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MeSH Disease


    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 298
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    SARS CoV-2 Seroprevalence SERO among First Responders in the District of Columbia, May-July 2020

    Authors: Jacqueline Reuben; Adrienne Sherman; James A Ellison; Jayleen K.L. Gunn; Anthony Tran; Matthew McCarroll; Pushker Raj; Patricia Lloyd; Preetha Iyengar; Fern Johnson-Clarke; John Davies-Cole; LaQuandra Nesbitt; Lin Zhang; Paula Casajust; Carlos Areia; Karishma Shah; Christian Reich; Clair Blacketer; Alan Andryc; Stephen Fortin; Karthik Natarajan; Mengchun Gong; Asieh Golozar; Daniel Morales; Peter Rijnbeek; Vignesh Subbian; Elena Roel; Martina Recalde; Jennifer C.E. Lane; David Vizcaya; Jose D. Posada; Nigam H. Shah; Jitendra Jonnagaddala; Lana Yin Hui Lai; Francesc Xavier Aviles-Jurado; George Hripcsak; Marc A. Suchard; Otavio T. Ranzani; Patrick Ryan; Daniel Prieto-Alhambra; Kristin Kostka; Talita Duarte-Salles

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.25.20225490 Date: 2020-11-27 Source: medRxiv

    First responders are at increased risk of occupational exposure to SARS-CoV-2 while providing frontline support to communities during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD. In the District of Columbia (DC), first responders were among the first people exposed to and infected with SARS-CoV-2, with over 200 first responders diagnosed with COVID-19 MESHD by May 15, 2020. From June-July 2020, DC Health conducted a serologic survey SERO to estimate SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO and assess risk factors and occupational exposures among a convenience sample of first responders in DC. Of the 310 first responders tested, 3.5% (n = 11) had anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. Seropositivity varied by occupation, with 4.8% (3/62) of firefighters; 3.6% (8/220) of police officers; and no paramedics (0/10) or administration and support staff (0/18) testing positive. Type and consistency of personal protective equipment (PPE) use also varied: all paramedics (n=10) reported wearing a N95 respirator all or most of the time, compared to 83.3% of firefighters, 38.8% of police officers, and 23.5% of administration and support staff (p<0.001). All paramedics reported wearing gloves all or most of the time, compared to 80.0% of firefighters, 27.8% of administration and support staff, and 24.3% of police (p<0.001). The relatively low seroprevalence SERO among first responders highlights the benefits of continuous training on and reinforcement of the proper use of PPE while performing job duties to mitigate potential transmission TRANS within and between first responders and the community.

    Seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the craft and manual worker population of Qatar

    Authors: Mohamed H. Al-Thani; Elmoubasher Farag; Roberto Bertollini; Hamad Eid Al Romaihi; Sami Abdeen; Ashraf Abdelkarim; Faisal Daraan; Ahmed Ismail; Nahid Mostafa; Mohamed Sahl; Jinan Suliman; Elias Tayar; Hasan Ali Kasem; Meynard J. A. Agsalog; Bassam K. Akkarathodiyil; Ayat A. Alkhalaf; Mohamed Morhaf M. H. Alakshar; Abdulsalam Ali A. H. Al-Qahtani; Monther H. A. Al-Shedifat; Anas Ansari; Ahmad Ali Ataalla; Sandeep Chougule; Abhilash K. K. V. Gopinathan; Feroz J. Poolakundan; Sanjay U. Ranbhise; Saed M. A. Saefan; Mohamed M. Thaivalappil; Abubacker S. Thoyalil; Inayath M. Umar; Zaina Al Kanaani; Abdullatif Al Khal; Einas Al Kuwari; Adeel A. Butt; Peter Coyle; Andrew Jeremijenko; Anvar Hassan Kaleeckal; Ali Nizar Latif; Riyazuddin Mohammad Shaik; Hanan F. Abdul Rahim; Hadi M. Yassine; Gheyath K. Nasrallah; Mohamed G. Al Kuwari; Odette Chaghoury; Hiam Chemaitelly; Laith J Abu-Raddad

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.24.20237719 Date: 2020-11-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Qatar experienced a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic that disproportionately affected the craft and manual worker (CMW) population who comprise 60% of the total population. This study aimed to assess the proportions of ever and/or current infection in this population. Methods: A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted during July 26-September 09, 2020 to assess both anti-SARS-CoV-2 positivity through serological testing SERO and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity through PCR testing. Associations with antibody SERO and PCR positivity were identified through regression analyses. Results: Study included 2,641 participants, 69.3% of whom were <40 years of age TRANS. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 positivity was estimated at 55.3% (95% CI: 53.3-57.3%) and was significantly associated with nationality, geographic location, educational attainment, occupation, presence of symptoms in the two weeks preceding the survey, and previous infection diagnosis. PCR positivity was assessed at 11.3% (95% CI: 9.9-12.8%) and was significantly associated with geographic location, contact with an infected person, and reporting two or more symptoms. Infection positivity ( antibody SERO and/or PCR positive) was assessed at 60.6% (95% CI: 9.9-12.8%). The proportion of antibody SERO-positive CMWs that had a prior SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis was 9.3% (95% CI: 7.9-11.0%). Only seven infections were ever severe and one was ever critical - an infection severity rate of 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2-1.0%). Conclusions: Six in every 10 CMWs have been infected, suggestive of reaching the herd immunity threshold. Infection severity was low with only one in every 200 infections progressing to be severe or critical. Only one in every 10 infections had been previously diagnosed suggestive of mostly asymptomatic TRANS or minimally mild infections.

    HIV infection alters SARS-CoV-2 MESHD responsive immune parameters but not clinical outcomes in COVID-19 disease MESHD

    Authors: Farina Karim; Inbal Gazy; Sandile Cele; Yenzekile Zungu; Robert Krause; Mallory Bernstein; Yashica Ganga; Hylton Rodel; Ntombifuthi Mthabela; Matilda Mazibuko; Khadija Khan; Daniel Muema; Dirhona Ramjit; Gila Lustig; Thumbi Ndung'u; Willem Hanekom; Bernadett I Gosnell; COMMIT-KZN Team; Emily Wong; Tulio de Oliveira; Mahomed-Yunus S Moosa; Alasdair Leslie; Henrik Kloverpris; Alex Sigal

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.23.20236828 Date: 2020-11-24 Source: medRxiv

    HIV infection alters the immune response and can compromise protective immunity to multiple pathogens following vaccination. We investigated the impact of HIV on the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 using longitudinal samples from 124 participants from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, an area of extremely high HIV prevalence SERO. 44% of participants were people living with HIV MESHD (PLWH) and commonly had other co-morbidities, including obesity MESHD obesity HP, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, and diabetes MESHD. The majority of PLWH but not HIV negative participants showed CD8 T cell expansion above the normal range post-SARS-CoV-2. Yet, in participants with HIV MESHD suppressed by antiretroviral therapy (ART), CD8 expansion was associated with milder COVID-19 MESHD disease. There were multiple differences in T cell, B cell, and natural killer cell correlations in PLWH compared to HIV negative participants, including lower tissue homing CXCR3+ CD8 T cells in the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in PLWH but not HIV negative and a pronounced early antibody SERO secreting cell (ASC) expansion in HIV negative but not PLWH. These changes were COVID-19 MESHD associated: low CXCR3 correlated with increased COVID-19 MESHD disease severity across groups, and high ASC correlated with increased disease severity in HIV negative participants and waned when SARS-CoV-2 was cleared. Despite the altered response of immune cell subsets, COVID-19 MESHD disease in PLWH was mostly mild and similar to HIV negative participants. This likely reflects the heterogeneity of an effective COVID-19 MESHD immune response. Whether the differences in immune cell dynamics in PLWH will lead to different long-term consequences or compromise vaccination is yet to be determined.

    Long-Term Persistence of Spike Antibody SERO and Predictive Modeling of Antibody SERO Dynamics Following Infection with SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Louis Grandjean; Anja Saso; Arturo Torres Ortiz; Tanya Lam; James Hatcher; Rosie Thistlethwaite; Mark Harris; Timothy Best; Marina Johnson; Helen Wagstaffe; Elizabeth Ralph; Annabelle Mai; Caroline Colijn; Judith Breuer; Matthew Buckland; Kimberly Gilmour; David Goldblatt; - The Co-Stars Study Team; Huong T Kratochvil; - QCRG Structural Biology Consortium; Anthony Aimon; James M Bennett; Jose Brandao Neto; Aina E Cohen; Alexandre Dias; Alice Douangamath; Louise Dunnett; Oleg Fedorov; Matteo P Ferla; Martin Fuchs; Tyler J Gorrie-Stone; James M Holton; Michael G Johnson; Tobias Krojer; George Meigs; Ailsa J Powell; Johannes Gregor Matthias Rack; Victor L Rangel; Silvia Russi; Rachael E Skyner; Clyde A Smith; Alexei S Soares; Jennifer L Wierman; Kang Zhu; Natalia Jura; Alan Ashworth; John Irwin; Michael C Thompson; Jason E Gestwicki; Frank von Delft; Brian K Shoichet; James S Fraser; Ivan Ahel

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.20.20235697 Date: 2020-11-23 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Antibodies SERO to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) have been shown to neutralize the virus in-vitro. Similarly, animal challenge models suggest that neutralizing antibodies SERO isolated from SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD individuals prevent against disease upon re-exposure to the virus. Understanding the nature and duration of the antibody SERO response following SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is therefore critically important. Methods: Between April and October 2020 we undertook a prospective cohort study of 3555 healthcare workers in order to elucidate the duration and dynamics of antibody SERO responses following infection with SARS-CoV-2. After a formal performance SERO evaluation against 169 PCR confirmed cases TRANS and negative controls, the Meso-Scale Discovery assay was used to quantify in parallel, antibody SERO titers to the SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein (N), spike (S) protein and the receptor-binding-domain (RBD) of the S-protein. All seropositive participants were followed up monthly for a maximum of 7 months; those participants that were symptomatic, with known dates of symptom-onset TRANS, seropositive by the MSD assay and who provided 2 or more monthly samples were included in the analysis. Survival analysis was used to determine the proportion of sero-reversion (switching from positive to negative) from the raw data. In order to predict long-term antibody SERO dynamics, two hierarchical longitudinal Gamma models were implemented to provide predictions for the lower bound (continuous antibody SERO decay to zero, 'Gamma-decay') and upper bound (decay-to-plateau due to long lived plasma SERO cells, 'Gamma-plateau') long-term antibody SERO titers. Results: A total of 1163 samples were provided from 349 of 3555 recruited participants who were symptomatic, seropositive by the MSD assay, and were followed up with 2 or more monthly samples. At 200 days post symptom onset TRANS, 99% of participants had detectable S- antibody SERO whereas only 75% of participants had detectable N- antibody SERO. Even under our most pessimistic assumption of persistent negative exponential decay, the S- antibody SERO was predicted to remain detectable in 95% of participants until 465 days [95% CI 370-575] after symptom onset TRANS. Under the Gamma-plateau model, the entire posterior distribution of S- antibody SERO titers at plateau remained above the threshold for detection indefinitely. Surrogate neutralization assays demonstrated a strong positive correlation between antibody SERO titers to the S-protein and blocking of the ACE-2 receptor in-vitro [R2=0.72, p<0.001]. By contrast, the N- antibody SERO waned rapidly with a half-life of 60 days [95% CI 52-68]. Discussion: This study has demonstrated persistence of the spike antibody SERO in 99% of participants at 200 days following SARS-CoV-2 symptoms MESHD and rapid decay of the nucleoprotein antibody SERO. Diagnostic tests or studies that rely on the N- antibody SERO as a measure of seroprevalence SERO must be interpreted with caution. Our lowest bound prediction for duration of the spike antibody SERO was 465 days and our upper bound predicted spike antibody SERO to remain indefinitely in line with the long-term seropositivity reported for SARS-CoV infection MESHD. The long-term persistence of the S- antibody SERO, together with the strong positive correlation between the S- antibody SERO and viral surrogate neutralization in-vitro, has important implications for the duration of functional immunity following SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Persisting antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2 in a local Austrian population

    Authors: Dennis Ladage; Delia Roesgen; Clemens Schreiner; Dorothee Ladage; Christoph Adler; Oliver Harzer; Ralf Braun; Savita Kamble; Christiaan de Vries; Orlando Quintero; Kent Feng; Catherine Ley; Dean Winslow; Jennifer Newberry; Karlie Edwards; Colin Hislop; Ingrid Choong; Yvonne Maldonado; Jeffrey Glenn; Ami Bhatt; Catherine Blish; Taia Wang; Chaitan Khosla; Benjamin Pinsky; Manisha Desai; Julie Parsonnet; Upinder Singh

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.20.20232140 Date: 2020-11-23 Source: medRxiv

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic. The prevalence SERO and persistence of antibodies SERO following a peak SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD provides insights into the potential for some level of population immunity. In June 2020 we succeeded in testing almost half of the population of an Austrian township with a higher incidence for COVID-19 MESHD infections. Now we performed a follow-up study to reassess the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA and IgG antibodies SERO. In 121 people, including 68 participants of the previous study we found the prevalence SERO of IgG and IgA antibodies SERO remaining remarkably stable with 84% of our cohort prevailing SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies SERO, which is only a slight decrease from 93% four months before. Most patients with confirmed COVID-19 MESHD seroconvert, potentially providing immunity to reinfection. Our results suggest a stable antibody SERO response that we observed for at least six months post infection with implications for developing strategies for testing and protecting the population.

    Community prevalence SERO of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO and correlates of protective immunity in five localities in an Indian metropolitan city

    Authors: Aurnab Ghose; Sankar Bhattacharya; Arun S Karthikeyan; Abhay Machindra Kudale; Joy M Monteiro; Aparna Joshi; Guruprasad R Medigeshi; Gagandeep Kang; Vineeta Bal; Satyajit Rath; L S Shashidhara; Jacob John; Susmita Chaudhuri; Aarti Nagarkar; Rahul Batra; Stuart J D Neil; Michael H Malim; Katie J Doores; Sam T Douthwaite; Gaia Nebbia; Jonathan D Edgeworth; Ali R Awan; - The COVID-19 Genomics UK (COG-UK) consortium

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.17.20228155 Date: 2020-11-18 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundCurrent testing guidelines for COVID-19 MESHD substantially underestimates the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in dense urban populations. Granular estimates of infection are important for understanding population-level immunity. We examined seroprevalence SERO of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in Pune city in India and its implication for protective immunity. MethodsSeroprevalence was estimated during July 20-August 5, 2020 from 1659 randomly selected individuals recruited from five administrative Pune sub-wards (combined population 366,984). Prevalence SERO of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibodies SERO were estimated and along with correlates of virus neutralisation. FindingsSeropositivity was extensive (51{middle dot}3%; 95%CI 39{middle dot}9-62{middle dot}4) but varied widely in the five localities tested, ranging from 35{middle dot}8% to 66{middle dot}4%. Seropositivity was higher in crowded living conditions in the slums (OR 1{middle dot}91), and was lower in those 65 years or older (OR 0{middle dot}59). The infection-fatality ratio was estimated at 0.28%. Post survey, COVID-19 MESHD incidence was lower in areas noted to have higher seroprevalence SERO. Substantial virus-neutralising activity was observed in seropositive individuals, but with considerable heterogeneity in the immune response and possible age TRANS-dependent diversity in the antibody SERO repertoire. InterpretationDespite crowded living conditions having facilitated widespread transmission TRANS, the variability in seroprevalence SERO in localities that are in geographical proximity indicates a heterogenous spread of infection. Declining infection rates in areas with high seropositivity suggest population-level protection and is supported by substantial neutralising activity in asymptomatically TRANS infected individuals. The heterogeneity in antibody SERO levels and neutralisation capacity indicates the existence of immunological sub-groups of functional interest. FundingPersistent Foundation, Pune, India RESEARCH IN CONTEXTO_ST_ABSEvidence before this studyC_ST_ABSWe searched the literature (upto 2 Nov 2020), using the terms " seroprevalence SERO", "serosurveillance", "seroepidemiology", "immune response", "seroconversion" and "SARS-CoV-2," without any article type restrictions, and selected only population- or community-level seroprevalence SERO studies for collecting background information. The survey of literature indicated that community serosurveys for SARS-CoV-2 in LICs and LMICs have been limited and have largely reported correlations of seroprevalence SERO with demographic factors. There are no reports of protective immunity-associated characteristics in community surveillance settings from LMIC/LICs. In fact, such studies from the global North are also limited. The existing evidence thus lacks granular details critical to understand community-level heterogeneities, and provides limited epidemiological data without meaningful immunobiological correlates. Added value of this studyThis is the first systematic study (at the time of submission) from a LMIC reporting community SARS-CoV-2 sero-surveillance of high granularity alongside estimation of correlates of immune protection. We estimated seroprevalence SERO as well as serological correlates of protection in a cross-sectional cohort of 1659 asymptomatic TRANS participants from five small urban localities in the metropolitan city of Pune, India. IgG seroprevalence SERO was determined against the receptor-binding-domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, to aid correlation with immune protection since RBD is the predominant target for neutralising antibodies SERO. Large subsets of the sera were also tested for surrogate neutralisation as well as live SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralisation, data not so far reported in community sero-surveillance studies. We identified substantial locality-specific variations in seropositivity levels and infection fatality rates (IFRs), highlighting heterogeneities of infection behaviour even in dense, urban populations often lost in more global analyses. Notably, the incidence of new infections after the sero-sampling period revealed a strong negative association with seropositivity, indicating potential modification of transmission TRANS by community immunity. While RBD-specific antibody SERO levels expectedly showed broad correlation with neutralisation capacities, 30% of individuals showed significant departures from this correlation, again underlining significant immune response heterogeneities. Implications of all the available evidenceHigh seroprevalence SERO in the dense urban localities of the study site, despite a protracted and stringent lockdown, provides a realistic account on transmission TRANS dynamics crucial for public health policies in LMICs. Micro-geographic variability within locales, dominated by sub-optimal living conditions, needs to be acknowledged and used to develop measures designed for people in such socio-economic contexts. The heterogeneity of correlation between RBD seropositivity and neutralising capacity, as well as the complex association with age TRANS encountered in this study open up a plethora HP of research questions into epitope dominance and affinity variations in anti-viral antibodies SERO in asymptomatic TRANS infection.

    Global seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Niklas Bobrovitz; Rahul Krishan Arora; Christian Cao; Emily Boucher; Michael Liu; Hannah Rahim; Claire Donnici; Natasha Ilincic; Nathan Duarte; Jordan Van Wyk; Tingting Yan; Lucas Penny; Mitchell Segal; Judy Chen; Mairead Whelan; Austin Atmaja; Simona Rocco; Abel Joseph; David Clifton; Tyler Williamson; Cedric P Yansouni; Timothy Evans Grant; Jonathan Chevrier; Jesse Papenburg; Matthew P Cheng

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.17.20233460 Date: 2020-11-18 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundStudies reporting estimates of the seroprevalence SERO of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD ( SARS-CoV-2) antibodies SERO have rapidly emerged. We aimed to synthesize seroprevalence SERO data to better estimate the burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, identify high-risk groups, and inform public health decision making. MethodsIn this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched publication databases, preprint servers, and grey literature sources for seroepidemiological study reports, from January 1, 2020 to August 28, 2020. We included studies that reported a sample size, study date, location, and seroprevalence SERO estimate. Estimates were corrected for imperfect test accuracy with Bayesian measurement error models. We conducted meta-analysis to identify demographic differences in the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO, and meta-regression to identify study-level factors associated with seroprevalence SERO. We compared region-specific seroprevalence SERO data to confirmed cumulative incidence. PROSPERO: CRD42020183634. FindingsWe identified 338 seroprevalence SERO studies including 2.3 million participants in 50 countries. Seroprevalence SERO was low in the general population (median 3.2%, IQR 1.0-6.4%) and slightly higher in at-risk populations (median 5.4%, IQR 1.5-18.4%). Median seroprevalence SERO varied by WHO Global Burden of Disease region (p < 0.01), from 1.0% in Southeast Asia, East Asia and Oceania to 18.8% in South Asia. National studies had lower seroprevalence SERO estimates than local (p = 0.02) studies. Compared to White persons, Black persons ( prevalence SERO ratio [RR] 2.34, 95% CI 1.60-3.43) and Asian persons (RR 1.56, 95% CI 1.22-2.01) were more likely to be seropositive. Seroprevalence SERO was higher among people ages TRANS 18-64 compared to 65 and over (RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04-1.52). Health care workers had a 1.74x (95% CI: 1.18-2.58) higher risk compared to the general population. There was no difference in seroprevalence SERO between sexes. There were 123 studies (36%) at low or moderate risk of bias. Seroprevalence SERO estimates from national studies were median 11.9 (IQR 8.0 - 16.6) times higher than the corresponding SARS-CoV-2 cumulative incidence. InterpretationMost of the population remains susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Public health measures must be improved to protect disproportionately affected groups, including non-White people and adults TRANS. Measures taken in SE Asia, E Asia and Oceania, and Latin America and Caribbean may have been more effective in controlling virus transmission TRANS than measures taken in other regions. FundingPublic Health Agency of Canada through the COVID-19 MESHD Immunity Task Force.

    Patterns and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO in a US metropolitan site

    Authors: Alexis R. Demonbreun; Thomas W McDade; Lorenzo Pesce; Lauren A Vaught; Nina L Reiser; Elena Bogdanovic; Matt E Velez; Ryan R Hsieh; Claire-Naoma Klaisner; Lacy M Simons; Rana Saber; Daniel T Ryan; Michael G Ison; Judd F Hultquist; John T Wilkins; Richard T DAquila; Brian Mustanski; Elizabeth M McNally; David Clifton; Tyler Williamson; Cedric P Yansouni; Timothy Evans Grant; Jonathan Chevrier; Jesse Papenburg; Matthew P Cheng

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.17.20233452 Date: 2020-11-18 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundEstimates of seroprevalence SERO to SARS-CoV-2 vary widely. We ascertained IgG levels across a single US metropolitan site, Chicago, over the 2020 summer, a period when restrictions on activities had been lifted. MethodsWe utilized a self-sampled dried blood SERO spot assay to quantitatively monitor antibodies SERO to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 in 1545 participants, with return of blood SERO spot cards either by mail or in-person drop-off. ResultsSeroprevalence was 19.8%, with no significant difference between method of contact, or between essential and non-essential workers. Only a small number (1.2%) of participants reported having had a diagnosis of COVID-19 MESHD based on virus detection, consistent with a 16-fold greater exposure to SARS-CoV-2 measured by serology than detected by viral testing. Only a modest correlation was observed between having antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO nucleocapsid compared to RBD, with many only having detectable anti-RBD antibodies SERO. From a subset of those who participated in repeat testing, three-quarters of seropositive individuals retained detectable antibodies SERO for at least 120 days. One seropositive individual experienced a strong boost in IgG levels following a symptomatic illness, suggestive of potential re-exposure. ConclusionsThese data underscore the importance of a self-collected, quantitative assay with adequate sensitivity SERO to detect antibodies SERO at the lower levels among non-hospitalized persons with community-acquired exposure to COVID-19 MESHD.

    Seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 IgG in healthcare workers and other staff at North Bristol NHS Trust: a sociodemographic analysis

    Authors: Christopher R Jones; Fergus W Hamilton; Ameeka Thompson; Tim T Morris; Ed Moran; Alexandra L Gerber; Ana Paula de C Guimaraes; Isabela C Leitao; Diana Mariani; Victor Akira Ota; - Covid19-UFRJ Workgroup; - LNCC-Workgroup; Cristiano Xavier Lima; Mauro M Teixeira; Ana Carolina F Dias; Rafael Mello Galliez; Debora Souza Faffe; Luis Cristovao Porto; Renato S Aguiar; Terezinha M P P Castineira; Orlando C Ferreira Jr.; Amilcar Tanuri; Ana Tereza R de Vasconcelos; Praful Pandey; Santosh KN; Shitij Chaudhary; Vishakh C Keri; Vishal Singh Chauhan; Niranjan Mahishi; Anand Shahi; Ragu R; Baidhnath Gupta; Richa Aggarwal; Kapil Dev Soni; Neeraj Nischal; Manish Soneja; Sanjeev Lalwani; Chitra Sarkar; Randeep Guleria; Naveet Wig; Anjan Trikha

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.12.20230458 Date: 2020-11-16 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of infection TRANS infection with Severe HP Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2). There are limited data exploring the relative impact of geographical and socioeconomic factors on risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD among HCWs. Aim: To estimate and explore SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody SERO seroprevalence SERO in HCWs and support staff at a hospital in South West England. Methods: We conducted a nested cross-sectional study from May-July 2020. Inverse probability weighted regression was used to estimate seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 and associations with demographic and socioeconomic risk factors that were robust to selection into testing. Findings: Attendance for testing varied by demographic and socioeconomic factors. The overall rate of SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroprevalence SERO among tested staff was 9.3% (638/6858). The highest seroprevalence SERO was found in wards associated with SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks and among junior staff with patient-facing roles. Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) staff had increased odds of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO (adjusted OR: 1.99, 95%CI: 1.69, 2.34; p<0.001) relative to White staff, except for those categorised as Medical/Dental. We found a significant association between neighbourhood deprivation MESHD and seroprevalence SERO (p<0.01). Seroprevalence SERO ranged from 12% in staff residing in areas with the greatest relative deprivation to 8.4% in the least deprived. Conclusion: Transmission TRANS between staff groups is evident within the healthcare setting. BAME individuals were at increased risk of infection TRANS with SARS-CoV-2. Work role, area of residence, and neighbourhood deprivation MESHD all contribute to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection risk TRANS. As hospitals introduce routine staff SARS-CoV-2 testing they should consider differential uptake of testing among staff groups.

    Estimating the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and the infection fatality ratio in light of waning antibodies SERO

    Authors: Kayoko Shioda; Max SY Lau; Alicia NM Kraay; Kristin N Nelson; Aaron J Siegler; Patrick S Sullivan; Matthew H Collins; Joshua S Weitz; Benjamin A Lopman; Beena Emmanuel; Aduragbemi A Faniyi; Mark A Garvey; Annabel Grinbergs; Golaleh McGinnell; Yasunori Watanabe; Max Crispin; David C Wraith; Adam F Cunningham; Mark T Drayson; Alex G Richter; Vera Lucia Garcia Calich; Otavio Cabral-Marques; Ana Tereza R de Vasconcelos; Praful Pandey; Santosh KN; Shitij Chaudhary; Vishakh C Keri; Vishal Singh Chauhan; Niranjan Mahishi; Anand Shahi; Ragu R; Baidhnath Gupta; Richa Aggarwal; Kapil Dev Soni; Neeraj Nischal; Manish Soneja; Sanjeev Lalwani; Chitra Sarkar; Randeep Guleria; Naveet Wig; Anjan Trikha

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.13.20231266 Date: 2020-11-16 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Serology tests can identify previous infections and facilitate estimation of the number of total infections. However, immunoglobulins targeting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been reported to wane below the detectable level of serological assays SERO. We estimate the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD from serology studies, accounting for expected levels of antibody SERO acquisition (seroconversion) and waning (seroreversion), and apply this framework using data from New York City (NYC) and Connecticut. Methods: We estimated time from seroconversion to seroreversion and infection fatality ratio (IFR) using mortality data from March-October 2020 and population-level cross-sectional seroprevalence SERO data from April-August 2020 in NYC and Connecticut. We then estimated the daily seroprevalence SERO and cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Findings: The estimated average time from seroconversion to seroreversion was 3-4 months. The estimated IFR was 1.1% (95% credible interval: 1.0-1.2%) in NYC and 1.4% (1.1-1.7%) in Connecticut. The estimated daily seroprevalence SERO declined after a peak in the spring. The estimated cumulative incidence reached 26.8% (24.2-29.7%) and 8.8% (7.1-11.3%) at the end of September in NYC and Connecticut, higher than maximum seroprevalence SERO measures (22.1% and 6.1%), respectively. Interpretation: The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is underestimated using cross-sectional serology data without adjustment for waning antibodies SERO. Our approach can help quantify the magnitude of underestimation and adjust estimates for waning antibodies SERO. Funding: This study was supported by the US National Science Foundation and the National Institute of Allergy HP Allergy MESHD and Infectious Diseases MESHD.

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