Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Anxiety (20)

Fever (14)

Cough (11)

Hypertension (10)

Pneumonia (9)


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    An improved methodology for estimating the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Virag Patel; Catherine McCarthy; Rachel A Taylor; Ruth Moir; Louise A Kelly; Emma L Snary

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168187 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Since the identification of Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China in December 2019, there have been more than 17 million cases of the disease MESHD in 216 countries worldwide. Comparisons of prevalence SERO estimates between different communities can inform policy decisions regarding safe travel TRANS between countries, help to assess when to implement (or remove) disease MESHD control measures and identify the risk of over-burdening healthcare providers. Estimating the true prevalence SERO can, however, be challenging because officially reported figures are likely to be significant underestimates of the true burden of COVID-19 within a community. Previous methods for estimating the prevalence SERO fail to incorporate differences between populations (such as younger populations having higher rates of asymptomatic TRANS cases) and so comparisons between, for example, countries, can be misleading. Here, we present an improved methodology for estimating COVID-19 prevalence SERO. We take the reported number of cases and deaths MESHD (together with population size) as raw prevalence SERO for the population. We then apply an age TRANS-adjustment to this which allows the age TRANS-distribution of that population to influence the case-fatality rate and the proportion of asymptomatic TRANS cases. Finally, we calculate the likely underreporting factor for the population and use this to adjust our prevalence SERO estimate further. We use our method to estimate the prevalence SERO for 166 countries (or the states of the United States of America, hereafter referred to as US state) where sufficient data were available. Our estimates show that as of the 30th July 2020, the top three countries with the highest estimated prevalence SERO are Brazil (1.26%, 95% CI: 0.96 - 1.37), Kyrgyzstan (1.10%, 95% CI: 0.82 - 1.19) and Suriname (0.58%, 95% CI: 0.44 - 0.63). Brazil is predicted to have the largest proportion of all the current global cases (30.41%, 95%CI: 27.52 - 30.84), followed by the USA (14.52%, 95%CI: 14.26 - 16.34) and India (11.23%, 95%CI: 11.11 - 11.24). Amongst the US states, the highest prevalence SERO is predicted to be in Louisiana (1.07%, 95% CI: 1.02 - 1.12), Florida (0.90%, 95% CI: 0.86 - 0.94) and Mississippi (0.77%, 95% CI: 0.74 - 0.81) whereas amongst European countries, the highest prevalence SERO is predicted to be in Montenegro (0.47%, 95% CI: 0.42 - 0.50), Kosovo (0.35%, 95% CI: 0.29 - 0.37) and Moldova (0.28%, 95% CI: 0.23 - 0.30). Our results suggest that Kyrgyzstan (0.04 tests per predicted case), Brazil (0.04 tests per predicted case) and Suriname (0.29 tests per predicted case) have the highest underreporting out of the countries in the top 25 prevalence SERO. In comparison, Israel (34.19 tests per predicted case), Bahrain (19.82 per predicted case) and Palestine (9.81 tests per predicted case) have the least underreporting. The results of this study may be used to understand the risk between different geographical areas and highlight regions where the prevalence SERO of COVID-19 is increasing most rapidly. The method described is quick and easy to implement. Prevalence SERO estimates should be updated on a regular basis to allow for rapid fluctuations in disease MESHD patterns.

    Seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State

    Authors: Hussaini Majiya; Mohammed Aliyu-Paiko; Vincent Tochukwu Balogu; Dickson Achimugu Musa; Ibrahim Maikudi Salihu; Abdullahi Abubakar Kawu; Ishaq Yakubu Bashir; Aishat Rabiu Sani; John Baba; Amina Tako Muhammad; Fatima Ladidi Jibril; Ezekiel Bala; Nuhu George Obaje; Yahaya Badeggi Aliyu; Ramatu Gogo Muhammad; Hadiza Mohammed; Usman Naji Gimba; Abduljaleel Uthman; Hadiza Muhammad Liman; Sule Alfa Alhaji; Joseph Kolo James; Muhammad Muhammad Makusidi; Mohammed Danasabe Isah; Ibrahim Abdullahi; Umar Ndagi; Bala Waziri; Chindo Ibrahim Bisallah; Naomi John Dadi-Mamud; Kolo Ibrahim; Abu Kasim Adamu

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168112 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic is ongoing, and to know how far the virus has spread in Niger State, Nigeria, a pilot study was carried out to determine the COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO, patterns, dynamics, and risk factors in the state. A cross sectional study design and clustered-stratified-Random sampling strategy were used. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Rapid Test SERO Kits (Colloidal gold immunochromatography lateral flow system) were used to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in the blood SERO of sampled participants across Niger State as from 26th June 2020 to 30th June 2020. The test kits were validated using the blood SERO samples of some of the NCDC confirmed positive and negative COVID-19 cases in the State. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Test results were entered into the EPIINFO questionnaire administered simultaneously with each test. EPIINFO was then used for both the descriptive and inferential statistical analyses of the data generated. The seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State was found to be 25.41% and 2.16% for the positive IgG and IgM respectively. Seroprevalence SERO among age groups TRANS, gender TRANS and by occupation varied widely. A seroprevalence SERO of 37.21% was recorded among health care workers in Niger State. Among age groups TRANS, COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO was found to be in order of 30-41 years (33.33%) > 42-53 years (32.42%) > 54-65 years (30%) > 66 years and above (25%) > 6-17 years (19.20%) > 18-29 years (17.65%) > 5 years and below (6.66%). A seroprevalence SERO of 27.18% was recorded for males TRANS and 23.17% for females TRANS in the state. COVID-19 asymptomatic TRANS rate in the state was found to be 46.81%. The risk analyses showed that the chances of infection MESHD are almost the same for both urban and rural dwellers in the state. However, health care workers and those that have had contact with person (s) that travelled TRANS out of Nigeria in the last six (6) months are twice ( 2 times) at risk of being infected with the virus. More than half (54.59%) of the participants in this study did not practice social distancing at any time since the pandemic started. Discussions about knowledge, practice and attitude of the participants are included. The observed Niger State COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO means that the herd immunity for COVID-19 is yet to be achieved and the population is still susceptible for more infection MESHD and transmission TRANS of the virus. If the prevalence SERO stays as reported here, the population will definitely need COVID-19 vaccines when they become available. Niger State should fully enforce the use of face/nose masks and observation of social/physical distancing in gatherings including religious gatherings in order to stop or slow the spread of the virus.

    Asthma MESHD Asthma HP and COVID-19 - A systematic review

    Authors: Natália F. Mendes; Carlos P. Jara; Eli Mansour; Eliana P. Araújo; Licio Velloso

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundSevere coronavirus disease MESHD-19 (COVID-19) presents with progressive dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, which results from acute lung inflammatory edema MESHD edema HP leading to hypoxia MESHD. As with other infectious diseases MESHD that affect the respiratory tract, asthma MESHD asthma HP has been cited as a potential risk factor for severe COVID-19. However, conflicting results have been published over the last few months and the putative association between these two diseases MESHD is still unproven.MethodsHere, we systematically reviewed all reports on COVID-19 published since its emergence in December 2019 to May 18, 2020, looking into the description of asthma MESHD asthma HP as a premorbid condition, which could indicate its potential involvement in disease progression MESHD.ResultsWe found 169 articles describing the clinical characteristics of 36,072 patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Asthma MESHD Asthma HP was reported as a premorbid condition in only 655 patients accounting for 1.8% of all patients.ConclusionsAs the global prevalence SERO of asthma MESHD asthma HP is 4.4%, we conclude that either asthma MESHD asthma HP is not a premorbid condition that contributes to the development of COVID-19 or clinicians and researchers are not accurately describing the premorbidities in COVID-19 patients.

    Prevalence SERO and Determinants of Mental Distress During COVID-19 Outbreak in Bangladesh: Evidence from an Online Survey

    Authors: Shilpi Rani Saha; Md. Mobarak Hossain Khan

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0104.v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source:

    Background: Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic and life-threatening highly infectious disease MESHD. The people of Bangladesh are at high risk of COVID-19 and have already experienced various socio-economic, health and psychological (mental) consequences. Particularly, mental health problems are dominantly reported in the literature and should be controlled. The main objective of this epidemiological study is to assess the mental distress and identify its determinants using online-based survey. Such information is urgently needed to develop feasible strategies for Bangladesh. Methods: An online survey was conducted for this study from May 01 to May 05, 2020. A total of 240 respondents provided self-reported online responses. Respondent’s mental distress was measured by the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12) and by the self-rated mental health (SRMH) question. Various kinds of statistical analyses ranging from simple to multivariable logistic recession were performed using SPSS 23.0. Results: About 31.3% and 48.3% of respondents were mentally distressed by GHQ-12 and SRMH question, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that mental distress was significantly higher among those respondents, whose usual activity was affected by the coronavirus (OR = 6.40, 95% CI: 1.87 - 21.90, p<0.001) and whose financial stress was increased due to lockdown (OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.01 – 4.46, p<0.05) on GHQ-12. Female TRANS sex (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.03 – 3.75, p<0.05) and respondents with poor mental health before the outbreak (OR = 3.38, 95% CI: 1.18 – 9.72, p<0.05) were also significantly affected by mental distress on SRMH. Conclusions: At least thirty percent of the respondents were found to be mentally distressed. Some of the study findings, particularly significant determinants, should be considered while developing strategies to reduce the burden of mental distress among study respondents or similar group in Bangladesh.

    Persistence of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in non-hospitalized COVID-19 convalescent health care workers

    Authors: Margherita Bruni; Valentina Cecatiello; Angelica Diaz-Basabe; Georgia Lattanzi; Erika Mileti; Silvia Monzani; Laura Pirovano; Francesca Rizzelli; Clara Visintin; Giuseppina Bonizzi; Marco Giani; Marialuisa Lavitrano; Silvia Faravelli; Federico Forneris; Flavio Caprioli; Pier Giuseppe Pelicci; Gioacchino Natoli; Sebastiano Pasqualato; Marina Mapelli; Federica Facciotti

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20164368 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Coronavirus disease MESHD-19 (COVID-19) is a respiratory illness caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel beta-coronavirus. Although antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2 can be detected early during the infection MESHD, several outstanding questions remain to be addressed regarding magnitude and persistence of antibody SERO titer against different viral proteins and their correlation with the strength of the immune response, as measured by serum SERO levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. Methods. An ELISA assay SERO has been developed by expressing and purifying the recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike Receptor Binding Domain (RBD), Soluble Ectodomain (Spike), and full length nucleocapsid protein (N protein). Sera from healthcare workers affected by non-severe COVID-19 were longitudinally collected over four weeks, and compared to sera from patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Units (ICU) and SARS-CoV-2-negative subjects for the presence of IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies SERO as well as soluble pro-inflammatory mediators in the sera. Results. Specificity and sensitivity SERO of the ELISA assays SERO were high for anti-RBD IgG and IgA (92-97%) and slightly lower for IgM and the Spike and N proteins (70-85%). The ELISA SERO allowed quantification of IgM, IgG and IgA antibody SERO responses against all the viral antigens tested and showed a correlation between magnitude of the antibody SERO response and disease MESHD severity. Non-hospitalized subjects showed lower antibody SERO titers and blood SERO pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles as compared to patients in Intensive Care Units (ICU), irrespective of the antibodies tested SERO. Noteworthy, in non-severe COVID-19 infections MESHD, antibody SERO titers against RBD and Spike, but not against the N protein, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines decreased within a month after viral clearance. Conclusions. Rapid decline in antibody SERO titers and in pro-inflammatory cytokines may be a common feature of non-severe SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, suggesting that antibody SERO-mediated protection against re- infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 is of short duration. These results suggest caution in use serological testing SERO to estimate the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the general population.

    Impact of Corticosteroids and Immunosuppressive Therapies on Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD in a Large Cohort of Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Arthritis MESHD Arthritis HP

    Authors: Ennio Giulio Favalli; Serena Bugatti; Catherine Klersy; Martina Biggioggero; Silvia Rossi; Orazio De Lucia; Francesca Bobbio-Pallavicini; Antonella Murgo; Silvia Balduzzi; Roberto Caporali; Carlomaurizio Montecucco

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-31 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Prevalence SERO and outcomes of Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID)-19 in relation to immunomodulatory medications are still unknown. The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents on COVID-19 in a large cohort of patients with chronic immune-mediated inflammatory arthritis MESHD arthritis HP.Methods: The study was conducted in the arthritis MESHD arthritis HP outpatient clinic at two large Academic Hospitals in the COVID-19 most endemic area of Northern Italy (Lombardy). We circulated a cross-sectional survey exploring the prevalence SERO of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD-Coronavirus-2 nasopharyngeal swab positivity and the occurrence of acute respiratory illness ( fever MESHD fever HP and/or cough MESHD cough HP and/or dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP), administered face-to-face or by phone to consecutive patients from 25th February to 20th April 2020. COVID-19 cases were defined as confirmed or highly suspicious according to the World Health Organization criteria. The impact of medications on COVID-19 incidence was evaluated. Results: The study population included 2050 adults TRANS with chronic inflammatory arthritis MESHD arthritis HP receiving glucocorticoids, conventional-synthetic (cs), or targeted-synthetic/biological (ts/b) disease MESHD-modifying drugs (DMARDs). Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and highly suspicious infection MESHD were recorded in 1.1% and 1.4% of the population, respectively. Treatment with glucocorticoids was independently associated with increased risk of COVID-19 (adjusted OR [95% CI] ranging from 1.23 [1.04-1.44] to 3.20 [1.97-5.18] depending on the definition used). Conversely, patients treated with ts/bDMARDs were at reduced risk (adjusted OR ranging from 0.46 [0.18-1.21] to 0.47 [0.46-0.48]). No independent effects of csDMARDs were observed.Conclusions: During the COVID-19 outbreak, treatment with immunomodulatory medications appears safe. Conversely, glucocorticoids, even at low-dose, may confer increased risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD.Trial registration:  retrospectively registered

    Fighting COVID-19 spread among nursing home residents even in absence of molecular diagnosis: a retrospective cohort study.

    Authors: Alessio Strazzulla; Paul Tarteret; Maria Concetta Postorino; Marie Picque; Astrid de Pontfarcy; Nicolas Vignier; Catherine Chakvetadze; Coralie Noel; Cecile Drouin; Zine Eddine Benguerdi; Sylvain Diamantis

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Access to molecular diagnosis was limited out-of-hospital in France during the 2020 coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. This study describes the evolution of COVID-19 outbreak in a nursing home in absence of molecular diagnosis. Methods A monocentric prospective study was conducted in a French nursing home from March 17th, 2020 to June 11th, 2020. Because of lack of molecular tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD 2 (SARS-Cov2) infection MESHD, probable COVID-19 cases were early identified considering only respiratory and not-respiratory symptoms and therefore preventing measures and treatments were enforced. Once available, serology tests were performed at the end of the study.A chronologic description of new cases and deaths MESHD was made together with a description of COVID-19 symptoms. Data about personal characteristics and treatments were collected and the following comparisons were performed: i) probable COVID-19 cases vs asymptomatic TRANS residents; ii) SARS-Cov2 seropositive residents vs seronegative residents. Results Overall, 32/66 (48.5%) residents and 19/39 (48.7%) members of health-care personnel were classified as probable COVID-19 cases. A total of 34/61 (55.7%) tested residents resulted seropositive. Death MESHD occurred in 4/66 (6%) residents. Diagnosis according to symptoms had 65% of sensitivity SERO, 78% of specificity, 79% of positive predictive value SERO and 64% of negative predictive value SERO.In resident population, the following symptoms were registered: 15/32 (46.8%) lymphopenia MESHD lymphopenia HP, 15/32 (46.8%) fever MESHD fever HP, 8/32 (25%) fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, 8/32 (25%) cough MESHD cough HP, 6/32 (18.8%) diarrhoea, 4/32 (12.5%) severe respiratory distress HP requiring oxygen therapy, 4/32 (12.5%) fall HP, 3/32 (9.4%) conjunctivitis MESHD conjunctivitis HP, 2/32 (6.3%) abnormal pulmonary noise at chest examination and 2/32 (6,25%) abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP. Probable COVID-19 cases were older (81.3 vs 74.9; p=0.007) and they had higher prevalence SERO of atrial fibrillation MESHD atrial fibrillation HP (8/32, 25% vs 2/34, 12%; p=0.030); insulin treatment (4/34, 12% vs 0, 0%; p=0.033) and positive SARS-Cov2 serology (22/32, 69% vs 12/34, 35%; p=0.001) than asymptomatic TRANS residents. Seropositive residents had lower prevalence SERO of diabetes (4/34, 12% vs 9/27, 33%; p=0.041) and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors’ intake (1/34, 1% vs 5/27, 19%; p=0.042). Conclusions During SARS-Cov2 epidemic, early detection of respiratory and not-respiratory symptoms allowed to enforce extraordinary measures. They achieved limiting contagion and deaths MESHD among nursing home residents, even in absence of molecular diagnosis.

    EUAdb: a resource for COVID-19 test development

    Authors: Alyssa Woronik; Henry W Shaffer; Karin Kiontke; Jon M Laurent; Ronald Zambrano; Jef D Boeke; David H.A. Fitch

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.228890 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: bioRxiv

    Due to the sheer number of COVID-19 ( coronavirus disease MESHD 2019) cases, the prevalence SERO of asymptomatic TRANS cases and the fact that undocumented cases appear to be significant for transmission TRANS of the causal virus, SARS-CoV-2 ( severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2), there is an urgent need for increased SARS-CoV-2 testing capability that is both efficient and effective1. In response to the growing threat of the COVID-19 pandemic in February, 2020, the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) began issuing Emergency MESHD Use Authorizations (EUAs) to laboratories and commercial manufacturers for the development and implementation of diagnostic tests1. So far, the gold standard assay for SARS-CoV-2 detection is the RT-qPCR (real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction) test2. However, the authorized RT-qPCR test protocols vary widely, not only in the reagents, controls, and instruments they use, but also in the SARS-CoV-2 genes they target, what results constitute a positive SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, and their limit of detection (LoD). The FDA has provided a web site that lists most of the tests that have been issued EUAs, along with links to the authorization letters and summary documents describing these tests1. However, it is very challenging to use this site to compare or replicate these tests for a variety of reasons. First, at least 12 of 18 tests that were issued EUAs prior to March 31, 2020, are not listed there. Second, the data are not standardized and are only provided as longhand prose in the summary documents. Third, some details (e.g. primer sequences) are absent from several of the test descriptions. Fourth, for tests provided by commercial manufacturers, summary documents are completely missing. To address at least the first three issues, we have developed a database, EUAdb (, that holds standardized information about EUA-issued tests and is focused on RT-qPCR diagnostic tests, or "high complexity molecular-based laboratory developed tests"1. By providing a standardized ontology and curated data in a relational architecture, we seek to facilitate comparability and reproducibility, with the ultimate goal of consistent, universal and high-quality testing nationwide. Here, we document the basics of the EUAdb data architecture and simple data queries. The source files can be provided to anyone who wants to modify the database for his/her own research purposes. We ask that the original source of the files be made clear and that the database not be used in its original or modified forms for commercial purposes.

    Comorbidities associated with regional variations in COVID-19 mortality revealed by population-level analysis

    Authors: Hongxing Yang; Fei Zhong

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20158105 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), has developed into a global health crisis. Understanding the risk factors for poor outcomes of COVID-19 is thus important for successful management and control of the pandemic. However, the progress and severity of the epidemic across different regions show great differentiations. We hypothesized the origination of these differences are based on location-dependent variations in underlying population-wide health factors. Disease MESHD prevalence SERO or incidence data of states and counties of the United States were collected for a group of chronic diseases MESHD, including hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, diabetes, obesity MESHD obesity HP, stroke MESHD stroke HP, coronary heart disease MESHD, heart failure MESHD, physical inactivation, and common cancers (e.g., lung, colorectal, stomach, kidney and renal). Correlation and regression analysis identified the prevalence SERO of heart failure MESHD as a significant positive factor for region-level COVID-19 mortality. Similarly, the incidence of gastric cancer and thyroid cancer were also identified as significant factors contributing to regional variation in COVID-19 mortality. To explore the implications of these results, we re-analyzed the RNA-seq data for stomach adenocarcinoma MESHD (STAD) and colon carcinoma MESHD carcinoma HP (COAD) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We found that expression of genes in the immune response pathways were more severely disturbed in STAD than in COAD, implicating higher probability for STAD patients or individuals with precancerous chronic stomach diseases MESHD to develop cytokine storm once infected with COVID-19. Taken together, we conclude that location variations in particular chronic diseases MESHD and cancers contribute significantly to the regional variations in COVID-19 mortality.

    Epidemic Dynamics of COVID-19 Based on SEAIUHR Model Considering Asymptomatic TRANS Cases in Henan Province, China

    Authors: Chunyu Li; Yuchen Zhu; Chang Qi; Lili Liu; Dandan Zhang; Xu Wang; Kaili She; Yan Jia; Tingxuan Liu; Momiao Xiong; Xiujun Li

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background New coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19), an infectious disease MESHD caused by a type of novel coronavirus, has emerged in various countries since the end of 2019 and caused a global pandemic. Many infected people went undetected because their symptoms were mild or asymptomatic TRANS, but the proportion and infectivity of asymptomatic infections MESHD asymptomatic TRANS remained unknown. Therefore, in this paper, we analyzed the proportion and infectivity of asymptomatic TRANS cases, as we as the prevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Henan province.Methods We constructed SEAIUHR model based on COVID-19 cases reported from 21 January to 26 February 2020 in Henan province to estimate the proportion and infectivity of asymptomatic TRANS cases, as we as the change of effective reproductive number TRANS, \({R}_{t}\). At the same time, we simulated the changes of cases in different scenarios by changing the time and intensity of the implementation of prevention and control measures.Results The proportion of asymptomatic TRANS cases among COVID-19 infected individuals was 42% and infectivity of asymptomatic TRANS cases was 10% of that symptomatic ones. The basic reproductive number\({R TRANS}_{0}\)=2.73, and \({R}_{t}\) dropped below 1 on 1 February under a series of measures. If measures were taken five days earlier, the number of cases would be reduced by 2/3, and after 5 days the number would more than triple.Conclusions In Henan Province, the COVID-19 epidemic spread rapidly in the early stage, and there were a large number of asymptomatic TRANS infected individuals with relatively low infectivity. However, the epidemic was quickly brought under control with national measures, and the earlier measures were implemented, the better.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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