrolled 1,808 asymptomatic TRANS persons for self-collection of oropharyngeal (OP) samples to undergo SARS-CoV-2 testing. We compared viral prevalence SERO in samples obtained in two time periods: May 28th-June 11th; June 23rd-July 2nd. We detected viral genomes in these samples using two assays: CREST, a CRISPR-based method recently developed at UCSB, and the RT-qPCR test recommended by US Centers for Disease MESHD Control and Prevention (CDC). Results: Of the 1,808 participants, 1,805 were affiliates of the University of California, Santa Barbara, and 1,306 were students. None of the tests performed on the 732 samples collected between late May to early June were positive. In contrast, tests performed on the 1076 samples collected between late June to early July, revealed nine positive cases. This change in prevalence SERO met statistical significance, p = 0.013. One sample was positive by RT-qPCR at the threshold of detection, but negative by both CREST and CLIA-confirmation testing. With this single exception, there was perfect concordance in both positive and negative results obtained by RT-qPCR and CREST. The estimated prevalence SERO of the virus, calculated using the confirmed cases TRANS, was 0.74%. The average age TRANS of our sample population was 28.33 (18-75) years, and the average age TRANS of the positive cases was 21.7 years (19-30). Conclusions: Our study revealed that there were no COVID-19 cases in our study population in May/June. Using the same methods, we demonstrated a substantial shift in prevalence SERO approximately one month later, which coincided with changes in community restrictions and public interactions. This increase in prevalence SERO, in a young and asymptomatic TRANS population which would not have otherwise accessed COVID-19 testing, indicated the leading wave of a local outbreak, and coincided with rising case counts in the surrounding county and the state of California. Our results substantiate that large, population-level asymptomatic TRANS screening using self-collection may be a feasible and instructive aspect of the public health approach within large campus communities, and the almost perfect concordance between CRISPR- and PCR-based assays indicate expanded options for surveillance testing

    Strategic anti-SARS-CoV-2 serology testing in a low prevalence SERO pandemic: The COVID-19 Contact (CoCo) Study in health care professionals

    Authors: Georg MN Behrens; Anne Cossmann; Metodi V Stankov; Bianca Schulte; Hendrik Streeck; Reinhold Foerster; Berislav Bosnjak; Stefanie Willenzon; Anna-Lena Boeck; Anh Thu Tran; Thea Thiele; Theresa Graalmann; Moritz Z. Kayser; Anna Zychlinsky Scharff; Christian Dopfer; Alexander Horke; Isabell Pink; Torsten Witte; Martin Wetzke; Diana Ernst; Alexandra Jablonka; Christine Happle

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20169250 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Serology testing is explored for epidemiological research and to inform individuals after suspected infection MESHD. During the COVID-19 pandemic, frontline healthcare professionals (HCP) may be at particular risk for infection TRANS risk for infection TRANS infection MESHD. No longitudinal data on functional seroconversion in HCP in regions with low COVID-19 prevalence SERO and low pre-test probability exist. Methods: In a large German university hospital, we performed weekly questionnaire assessments and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG measurements with various commercial tests, a novel surrogate virus neutralization test, and a neutralization assay using live SARS-CoV-2. Results: From baseline to week six, n=1,080 screening measurements for anti-SARS CoV-2 (S1) IgG from n=217 frontline HCP (65% female TRANS) were performed. Overall, 75.6% of HCP reported at least one symptom of respiratory infection MESHD. Self-perceived infection MESHD probability declined over time (from mean 20.1% at baseline to 12.4 % in week six, p<0.001). In sera of convalescent PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients, we measured high anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels, obtained highly concordant results from ELISAs SERO using e.g. the S1 spike protein domain and the nucleocapsid protein (NCP) as targets, and confirmed antiviral neutralization. However, in HCP the cumulative incidence for anti-SARS-CoV-2 (S1) IgG was 1.86% for positive and 0.93% for equivocal positive results over the six week study period. Except for one HCP, none of the eight initial positive results were confirmed by alternative serology tests or showed in vitro neutralization against live SARS CoV-2. The only true seroconversion occurred without symptoms and mounted strong functional humoral immunity. Thus, the confirmed cumulative incidence for neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG was 0.47%. Conclusion: When assessing anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune status in individuals with low pre-test probability, we suggest confirming positive results from single measurements by alternative serology tests or functional assays. Our data highlight the need for a methodical serology screening approach in regions with low SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD rates.

    Prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 among high-risk populations in Lomé (Togo) in 2020

    Authors: Wemboo Afiwa Halatoko; Yao Rodion KONU; Fifonsi Adjidossi Gbeasor-Komlanvi; Arnold Junior Sadio; Martin Kouame Tchankoni; Koffi Segbeaya Komlanvi; Mounerou Salou; Ameyo Monique Dorkenoo; Issaka Maman; Ametepe Agbobli; Majeste Ihou Wateba; Komi Seraphin Adjoh; Edem Goeh Akue; Yem-bla Kao; Innocent Kpeto; Paul Pana; Rebecca Kinde-Sossou; Agbeko Tamakloe; Josee Nayo-Apetsianyi; Simon-Pierre Hamadi Assane; Mireille Prince-David; Sossinou Marcel Awoussi; Mohaman Djibril; Moustafa Mijiyawa; Anoumou Claver Dagnra; Didier Koumavi Ekouevi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20163840 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: This survey aims at estimating the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 in high risk populations in Lomé. Methods: From April 23rd to May 8th 2020, we recruited a sample of participants from five sectors: healthcare, air transport, police, road transport and informal. We collected oropharyngeal swab for direct detection through real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), and blood SERO for antibodies SERO detection by serological tests SERO. The overall prevalence SERO (current and past) of infection MESHD was defined by positivity for both tests. Results: A total of 955 participants with a median age TRANS of 36 (IQR 32-43) were included and 71.6% (n=684) were men. Around 22.1% (n=212) were from the air transport sector, 20.5% (n=196) in the police, and 38.7% (n=370) in the health sector. Seven participants (0.7%, 95% CI: 0.3-1.6%) had a positive rRT-PCR at the time of recruitment and nine (0.9%, 95% CI: 0.4-1.8%) were seropositive for IgM or IgG against SARS-CoV-2. We found an overall prevalence SERO of 1.6% (n=15), 95% CI: 0.9-2.6%. Conclusion: The prevalence SERO of the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD among high-risk populations in Lomé was relatively low and could be explained by the various measures taken by the Togolese government. Therefore, we recommend targeted screening.

    Estimating the Changing Infection MESHD Rate of COVID-19 Using Bayesian Models of Mobility

    Authors: Luyang Liu; Sharad Vikram; Junpeng Lao; Xue Ben; Alexander D'Amour; Shawn O'Banion; Mark Sandler; Rif A. Saurous; Matthew D. Hoffman

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20169664 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    In order to prepare for and control the continued spread of the COVID-19 pandemic while minimizing its economic impact, the world needs to be able to estimate and predict COVID-19's spread. Unfortunately, we cannot directly observe the prevalence SERO or growth rate of COVID-19; these must be inferred using some kind of model. We propose a hierarchical Bayesian extension to the classic susceptible-exposed-infected-removed (SEIR) compartmental model that adds compartments to account for isolation and death MESHD and allows the infection MESHD rate to vary as a function of both mobility data collected from mobile phones and a latent time-varying factor that accounts for changes in behavior not captured by mobility data. Since confirmed-case TRANS data is unreliable, we infer the model's parameters conditioned on deaths MESHD data. We replace the exponential-waiting-time assumption of classic compartmental models with Erlang distributions, which allows for a more realistic model of the long lag between exposure and death MESHD. The mobility data gives us a leading indicator that can quickly detect changes in the pandemic's local growth rate and forecast changes in death MESHD rates weeks ahead of time. This is an analysis of observational data, so any causal interpretations of the model's inferences should be treated as suggestive at best; nonetheless, the model's inferred relationship between different kinds of trips and the infection MESHD rate do suggest some possible hypotheses about what kinds of activities might contribute most to COVID-19's spread.

    Seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2-Specific IgG Antibodies SERO Among Adults TRANS Living in Connecticut Between March 1 and June 1, 2020: Post- Infection MESHD Prevalence SERO (PIP) Study

    Authors: Shiwani Mahajan; Rajesh Srinivasan; Carrie A Redlich; Sara K Huston; Kelly M Anastasio; Lisa Cashman; Dan Witters; Jenny Marlar; Shu-Xia Li; Zhenqiu Lin; Domonique Hodge; Manas Chattopadhyay; Mark D Adams; Charles Lee; Lokinendi V Rao; Chris Stewart; Karthik Kuppusamy; Albert I Ko; Harlan M Krumholz

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168203 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: A seroprevalence SERO study can estimate the percentage of people with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in the general population. Most existing reports have used a convenience sample, which may bias their estimates. Objective: To estimate the seroprevalence SERO of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 based on a random sample of adults TRANS living in Connecticut between March 1 and June 1, 2020. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: We sought a representative sample of Connecticut residents who completed a survey between June 4 and June 23, 2020 and underwent serology testing for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies SERO between June 10 and July 6, 2020. Participants: 505 respondents, aged TRANS [≥]18 years, residing in non-congregate settings who completed both the survey and the serology test. Main outcomes and measures: We estimated the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies SERO among the overall population and across pre-specified subgroups. We also assessed the prevalence SERO of symptomatic illness, risk factors for virus exposure, and self-reported adherence to risk mitigation behaviors among this population. Results: Of the 505 respondents (mean age TRANS 50 [{+/-}17] years; 54% women; 76% non-Hispanic White individuals) included, 32% reported having at least 1 symptom suggestive of COVID-19 since March 1, 2020. Overall, 18 respondents had SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies SERO, resulting in the state-level weighted seroprevalence SERO of 3.1 (90% CI 1.4-4.8). Individuals who were asymptomatic TRANS had significantly lower seroprevalence SERO (0.6% [90% CI 0.0-1.5]) compared with the overall state estimate, while those who reported having had [≥]1 and [≥]2 symptoms had a seroprevalence SERO of 8.0% (90% CI 3.1-12.9) and 13.0% (90% CI 3.5-22.5), respectively. All 9 of the respondents who reported previously having a positive coronavirus test were positive for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies SERO. Nearly two-third of respondents reported having avoided public places (74%) and small gatherings of family or friends TRANS (75%), and 97% reported wearing a mask outside their home, at least part of the time. Conclusions and relevance: These estimates indicate that most people in Connecticut do not have detectable levels of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2. There is a need for continued adherence to risk mitigation behaviors among Connecticut residents, to prevent resurgence of COVID-19 in this region.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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