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MeSH Disease


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    Long-Term Persistence of Spike Antibody SERO and Predictive Modeling of Antibody SERO Dynamics Following Infection with SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Louis Grandjean; Anja Saso; Arturo Torres Ortiz; Tanya Lam; James Hatcher; Rosie Thistlethwaite; Mark Harris; Timothy Best; Marina Johnson; Helen Wagstaffe; Elizabeth Ralph; Annabelle Mai; Caroline Colijn; Judith Breuer; Matthew Buckland; Kimberly Gilmour; David Goldblatt; - The Co-Stars Study Team; Huong T Kratochvil; - QCRG Structural Biology Consortium; Anthony Aimon; James M Bennett; Jose Brandao Neto; Aina E Cohen; Alexandre Dias; Alice Douangamath; Louise Dunnett; Oleg Fedorov; Matteo P Ferla; Martin Fuchs; Tyler J Gorrie-Stone; James M Holton; Michael G Johnson; Tobias Krojer; George Meigs; Ailsa J Powell; Johannes Gregor Matthias Rack; Victor L Rangel; Silvia Russi; Rachael E Skyner; Clyde A Smith; Alexei S Soares; Jennifer L Wierman; Kang Zhu; Natalia Jura; Alan Ashworth; John Irwin; Michael C Thompson; Jason E Gestwicki; Frank von Delft; Brian K Shoichet; James S Fraser; Ivan Ahel

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.20.20235697 Date: 2020-11-23 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Antibodies SERO to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) have been shown to neutralize the virus in-vitro. Similarly, animal challenge models suggest that neutralizing antibodies SERO isolated from SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD individuals prevent against disease upon re-exposure to the virus. Understanding the nature and duration of the antibody SERO response following SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is therefore critically important. Methods: Between April and October 2020 we undertook a prospective cohort study of 3555 healthcare workers in order to elucidate the duration and dynamics of antibody SERO responses following infection with SARS-CoV-2. After a formal performance SERO evaluation against 169 PCR confirmed cases TRANS and negative controls, the Meso-Scale Discovery assay was used to quantify in parallel, antibody SERO titers to the SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein (N), spike (S) protein and the receptor-binding-domain (RBD) of the S-protein. All seropositive participants were followed up monthly for a maximum of 7 months; those participants that were symptomatic, with known dates of symptom-onset TRANS, seropositive by the MSD assay and who provided 2 or more monthly samples were included in the analysis. Survival analysis was used to determine the proportion of sero-reversion (switching from positive to negative) from the raw data. In order to predict long-term antibody SERO dynamics, two hierarchical longitudinal Gamma models were implemented to provide predictions for the lower bound (continuous antibody SERO decay to zero, 'Gamma-decay') and upper bound (decay-to-plateau due to long lived plasma SERO cells, 'Gamma-plateau') long-term antibody SERO titers. Results: A total of 1163 samples were provided from 349 of 3555 recruited participants who were symptomatic, seropositive by the MSD assay, and were followed up with 2 or more monthly samples. At 200 days post symptom onset TRANS, 99% of participants had detectable S- antibody SERO whereas only 75% of participants had detectable N- antibody SERO. Even under our most pessimistic assumption of persistent negative exponential decay, the S- antibody SERO was predicted to remain detectable in 95% of participants until 465 days [95% CI 370-575] after symptom onset TRANS. Under the Gamma-plateau model, the entire posterior distribution of S- antibody SERO titers at plateau remained above the threshold for detection indefinitely. Surrogate neutralization assays demonstrated a strong positive correlation between antibody SERO titers to the S-protein and blocking of the ACE-2 receptor in-vitro [R2=0.72, p<0.001]. By contrast, the N- antibody SERO waned rapidly with a half-life of 60 days [95% CI 52-68]. Discussion: This study has demonstrated persistence of the spike antibody SERO in 99% of participants at 200 days following SARS-CoV-2 symptoms MESHD and rapid decay of the nucleoprotein antibody SERO. Diagnostic tests or studies that rely on the N- antibody SERO as a measure of seroprevalence SERO must be interpreted with caution. Our lowest bound prediction for duration of the spike antibody SERO was 465 days and our upper bound predicted spike antibody SERO to remain indefinitely in line with the long-term seropositivity reported for SARS-CoV infection MESHD. The long-term persistence of the S- antibody SERO, together with the strong positive correlation between the S- antibody SERO and viral surrogate neutralization in-vitro, has important implications for the duration of functional immunity following SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    At the dawn of winter: comparing COVID-19 MESHDand influenza presentation and trajectory

    Authors: Anat Reiner Benaim; Jonathan Aryeh Sobel; Ronit Almog; Snir Lugassy; Tsviel Ben Shabbat; Alistair Johnson; Danny Eytan; Joachim A. Behar; Yuqing Qiu; Thomas J Ketas; Eric Francomano; P.J. Klasse; Layla Hatem; Lars F Westblade; Heng Wu; Haode Chen; Robert Zuk; Hong Tan; Roxanne Girardin; Alan P Dupuis II; Anne F Payne; John P Moore; Melissa M Cushing; Amy Chadburn; Zhen Zhao; Bram P Prins; John Danesh; Poornima Devineni; Yunling Shi; Kristine E Lynch; Scott L DuVall; Helene Garcon; Lauren Thomann; Jin J Zhou; Bryan R Gorman; Jennifer E Huffman; Christopher J O'Donnell; Philip S Tsao; Jean C Beckham; Saiju Pyarajan; Sumitra Muralidhar; Grant D Huang; Rachel Ramoni; Adriana M Hung; Kyong-Mi Chang; Yan V Sun; Jacob Joseph; Andrew R Leach; Todd L Edwards; Kelly Cho; J Michael Gaziano; Adam S Butterworth; Juan P Casas

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.19.20235077 Date: 2020-11-22 Source: medRxiv

    Background COVID-19 MESHD is a newly recognized illness with a predominantly respiratory presentation. As winter approaches in the northern hemisphere, it is important to characterize the differences in disease presentation and trajectory between COVID-19 MESHD patients and other patients with common respiratory illnesses. These differences can enhance knowledge of pathogenesis and help in guiding treatment. MethodsData from electronic medical records were obtained from individuals admitted with respiratory illnesses to Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel, between October 1st, 2014 and September 1st, 2020. Four groups of patients were defined: COVID-19 MESHD (693), influenza (1,612), severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) (2,292) and Others (4,054). The variable analyzed include demographics (7), vital signs (8), lab tests (38), and comorbidities (15) from a total of 8,651 hospitalized adult TRANS patients. Statistical analysis was performed on biomarkers measured at admission and for their disease trajectory in the first 48 hours of hospitalization, and on comorobidity prevalence SERO. Results COVID-19 MESHD patients were overall younger in age TRANS and had higher body mass index, compared to influenza and SARI. Comorbidity burden was lower in the COVID-19 MESHD group compared to influenza and SARI. Severely- and moderately-ill COVID-19 MESHD patients older than 65 years of age TRANS suffered higher rate of in-hospital mortality compared to hospitalized influenza patients. At admission, white blood SERO cells and neutrophils were lower among COVID-19 MESHD patients compared to influenza and SARI patients, while pulse rate and lymphoctye percentage were higher. Trajectories of variables during the first two days of hospitalization revealed that white blood SERO count, neutrophils percentage and glucose in blood SERO increased among COVID-19 MESHD patients, while decreasing among other patients. ConclusionsThe intrinsic virulence of COVID-19 MESHD appeared higher than influenza. In addition, several critical functions, such as immune response, coagulation, heart and respiratory function and metabolism were uniquely affected by COVID-19 MESHD.

    Patterns and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO in a US metropolitan site

    Authors: Alexis R. Demonbreun; Thomas W McDade; Lorenzo Pesce; Lauren A Vaught; Nina L Reiser; Elena Bogdanovic; Matt E Velez; Ryan R Hsieh; Claire-Naoma Klaisner; Lacy M Simons; Rana Saber; Daniel T Ryan; Michael G Ison; Judd F Hultquist; John T Wilkins; Richard T DAquila; Brian Mustanski; Elizabeth M McNally; David Clifton; Tyler Williamson; Cedric P Yansouni; Timothy Evans Grant; Jonathan Chevrier; Jesse Papenburg; Matthew P Cheng

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.17.20233452 Date: 2020-11-18 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundEstimates of seroprevalence SERO to SARS-CoV-2 vary widely. We ascertained IgG levels across a single US metropolitan site, Chicago, over the 2020 summer, a period when restrictions on activities had been lifted. MethodsWe utilized a self-sampled dried blood SERO spot assay to quantitatively monitor antibodies SERO to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 in 1545 participants, with return of blood SERO spot cards either by mail or in-person drop-off. ResultsSeroprevalence was 19.8%, with no significant difference between method of contact, or between essential and non-essential workers. Only a small number (1.2%) of participants reported having had a diagnosis of COVID-19 MESHD based on virus detection, consistent with a 16-fold greater exposure to SARS-CoV-2 measured by serology than detected by viral testing. Only a modest correlation was observed between having antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO nucleocapsid compared to RBD, with many only having detectable anti-RBD antibodies SERO. From a subset of those who participated in repeat testing, three-quarters of seropositive individuals retained detectable antibodies SERO for at least 120 days. One seropositive individual experienced a strong boost in IgG levels following a symptomatic illness, suggestive of potential re-exposure. ConclusionsThese data underscore the importance of a self-collected, quantitative assay with adequate sensitivity SERO to detect antibodies SERO at the lower levels among non-hospitalized persons with community-acquired exposure to COVID-19 MESHD.

    Serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 following non-hospitalised infection: clinical and ethnodemographic features associated with the magnitude of the antibody SERO response

    Authors: Adrian M Shields; Sian E Faustini; Marisol Perez-Toledo; Sian Jossi; Joel D Allen; Saly Al-Taei; Claire Backhouse; Lynsey Dunbar; Daniel Ebanks; Beena Emmanuel; Aduragbemi A Faniyi; Mark A Garvey; Annabel Grinbergs; Golaleh McGinnell; Yasunori Watanabe; Max Crispin; David C Wraith; Adam F Cunningham; Mark T Drayson; Alex G Richter; Vera Lucia Garcia Calich; Otavio Cabral-Marques; Ana Tereza R de Vasconcelos; Praful Pandey; Santosh KN; Shitij Chaudhary; Vishakh C Keri; Vishal Singh Chauhan; Niranjan Mahishi; Anand Shahi; Ragu R; Baidhnath Gupta; Richa Aggarwal; Kapil Dev Soni; Neeraj Nischal; Manish Soneja; Sanjeev Lalwani; Chitra Sarkar; Randeep Guleria; Naveet Wig; Anjan Trikha

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.12.20230763 Date: 2020-11-16 Source: medRxiv

    Objective To determine clinical and ethnodemographic correlates of serological responses against the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein following mild-to-moderate COVID-19 MESHD. Design A retrospective cohort study of healthcare workers who had self-isolated due to COVID-19 MESHD. Setting University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, UK (UHBFT). Participants 956 health care workers were recruited by open invitation via UHBFT trust email and social media. Intervention Participants volunteered a venous blood SERO sample that was tested for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein antibodies SERO. Results were interpreted in the context of the symptoms of their original illness and ethnodemographic variables. Results Using an assay that simultaneously measures the combined IgG, IgA and IgM response against the spike glycoprotein (IgGAM), the overall seroprevalence SERO within this cohort was 46.2% (n=442/956). The seroprevalence SERO of immunoglobulin isotypes was 36.3%, 18.7% and 8.1% for IgG, IgA and IgM respectively. IgGAM identified serological responses in 40.6% (n=52/128) of symptomatic individuals who reported a negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR test. Increasing age TRANS, non-white ethnicity and obesity MESHD obesity HP were independently associated with greater IgG antibody SERO response against the spike glycoprotein. Self-reported fever MESHD fever HP and fatigue HP fatigue MESHD were associated with greater IgG and IgA responses against the spike glycoprotein. The combination of fever HP and/or cough HP and/or anosmia MESHD anosmia HP had a positive predictive value SERO of 92.3% for seropositivity. Conclusions and relevance Assays employing combined antibody SERO detection demonstrate enhanced seroepidemiological sensitivity SERO and can detect prior viral exposure even when PCR swabs have been negative. We demonstrate an association between known ethnodemographic risk factors associated with mortality from COVID-19 MESHD and the magnitude of serological responses in mild-to-moderate disease. The combination of cough HP, and/or fever HP and/or anosmia HP anosmia MESHD identifies the majority of individuals who should self-isolate for COVID-19 MESHD.

    ELIPSE-COL: A novel ELISA SERO test based on rational envisioned synthetic peptides for detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in Colombia.

    Authors: Adriana Arevalo; Carlos Franco-Munoz; Sofia Duque-Beltran; Lyda Munoz-Galindo; Maria Teresa Herrera-Sepulveda; Jose Manuel Lozano; Luz Mary Salazar; Martha Lucia Ospina-Martinez; Marcela Mercado-Reyes

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.13.20230060 Date: 2020-11-16 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 MESHD pandemic caused by infection with the betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the greatest public health defiant on a global scale in the last 100 years. Governments and health Institutes face challenges during the pandemic, related to the diagnosis, mitigation, treatment, and timely detection after the epidemic peak for the prevention of new infections and the evaluation of the real impact of the COVID-19 MESHD disease in different geographic areas. To develop a valuable tool to study the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in Colombia, an in-house ELISA SERO was achieved for the detection of IgG anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in serum SERO. The test was standardized using an antigenic epitopes Pool of the synthetic peptide as antigen derived from antigenic regions of the spike, nucleocapsid, envelope, and membrane structural proteins, which were designed, based on the genomic information of SARS-CoV-2 circulating in Colombia. In the ELISA SERO standardization process, 34 positive sera were used, including sera from asymptomatic TRANS and symptomatic patients (mild and severe) and 68 negative sera, including pre-pandemic historical negatives originating from patients living in arbovirus endemic areas or patients with a history of respiratory diseases MESHD and sera from patients with a negative rRT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2. The in-house peptide ELIPSE-COL test showed promising performance SERO, being able to detect reactivity in sera from asymptomatic TRANS and symptomatic patients. The sensitivity SERO and specificity of the assay were 91% for both parameters. The ELIPSE-COL assay was developed as an ELISA SERO test using synthetic peptides for the study of the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in Colombia.

    Critical care workers have lower seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 IgG compared with non-patient facing staff in first wave of COVID19 MESHD.

    Authors: Dr HE Baxendale; Rainer Doffinger; Jonathan Luke Heeney; David Wells; Jessica Gronlund; George Carnell; Minna Paloniemi; Paul Tonks; Lourdes CeronGutierrez; Ashleigh Sayer; James Nathan; Leo James; Jakob luptak; Guinevere L Grice; Soraya Ebrahimi; Xiaoli Xiong; John AG Briggs; Sumita Pai; angalee nadesalingham; Marie-Christine Ouellet; Marc-André Roy; Marie-Christine Saint-Jacques; Claudia Savard

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.12.20145318 Date: 2020-11-13 Source: medRxiv

    With the first 2020 surge of the COVID-19 MESHD pandemic, many health care workers (HCW) were re-deployed to critical care environments to support intensive care teams to look after high numbers of patients with severe COVID-19 MESHD. There was considerable anxiety MESHD anxiety HP of increased risk of COVID19 MESHD for staff working in these environments. Using a multiplex platform to assess serum SERO IgG responses to SARS-CoV-2 N MESHD, S and RBD proteins, and detailed symptom reporting, we screened over 500 HCW (25% of the total workforce) in a quaternary level hospital to explore the relationship between workplace and evidence of exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Whilst 45% of the cohort reported symptoms that they consider may have represented COVID-19 MESHD, overall seroprevalence SERO was 14% with anosmia MESHD anosmia HP and fever MESHD fever HP being the most discriminating symptoms for seropositive status. There was a significant difference in seropositive status between staff working in clinical and non-clinical roles (9% patient facing critical care, 15% patient facing non-critical care, 22% nonpatient facing). In the seropositive cohort, symptom severity increased with age TRANS for men and not for women. In contrast, there was no relationship between symptom severity and age TRANS or sex in the seronegative cohort reporting possible COVID-19 MESHD symptoms. Of the 12 staff screened PCR positive (10 symptomatic), 3 showed no evidence of seroconversion in convalescence. Conclusion: The current approach to Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) appears highly effective in protecting staff from patient acquired infection in the critical care environment including protecting staff managing interhospital transfers of COVID-19 MESHD patients. The relationship between seroconversion and disease severity in different demographics warrants further investigation. Longitudinally paired virological and serological surveillance, with symptom reporting are urgently required to better understand the role of antibody SERO in the outcome of HCW exposure during subsequent waves of COVID-19 MESHD in health care environments.

    Epidemiological and immunological features of obesity MESHD obesity HP and SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Eric James Nilles; Sameed Siddiqui; Stephanie Fischinger; Yannic C Bartsch; Michael De St Aubin; Guohai Zhou; Matthew Gluck; Samuel Berger; Justin Rhee; Eric Petersen; Benjamin Mormann; MIchael A Loesche; Zhilin Chen; Jingyou Yu; Makda Gebre; Caroline Ayteo; Alex Lee Zhu; Matthew J Gorman; John Burke; Matthew Slein; Mohammad A Hasdianda; Guruprasad Jambaulikar; Edward Boyer; Pardis Sabeti; Dan H Barouch; Boris D Julg; Adam J Kucharski; Elon R Musk; Douglas A Lauffenburger; Galit Alter; Anil S Menon; Katrina A Lythgoe; Sophie R Meakin; James D Munday; Peter JM Openshaw; Christopher Overton; Filippo Pagani; Jonathan Pearson; Pablo N Perez-Guzman; Lorenzo Pellis; Francesca Scarabel; Malcolm Gracie Semple; Ming Tang; Michael Tildesley; Edwin van Leeuwen; Lilith Whittles; - CMMID COVID-19 Working Group; - Imperial College COVID-19 Response Team; - ISARIC4C Investigators; Richard J Webby

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.11.20229724 Date: 2020-11-13 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Obesity HP is established as a key correlate of severe SARS-CoV-2 outcomes. Multiple other epidemiological and immunological features are less well-defined including whether obesity increases MESHD obesity increases HP susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, influences symptom phenotype, or impedes or alters the immune response to infection. Given the substantial global burden of obesity MESHD obesity HP and given these uncertainties, we examined the epidemiology and immunology of obesity MESHD obesity HP and SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Industry employees were invited to participate in a prospective SARS-CoV-2 serology-based cohort study. Blood SERO and baseline survey measures that included demographics, comorbidities, and prior COVID-19 MESHD compatible symptoms were collected. Serological testing SERO and interim symptom reporting were conducted monthly. SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays SERO included an IgG ELISA SERO targeting the spike RBD, multiarray Luminex targeting 20 viral antigens, pseudovirus neutralization, and T cell ELISPOT assays. Unadjusted and adjusted analyses were used to identify differences in seroprevalence SERO, clinical features, and immune parameters by BMI. Results: Of 4469 individuals enrolled, 322 (7.21%) were seropositive. Adjusted seroprevalence SERO was non-significantly lower with higher BMI. Obesity HP was associated with increased reporting of fever HP fever MESHD (OR 3.43 [95% CI 1.58-7.60]) and multiple other symptoms and aggregate measures. There were no identifiable differences in immune response between obese MESHD and non-obese MESHD individuals. Discussion: We present benchmark data that obesity MESHD obesity HP is not linked to increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD; that symptom phenotype is strongly influenced by obesity MESHD obesity HP; and that despite evidence of obesity-associated immune dysregulation MESHD obesity-associated immune dysregulation HP immune dysregulation HP in severe infections HP, there is no evidence of muted or dysfunctional MESHD immune response across multiple immune measures among non- severe infections HP.

    Non-occupational and occupational factors associated with specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO among Hospital Workers - a multicentre cross-sectional study

    Authors: Christian R. Kahlert; Raphael Persi; Sabine Guesewell; Thomas Egger; Onicio B. Leal-Neto; Johannes Sumer; Domenica Flury; Angela Brucher; Eva Lemmenmeier; Carsten Moeller; Philip Rieder; Reto Stocker; Danielle Vuichard-Gysin; Benedikt Wiggli; Werner C. Albrich; Baharak Babouee Flury; Ulrike Besold; Jan Fehr; Stefan P. Kuster; Allison McGeer; Lorenz Risch; Matthias Schlegel; Pietro Vernazza; Andree Friedl; Philipp Kohler

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.10.20229005 Date: 2020-11-13 Source: medRxiv

    Background Protecting healthcare workers (HCW) from Coronavirus Disease-19 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) is critical to preserve the functioning of healthcare systems. We therefore assessed seroprevalence SERO and identified risk factors for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) seropositivity in this population. Methods Between June 22nd and August 15th 2020, employees from healthcare institutions in Northern/Eastern Switzerland were screened for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. We recorded baseline characteristics, non-occupational and occupational risk factors. We used pairwise tests of associations and multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with seropositivity. Findings Among the 4664 included HCW from 23 healthcare facilities, 139 (3%) were seropositive. Non-occupational exposures independently associated with seropositivity were contact with a COVID-19 MESHD positive household (adjusted OR=54, 95%-CI: 31-97) and stay in a COVID 19 hotspot (aOR=2.2, 95%-CI: 1.1-3.9). Blood SERO group 0 vs. non-0 (aOR=0.4, 95%-CI: 0.3-0.7), active smoking (aOR=0.5, 95%-CI: 0.3-0.9) and living with children TRANS <12 years (aOR=0.3, 95%-CI: 0.2-0.6) were associated with decreased risk. Occupational risk factors were close contact TRANS to COVID-19 MESHD patients (aOR=2.8, 95%-CI: 1.5-5.5), exposure to COVID-19 MESHD positive co-workers (aOR=2.0, 95%-CI: 1.2-3.1), poor knowledge of standard hygiene precautions (aOR=2.0, 95%-CI: 1.3-3.2), and frequent visits to the hospital canteen (aOR=1.9, 95%-CI: 1.2-3.1). Interpretation We identified several modifiable factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among our HCW. Living with COVID-19 MESHD positive households showed by far the strongest association. The lower risk among those living with children TRANS, even after correction for multiple confounders, is remarkable and merits further study. Funding Swiss National Sciences Foundation, Federal Office of Public Health, Health Department Canton of St. Gallen

    Age TRANS-Specific SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD Fatality and Case Identification Fraction in Ontario, Canada

    Authors: David Fisman; Steven J. Drews; Ashleigh Tuite; Sheila O'Brien; Els Wauters; Jan Gunst; Yannick Van Herck; - CONTAGIOUS consortium; Joost Wauters; Bjorn Stessel; Pieter Vermeersch; Sherry L Grace; Virginia K Kan; H Clifford Lane; Thomas A Murray; Roger Paredes; Mahesh K.B. Parmar; Sarah Pett; Andrew N Phillips; Mark N Polizzotto; Cavan Reilly; Uriel Sandkovsky; Shweta Sharma; Mark Teitelbaum; B. Taylor Thompson; Barnaby E Young; James D Neaton; Jens D Lundgren; - TICO study group

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.09.20223396 Date: 2020-11-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel pandemic pathogen that displays great variability in virulence across cases. Due to limitations in diagnostic testing only a subset of infections are identified. Underestimation of true infections makes calculation of infection fatality MESHD ratios (IFR) challenging. Seroepidemiology allows estimation of true cumulative incidence of infection in populations, for estimation of IFR. Methods: Seroprevalence SERO estimates were derived using retention samples stored by Canadian Blood SERO Services in May 2020. These were compared to non-long-term care-linked case and fatality data from the same period. Estimates were combined to generate IFR and case identification fraction estimates. Results: Overall IFR was estimated to be 0.80% (0.75 to 0.85%) consistent with estimates from other jurisdictions. IFR increased exponentially with age TRANS from 0.01% (0.002 to 0.04%) in those aged TRANS 20-29 years, to 12.71% (4.43 to 36.50%) in those aged TRANS 70 and over. We estimated that 5.88 infections (3.70 to 9.21) occurred for every case identified, with a higher fraction of cases identified in those aged TRANS 70 and older (42.0%) than those aged TRANS 20-29 (9.4%). IFR estimates in those aged TRANS 60 and older were identical to pooled estimates from other countries. Conclusions: To our knowledge these are the first Canadian estimates SARS-CoV-2 IFR and case identification fraction. Notwithstanding biases associated with donor sera they are similar to estimates from other countries, and approximately 80-fold higher than estimates for influenza A (H1N1) during the 2009 epidemic. Ontarios first COVID-19 MESHD pandemic wave is likely to have been accurately characterized due to a high case identification fraction.

    Seroprevalence SERO of Anti- SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies SERO in a Cohort of New York City Metro Blood SERO Donors using Multiple SARS-CoV-2 Serological Assays SERO: Implications for Controlling the Epidemic and Reopening.

    Authors: Daniel K Jin; Daniel J Nesbitt; Jenny Yang; Haidee Chen; Julie Horowitz; Marcus Jones; Rianna Vandergaast; Timothy Carey; Samantha Reiter; Stephen J Russell; Christos Kyratsous; Andrea Hooper; Jennifer Hamilton; Manuel Ferreira; Sarah Deng; Donna Straus; Aris Baras; Christopher D Hillyer; Larry L Luchsinger; Claudia Romina Contreras; Andrew P Cope; Claudia De La Cruz; Paola Di Meglio; Paolo Gisondi; Kimme Hyrich; Denis Jullien; Jo Lambert; Hoseah Waweru; Helena Marzo-Ortega; Iain McInnes; Luigi Naldi; Sam Norton; Lluis Puig; Phyllis Spuls; Raj Sengupta; Tiago Torres; RIchard B Warren; John Weinman; Christopher EM Griffiths; Jonathan N Barker; Matthew A Brown; James B Galloway; Catherine H Smith

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.06.20220087 Date: 2020-11-07 Source: medRxiv

    Projections of the stage of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and local, regional and national public health policies designed to limit the spread of the epidemic as well as reopen cities and states, are best informed by reproducible, high throughput, and statically credible antibody SERO (Ab) assays. To date, a myriad of Ab tests, both available and authorized for emergency use by the FDA, has led to confusion MESHD confusion HP rather than insight per se. The present study reports the results of a rapid, point-in-time 1,000-person cohort study using serial blood SERO donors in the New York City metropolitan area (NYC) using multiple serological tests SERO, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays SERO ( ELISAs SERO) and high throughput serological assays SERO (HTSAs). These were then tested and associated with assays for neutralizing Ab (NAb). Of the 1,000 NYC blood SERO donor samples in late June and early July 2020, 12.1% and 10.9% were seropositive using the Ortho Total Ig and the Abbott IgG HTSA assays, respectively. These serological assays SERO correlated with neutralization activity specific to SARS-CoV-2. The data reported herein suggest that seroconversion in this population occurred in approximately 1 in 8 blood SERO donors from the beginning of the pandemic in NYC (considered March 1, 2020). These findings deviate with an earlier seroprevalence SERO study in NYC showing 13.7% positivity. Collectively however, these data demonstrate that a low number of individuals have serologic evidence of infection during this first wave and suggest that the notion of herd immunity at rates of ~60% or higher are not near. Furthermore, the data presented herein show that the nature of the Ab-based immunity is not invariably associated with the development of NAb. While the blood SERO donor population may not mimic precisely the NYC population as a whole, rapid assessment of seroprevalence SERO in this cohort and serial reassessment could aid public health decision making.

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