Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Infections (432)

Disease (305)

Death (181)

Coronavirus Infections (164)

Fever (75)


Human Phenotype

Fever (75)

Anxiety (66)

Cough (59)

Hypertension (54)

Pneumonia (38)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO survey among 18,000 healthcare and administrative personnel at hospitals, pre-hospital services, and specialist practitioners in the Central Denmark Region

    Authors: Sanne Jespersen; Susan Mikkelsen; Thomas Greve; Kathrine Agergaard Kaspersen; Martin Tolstrup; Jens Kjaergaard Boldsen; Jacob Dvinge Redder; Kent Nielsen; Anders Moensted Abildgaard; Henrik Albert Kolstad; Lars Oestergaard; Marianne Kragh Thomsen; Holger Jon Moeller; Christian Erikstrup

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171850 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to perform a large seroprevalence SERO survey on severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among Danish healthcare workers to identify high risk groups. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: All healthcare workers and administrative personnel at the seven hospitals, pre-hospital services and specialist practitioner clinics in the Central Denmark Region were invited by e-mail to be tested for antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 by a commercial SARS-CoV-2 total antibody SERO enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO, Wantai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise Co., Ltd., Beijing, China). Participants: A total of 25,950 participants were invited. Of these, 17,987 (69%) showed up for blood SERO sampling, and 17,971 had samples available for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO testing. Main outcome measures: 1) Prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO; 2) Risk factors for seropositivity; 3) Association of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and antibodies SERO. Results: After adjustment for assay sensitivity SERO and specificity, the overall seroprevalence SERO was 3.4% (CI: 2.5%-3.8%). The seroprevalence SERO was higher in the western part of the region than in the eastern part (11.9% vs 1.2%, difference: 10.7 percentage points, CI: 9.5-12.2). In the high prevalence SERO area, the emergency MESHD departments had the highest seroprevalence SERO (29.7%) while departments without patients or with limited patient contact had the lowest seroprevalence SERO (2.2%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis with age TRANS, sex, and profession as the predictors showed that nursing staff, medical doctors, and biomedical laboratory scientists had a higher risk than medical secretaries, who served as reference (OR = 7.3, CI: 3.5-14.9; OR = 4., CI: 1.8-8.9; and OR = 5.0, CI: 2.1-11.6, respectively). Among the total 668 seropositive participants, 433 (64.8%) had previously been tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and 50.0% had a positive RT-PCR result. A total of 98% of individuals who had a previous positive viral RNA test were also found to be seropositive. Conclusions: We found large differences in the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in staff working in the healthcare sector within a small geographical area of Denmark and signs of in-hospital transmission TRANS. Half of all seropositive staff had been tested positive by PCR prior to this survey. This study raises awareness of precautions which should be taken to avoid in-hospital transmission TRANS. Additionally, regular testing of healthcare workers for SARS-CoV-2 should be considered to identify areas with increased transmission TRANS. Trial registration: The study is approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (1-16-02-207-20).

    Seroprevalence SERO of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO in children TRANS with household exposition to adults TRANS with COVID-19: preliminary findings

    Authors: danilo buonsenso; Piero Valentini; Cristina De Rose; Davide Pata; Dario Sinatti; Domenico Speziale; Rosalba Ricci; Angelo Carfi; Francesco Landi; Maurizio Sanguinetti; Michela Sali

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20169912 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    wheather children TRANS are easily susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is still a debated question and a currently a hot topic, particularly in view of important decisions on school opening. For this reason, we decide to describe preliminary data showing the prevalence SERO of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in children TRANS with known household exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Interestingly, our report shows that household transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 is high in both adults TRANS and children TRANS, with similar rates of SARS-CoV-2 IgG in all age groups TRANS, including the younger children TRANS. A total of 44 out of 80 household contacts TRANS (55%) of index patients had anti SARS-CoV-2 IgG. In particular, 16 (59,26%) adult TRANS partners had IgG antibodies SERO compared with 28 (52,83%) of pediatric contacts (P > 0.05). Among the pediatric population, children TRANS [≥] 5 years of age TRANS had similar probability of having SARS-CoV-2 IgG (21/39, 53.8%) compared with those < 5 years (7/14, 50%) (P > 0.05). Adult TRANS partners and children TRANS also had a probability of having SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Interestingly, 35.7% of children TRANS and 33.3% of adults TRANS with SARS-CoV-2 IgG were previously diagnosed as COVID-19 cases. Since this evidence of high rate of IgG in children TRANS exposed to SARS-CoV-2 has public health implication, with this comment we highlight the need of establishing appropriate guidelines for school opening and other social activities related to childhood.

    High prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in care homes affected by COVID-19; a prospective cohort study in England

    Authors: Shamez N Ladhani; Anna J Jeffery-Smith; Monika Patel; Roshni Janarthanan; Jonathan Fok; Emma Crawley-Boevey; Amoolya Vusirikala; Elena Fernandez; Marina Sanchez-Perez; Suzanne Tang; Kate Dun-Campbell; Edward Wynne-Evans; Anita Bell; Bharat Patel; Zahin Amin-Chowdhury; Felicity Aiano; Karthik Paranthaman; Thomas Ma; Maria Saavedra-Campos; Joanna Ellis; Meera Chand; Kevin Brown; Mary E Ramsay; Susan Hopkins; Nandini Shetty; J Yimmy Chow; Robin Gopal; Maria Zambon

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171413 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background: We investigated six London care homes experiencing a COVID-19 outbreak and found very high rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD among residents and staff. Here we report follow-up serological analysis in these care homes five weeks later. Methods: Residents and staff had a convalescent blood SERO sample for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO levels and neutralising antibodies SERO by SARS-COV-2 RT-PCR five weeks after the primary COVID-19 outbreak investigation. Results: Of the 518 residents and staff in the initial investigation, 208/241 (86.3%) surviving residents and 186/254 (73.2%) staff underwent serological testing SERO. Almost all SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive residents and staff were antibody SERO positive five weeks later, whether symptomatic (residents 35/35, 100%; staff, 22/22, 100%) or asymptomatic TRANS (residents 32/33, 97.0%; staff 21/22, 95.1%). Symptomatic but SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negative residents and staff also had high seropositivity rates (residents 23/27, 85.2%; staff 18/21, 85.7%), as did asymptomatic TRANS RT-PCR negative individuals (residents 62/92, 67.3%; staff 95/143, 66.4%). Neutralising antibody SERO was present in 118/132 (89.4%) seropositive individuals and was not associated with age TRANS or symptoms. Ten residents (10/108, 9.3%) remained RT-PCR positive, but with lower RT-PCR cycle threshold values; all 7 tested were seropositive. New infections MESHD were detected in three residents and one staff member. Conclusions: RT-PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 significantly underestimates the true extent of an outbreak in institutional settings. Elderly TRANS frail residents and younger healthier staff were equally able to mount robust and neutralizing antibody SERO responses to SARS-CoV-2. More than two-thirds of residents and staff members had detectable antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 irrespective of their nasal swab RT-PCR positivity or symptoms status.

    Oncologic Immunomodulatory Agents in Patients with Cancer and COVID-19

    Authors: Justin Jee; Aaron J Stonestrom; Sean Devlin; Teresa Nguyentran; Beatriz Wills; Varun Narendra; Michael B Foote; Melissa Lumish; Santosha Vardhana; Stephen Pastores; Neha Korde; Dhwani Patel; Steven Horwitz; Michael Scordo; Anthony Daniyan

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.11.20145458 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background Corticosteroids, anti-CD20 agents, immunotherapies, and cytotoxic chemotherapy are commonly used in the treatment of patients with cancer. How these agents impact patients with cancer who are infected with SARS-CoV-2 remains unclear. Methods We retrospectively investigated associations between SARS-CoV-2-associated respiratory failure HP or death MESHD with receipt of the aforementioned medications and with pre-COVID-19 neutropenia MESHD neutropenia HP. The study included all cancer patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center until June 2, 2020 (N=820). We controlled for cancer-related characteristics known to predispose to worse COVID-19. To address that more acutely ill patients receive therapeutic corticosteroids, we examined patient subsets based on different levels of respiratory support: <=2 L/min supplemental oxygen, >2L/min supplemental oxygen, and advanced respiratory support prior to death MESHD. Results Corticosteroid administration was associated with worse outcomes in the pre-2L supplemental oxygen cohort; no statistically significant difference was observed in the >2L/min supplemental oxygen and post-critical cohorts. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were lower, and ferritin levels were higher, after corticosteroid administration. In patients with metastatic thoracic cancer, 9 of 25 (36%) and 10 of 31 (32%) had respiratory failure HP or death MESHD among those who did and did not receive immunotherapy, respectively. Seven of 23 (30%) and 52 of 187 (28%) patients with hematologic cancer had respiratory failure HP or death MESHD among those who did and did not receive anti-CD20 therapy, respectively. Chemotherapy itself was not associated with worse outcomes, but pre-COVID-19 neutropenia MESHD neutropenia HP was associated with worse COVID-19 course. Relative prevalence SERO of chemotherapy-associated neutropenia MESHD neutropenia HP in previous studies may account for different conclusions regarding the risks of chemotherapy in patients with COVID-19. In the absence of prospective studies and evidence-based guidelines, our data may aid providers looking to assess the risks and benefits of these agents in caring for cancer patients in the COVID-19 era.

    High prevalence SERO of symptoms among Brazilian subjects with antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2: a nationwide household survey

    Authors: Ana Maria Baptista Menezes; Cesar G Victora; Fernando P Hartwig; Mariangela F Silveira; Bernardo L Horta; Aluisio J D Barros; Fernando C Whermeister; Marilia A Mesenburg; Lucia C Pellanda; Odir A Dellagostin; Claudio J Struchiner; Marcelo N Burattini; Fernando C Barros; Pedro C Hallal

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171942 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    Since the beginning of the pandemic of COVID-19, there has been a widespread assumption that most infected persons are asymptomatic TRANS. A frequently-cited early study from China suggested that 86% of all infections MESHD were undocumented, which was used as indirect evidence that patients were asymptomatic TRANS. Using data from the most recent wave of the EPICOVID19 study, a nationwide household-based survey including 133 cities from all states of Brazil, we estimated the proportion of people with and without antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 SERO who were asymptomatic TRANS, which symptoms were most frequently reported, the number of symptoms reported and the association between symptomatology and socio-demographic characteristics. We were able to test 33,205 subjects using a rapid antibody test SERO that was previously validated. Information on symptoms was collected before participants received the test result. Out of 849 (2.7%) participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO, only 12.1% (95%CI 10.1-14.5) reported no symptoms since the start of the pandemic, compared to 42.2% (95%CI 41.7-42.8) among those who tested negative. The largest difference between the two groups was observed for changes in smell or taste (56.5% versus 9.1%, a 6.2-fold difference). Symptoms change in smell or taste, fever MESHD fever HP and myalgia MESHD myalgia HP were most likely to predict positive test results as suggested by recursive partitioning tree analysis. Among individuals without any of these three symptoms (74.2% of the sample), only 0.8% tested positive, compared to 18.3% of those with both fever MESHD fever HP and changes in smell or taste. Most subjects with antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil are symptomatic, even though most present only mild symptoms.

    Outcomes of COVID-19 related hospitalisation among people with HIV in the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK Protocol: prospective observational study

    Authors: Anna Maria Geretti; Alexander Stockdale; Sophie Kelly; Muge Cevik; Simon Collins; Laura Waters; Giovanni Villa; Annemarie B Docherty; Ewen M Harrison; Lance Turtle; Peter JM Openshaw; Kenneth Baillie; Caroline Sabin; Malcolm Gracie Semple

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20170449 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background. There is conflicting evidence about how HIV infection MESHD influences COVID-19. We compared the presentation characteristics and outcomes of people with and without HIV hospitalised with COVID-19 at 207 centres across the United Kingdom. Methods. We analysed data from people with laboratory confirmed or highly likely COVID-19 enrolled into the ISARIC CCP-UK study. The primary endpoint was day-28 mortality after presentation. We used Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression to describe the association with HIV status after adjustment for sex, ethnicity, age TRANS, indeterminate/probable hospital acquisition of COVID-19 (definite hospital acquisition excluded), presentation date, and presence/absence of ten comorbidities. We additionally adjusted for disease MESHD severity at presentation as defined by hypoxia MESHD/oxygen therapy. Findings. Among 47,539 patients, 115 (0.24%) had confirmed HIV-positive status and 103/115 (89.6%) had a record of antiretroviral therapy. At presentation, relative to the HIV-negative group, HIV-positive people were younger (median 55 versus 74 years; p<0.001), had a higher prevalence SERO of obesity MESHD obesity HP and moderate/severe liver disease MESHD, higher lymphocyte counts and C-reactive protein, and more systemic symptoms. The cumulative incidence of day-28 mortality was 25.2% in the HIV-positive group versus 32.1% in the HIV-negative group (p=0.12); however, stratification for age TRANS revealed a higher mortality among HIV-positive people aged TRANS below 60 years. The effect of HIV-positive status was confirmed in adjusted analyses (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99-2.25; p=0.06). Following additional adjustment for disease MESHD severity at presentation, mortality was higher in HIV-positive people (adjusted HR 1.63; 95% CI 1.07-2.48; p=0.02). In the HIV-positive group, mortality was more common among those who were slightly older and among people with obesity MESHD obesity HP and diabetes with complications MESHD. Interpretation. HIV-positive status may be associated with an increased risk of day-28 mortality following a COVID-19 related hospitalisation.

    COVID-19 mortality according to civilian records

    Authors: Lisandro Lovisolo; Diego H S Catalao; Rodrigo B Burgos; Malu Grave; Pamella Constantino-Teles; Americo Cunha Jr.

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20170183 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    In this short report, we bring some data-driven analyses of COVID-19 mortality in Brazil. The impact of COVID-19 is evaluated by comparing the 2019 and 2020 civilian death MESHD records. There is evidence of a considerable excess of deaths MESHD since the pandemic started with respect to the previous year. In some states, it is clear that not all excess of deaths MESHD in 2020 is due to COVID-19, but to other respiratory causes that did not present the same prevalence SERO in the previous year. Because of this unusual behavior of respiratory deaths MESHD, we may infer the evidence of a huge amount of under-reporting deaths MESHD due to the COVID-19. The data also shows that COVID-19 has produced an excess death MESHD in all ages TRANS besides people above 90 and below 10 years. In addition, when separates by sex, data indicate a larger increase in the deaths MESHD among males TRANS than females TRANS.

    A Monte Carlo approach to model COVID-19 deaths MESHD and infections MESHD using Gompertz functions

    Authors: Tulio Rodrigues; Otaviano Helene

    id:2008.04989v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: arXiv

    This study describes the dynamics of COVID-19 deaths MESHD and infections MESHD via a Monte Carlo approach. The analyses include death MESHD's data from USA, Brazil, Mexico, UK, India and Russia, which comprise the four countries with the highest number of deaths MESHD/ confirmed cases TRANS, as of Aug 07, 2020, according to the WHO. The Gompertz functions were fitted to the data of weekly averaged confirmed deaths MESHD per day by mapping the $\chi^2$ values. The uncertainties, variances and covariances of the model parameters were calculated by propagation. The fitted functions for the average deaths MESHD per day for USA and India have an upward trend, with the former having a higher growth rate and quite huge uncertainties. For Mexico, UK and Russia, the fits are consistent with a slope down pattern. For Brazil we found a subtle trend down, but with significant uncertainties. The USA, UK and India data shown a first peak with a higher growth rate when compared to the second one, demonstrating the benefits of non-pharmaceutical interventions of sanitary measures and social distance flattening the curve. For USA, a third peak seems quite plausible, most likely related with the recent relaxation policies. Brazil's data are satisfactorily described by two highly overlapped Gompertz functions with similar growth rates, suggesting a two-steps process for the pandemic spreading. The 95% CI for the total number of deaths MESHD ($\times 10^3$) predicted by the model for Aug 31, 2020 are 160 to 220, 110 to 130, 59 to 62, 46.6 to 47.3, 54 to 63 and 16.0 to 16.7 for USA, Brazil, Mexico, UK, India and Russia, respectively. Our estimates for the prevalences SERO of infections MESHD are in reasonable agreement with some preliminary reports from serological studies carried out in USA and Brazil. The method represents an effective framework to estimate the line-shape of the infection MESHD curves and the uncertainties of the relevant parameters based on the actual data.

    Proteinuria MESHD Proteinuria HP in COVID-19: prevalence SERO, characterization and prognostic role

    Authors: Justine Huart; Antoine Bouquegneau; Laurence Lutteri; Pauline Erpicum; Stéphanie Grosch; Guillaume Résimont; Patricia Wiesen; Christophe Bovy; Jean-Marie Krzesinski; Marie Thys; Bernard Lambermont; Benoit Misset; Hans Pottel; Christophe Mariat; Etienne Cavalier; Stéphane Burtey; François Jouret; Pierre Delanaye

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-57181/v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Proteinuria MESHD Proteinuria HP has been commonly reported in patients with COVID-19, suggesting a renal involvement in this infection MESHD. However, only dipstick tests have been used thus far. Here, the quantification and characterization of proteinuria MESHD proteinuria HP and hematuria MESHD hematuria HP are investigated. Their potential association with mortality was assessed. Methods: This retrospective, observational and monocentric study includes 153 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between March 28th and April 30th 2020, in whom total proteinuria MESHD proteinuria HP and urine α1-microglobulin (a marker of tubular injury) have been measured. Association with mortality was evaluated with a follow-up until May 7th 2020. Results: According to the Kidney Disease MESHD Improving Global Outcomes staging, 14% (n=21) had stage 1 proteinuria MESHD proteinuria HP (<150 mg/g of urine creatinine), 42% (n=64) had stage 2 (between 150 and 500 mg/g) and 44% (n=68) had stage 3 (over 500 mg/g). Urine α1-microglobulin concentration was higher than 10 or 15 mg/g in 94% and 89% of patients, respectively. After a median follow-up of 27 [14;30] days, the mortality rate reached 18%. Total proteinuria MESHD proteinuria HP and urine α1-microglobulin (as continuous and/or categorical variables) were associated with mortality in unadjusted and adjusted models. This association was even stronger in subgroups of patients with normal renal function or without urinary catheter. Conclusions: Proteinuria MESHD Proteinuria HP is frequent in patients with COVID-19. Its characterization suggests a tubular origin with increased urine α1-microglobulin. Tubular proteinuria MESHD proteinuria HP seems associated with mortality in COVID-19.

    Prevalence SERO, Pattern and Impact of Self Medication of Anti-infective Agents During COVID-19 Outbreak in Dhaka City

    Authors: Morshed Nasir; Khandaker Abu Talha; ASM Salauddin Chowdhury; Tahmina Zahan; Rawshan Ara Perveen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-57011/v1 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD-2019 is putting a massive strain on vulnerable healthcare system in low and middle-income countries like Bangladesh. Inequitable access to healthcare is further widened by the socio-economic gap and sense of insecurity during this pandemic. Self-medication is a common practice in Bangladesh as it provides a low-cost alternative for people, which involves inappropriate and injudicious use of medicines to treat self-recognized symptoms by the people. During the outbreak of COVID-19 in Dhaka city, the tendency of taking medicines by own decision was thought to be increased alarmingly due to unusual distress, caused by high self-awareness of their health and buying capacity of medication. Objectives: To observe the prevalence SERO, pattern, sources and impact of self-medication practice among the respondents with high socio-economic standings and education. Setting: Citizens living in Dhaka city, Bangladesh during COVID-19 outbreak from April 2020 to May 2020. Method: Cross sectional online survey conducted on 626 citizens without having background of medical knowledge or related to any healthcare services (doctors, nurses, pharmacist, medical students) by structured questionnaires during COVID-19 outbreak. Outcome measures: Frequency of self-medication, commonly used antimicrobial agents, symptoms causing self-medication, sources of inspiration, relation with COVID-19 test results, economic burden involved in self-medication during outbreak. Results: The prevalence SERO of self-medication amid the outbreak of COVID-19 was 88.33% and only 179 (28.59%) took medication with doctors’ advice and remaining 447 (71.40%) respondents took the drugs as “self-medication” by other sources. The most frequently used anti-infective drugs during the outbreak were ivermectine (77.15%), azithromycin (54.15%), doxycycline (40.25%). The common symptoms were fever MESHD fever HP, throat pain MESHD pain HP, dry- cough MESHD cough HP and total 105 (16.77%) respondents took medications without having any symptoms. Almost 355 (85.33%) had taken medication without doing any test for COVID-19. The causes of self-medication as news of spread, effects and remedies in media channels, internet; mental stress of lockdown and isolation, insecurity and panic about scarcity of drug and healthcare support. Conclusion: High risks of developing antibiotic resistance, adverse drug reactions and financial loss was predictable with absence of strict regulatory enforcement to protect people and proper utilization resources during COVID-19 outbreak in Dhaka city.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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