Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype


    displaying 111 - 120 records in total 170
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    Population-wide evolution of SARS-CoV-2 immunity tracked by a ternary immunoassay SERO

    Authors: Marc Emmenegger; Elena De Cecco; David Lamparter; Raphael P. B. Jacquat; Daniel Ebner; Matthias M Schneider; Itzel Condado Morales; Dezirae Schneider; Berre Dogancay; Jingjing Guo; Anne Wiedmer; Julie Domange; Marigona Imeri; Rita Moos; Chryssa Zografou; Chiara Trevisan; Andres Gonzalez-Guerra; Alessandra Carrella; Irina L. Dubach; Catherine K. Xu; Georg Meisl; Vasilis Kosmoliaptsis; Tomas Malinauskas; Nicola Burgess-Brown; Ray Owens; Juthathip Mongkolsapaya; Stephanie Hatch; Gavin R. Screaton; Katharina Schubert; John D. Huck; Feimei Liu; Florence Pojer; Kelvin Lau; David Hacker; Elsbeth Probst-Mueller; Carlo Cervia; Jakob Nilsson; Onur Boyman; Lanja Saleh; Katharina Spanaus; Arnold von Eckardstein; Dominik J. Schaer; Nenad Ban; Ching-Ju Tsai; Jacopo Marino; Gebhard F. X. Schertler; Nadine Ebert; Volker Thiel; Jochen Gottschalk; Beat M. Frey; Regina Reimann; Simone Hornemann; Aaron M. Ring; Tuomas P. J. Knowles; Ioannis Xenarios; David I. Stuart; Adriano Aguzzi

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.31.20118554 Date: 2020-06-02 Source: medRxiv

    We describe the evolution of severe acute respiratory coronavirus MESHD 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence SERO in the greater area of Zurich, Switzerland, a region that has been only mildly hit by the pandemic in spite of hosting an international airport hub and a highly mobile population. Seroprevalence SERO studies in low- prevalence SERO settings require large sample sizes and high-specificity methodologies. To address this particular challenge, we developed a Tripartite Automated Blood SERO Immunoassay SERO to assess the IgG response against three SARS-CoV-2 proteins on approximately 40'000 samples from university hospital patients and healthy blood SERO donors. The seroprevalence SERO increased in March 2020 (0.3%; CI95%: 0.1% - 0.5%) in the cohort of the hospital patients but rapidly plateaued in April at 1.1-1.3%, with a slight drop in June, then decreased in July to 0.3-0.7%. Seropositive samples were confirmed with Western Blotting and liquid-phase binding assays. Employing a dynamic transmission TRANS model that describes SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS and seroconversion in the general population of the Canton of Zurich, we estimated an infection fatality ratio of 0.6% (CI95%: 0.4%-0.8%). We conclude that a small proportion of the population in the greater area of Zurich has been exposed to SARS-CoV-2, with an IFR that is similar to that of other European areas. The evolution of seroprevalence SERO points to a high effectiveness of containment measures and/or to rapid loss of humoral responses.

    Validation and Performance SERO Comparison of Three SARS-CoV-2 Antibody SERO Assays

    Authors: Shaolei Lu; Kimberly J Paiva; Ricky D Grisson; Philip A Chan; John Lonks; Ewa King; Richard C Huard; Diane L Pytel-Parenteau; Ga Hie Nam; Evgeny Yakirevich

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.29.124776 Date: 2020-05-30 Source: bioRxiv

    Serology testing of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) is increasingly being used during the current pandemic of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). The clinical and epidemiologic utilities of antibody SERO-based SARS-CoV-2 testing are under debate. Characterizing these assays helps to understand the disease and provides scientific basis for deciding how to best use these assays. The study assessed one chemiluminescent assay (Abbott COVID-2 IgG) and two lateral flow assays (STANDARD Q [SQ] IgM/IgG Duo and Wondfo Total Antibody Test SERO). Validation included 113 blood SERO samples from 71 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients and 1182 samples from negative controls with potential interferences/cross-reactions, including 1063 pre-pandemic samples. IgM antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 were detected as early as post- symptom onset TRANS days 3-4. IgG antibodies SERO were first detected post-onset days 5-6 by SQ assays. The detection rates increased gradually, and SQ IgG, Abbott IgG and Wondfo Total detected antibodies SERO from all the PCR-confirmed patients 14 days after symptom onset TRANS. Overall agreements between SQ IgM/IgG and Wondfo Total was 88.5% and between SQ IgG and Abbott IgG was 94.6% (Kappa = 0.75, 0.89). No cross-reaction with other endemic coronavirus infections MESHD were identified. Viral hepatitis HP Viral hepatitis MESHD and autoimmune samples were the main cross-reactions observed. However, the interferences/cross-reactions were low. The specificities were 100% for SQ IgG and Wondfo Total and 99.62% for Abbott IgG and 98.87% for SQ IgM. These findings demonstrate high sensitivity SERO and specificity of appropriately validated antibody SERO-based SARS-CoV-2 assays with implications for clinical use and epidemiological seroprevalence SERO studies.View Full Text

    Cumulative incidence and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in New York

    Authors: Eli S Rosenberg; James M Tesoriero; Elizabeth M Rosenthal; Rakkoo Chung; Meredith A Barranco; Linda M Styer; Monica M Parker; Shu-Yin John Leung; Johanne Morne; Danielle Greene; David R Holtgrave; Dina Hoefer; Jessica Kumar; Tomoko Udo; Brad Hutton; Howard A Zucker

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.25.20113050 Date: 2020-05-29 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: New York State (NYS) is an epicenter of the United States' COVID-19 epidemic. Reliable estimates of cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the population are critical to tracking the extent of transmission TRANS and informing policies, but US data are lacking, in part because societal closure complicates study conduct. Objective: To estimate the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and percent of infections diagnosed in New York State, overall and by region, age TRANS, sex, and race and ethnicity. Design: Statewide cross-sectional seroprevalence SERO study, conducted April 19-28, 2020. Setting: Grocery stores (n=99) located in 26 counties throughout NYS, which were essential businesses that remained open during a period of societal closure and attract a heterogenous clientele. Participants: Convenience sample of patrons >=18 years and residing in New York State, recruited consecutively upon entering stores and via an in-store flyer. Exposures: Region (New York City, Westchester/Rockland, Long Island, Rest of New York State), age TRANS, sex, race and ethnicity. Main Outcomes: Primary outcome: cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, based on dry- blood SERO spot (DBS) SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO reactivity; secondary outcome: percent of infections diagnosed. Results: Among 15,101 adults TRANS with suitable DBS specimens, 1,887 (12.5%) were reactive using a validated SARS-CoV-2 IgG microsphere immunoassay SERO ( sensitivity SERO 87.9%, specificity 99.75%). Following post-stratification weighting on region, sex, age TRANS, and race and ethnicity and adjustment for assay characteristics, estimated cumulative incidence through March 29 was 14.0% (95% CI: 13.3-14.7%), corresponding to 2,139,300 (95% CI: 2,035,800-2,242,800) infection-experienced adults TRANS. Cumulative incidence was higher among Hispanic/Latino (29.2%, 95% CI: 27.2-31.2%), non-Hispanic black/African American (20.2% 95% CI, 18.1-22.3%), and non-Hispanic Asian (12.4%, 95% CI: 9.4-15.4%) adults TRANS than non-Hispanic white adults TRANS (8.1%, 95% CI: 7.4-8.7%, p

    COVID-19 serology at population scale: SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody SERO responses in saliva

    Authors: Pranay R Randad; Nora Pisanic; Kate Kruczynski; Yukari C Manabe; David Thomas; Andrew Pekosz; Sabra Klein; Michael J Betenbaugh; William A Clarke; Oliver Laeyendecker; Patrizio P Caturegli; H Benjamin Larman; Barbara Detrick; Jessica K Fairley; Amy C Sherman; Nadine Rouphael; Srilatha Edupuganti; Douglas A Granger; Steve W Granger; Matthew Collins; Christopher D Heaney

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.24.20112300 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Non-invasive SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO testing is urgently needed to estimate the incidence and prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD at the general population level. Precise knowledge of population immunity could allow government bodies to make informed decisions about how and when to relax stay-at-home directives and to reopen the economy. We hypothesized that salivary antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO could serve as a non-invasive alternative to serological testing SERO for widespread monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD throughout the population. We developed a multiplex SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO immunoassay SERO based on Luminex technology and tested 167 saliva and 324 serum samples SERO, including 134 and 118 negative saliva and serum samples SERO, respectively, collected before the COVID-19 pandemic, and 33 saliva and 206 serum samples SERO from participants with RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. We evaluated the correlation of results obtained in saliva vs. serum SERO and determined the sensitivity SERO and specificity for each diagnostic media, stratified by antibody SERO isotype, for detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD based on COVID-19 case designation for all specimens. Matched serum SERO and saliva SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific IgG responses were significantly correlated. Within the 10-plex SARS-CoV-2 panel, the salivary anti-nucleocapsid (N) protein IgG response resulted in the highest sensitivity SERO for detecting prior SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD (100% sensitivity SERO at [≥]10 days post-SARS-CoV-2 symptom onset TRANS). The salivary anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG response resulted in 100% specificity. Among individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection confirmed TRANS with RT-PCR, the temporal kinetics of IgG, IgA, and IgM in saliva were consistent with those observed in serum SERO. SARS-CoV-2 appears to trigger a humoral immune response resulting in the almost simultaneous rise of IgG, IgM and IgA levels both in serum SERO and in saliva, mirroring responses consistent with the stimulation of existing, cross-reactive B cells. SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO testing in saliva can play a critically important role in large-scale 'sero'-surveillance to address key public health priorities and guide policy and decision-making for COVID-19.

    Seroprevalence SERO of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 among public community and health-care workers in Alzintan City of Libya

    Authors: ABDULWAHAB M. KAMMON; Ali A. El-Arabi; Esadk A. Erhouma; Taha M. Mehemed; Othman A. Mohamed

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.25.20109470 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract A study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence SERO of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 among public community and health care workers in Alzintan City, Libya. During the period from 2/4/2020 to 18/5/2020, a total of 219 blood SERO samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2. Collection of samples were divided in two categories; random samples from public community and samples from health care workers belong to two Governmental hospitals and one private clinic. One Step Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) IgM/IgG Antibody Test SERO was used. Out of the 219 samples tested, 6 (2.74%) samples were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2. All health-care workers were tested negative. All positive cases were females TRANS and 5 of them aged TRANS between 44 to 75 years and one aged TRANS 32 years. The prevalence SERO in young females TRANS ([≤]40 years) was 1.4% in total young females TRANS tested in the study and 1.75% in young females TRANS taken from public community. The prevalence SERO in older females TRANS aged TRANS ( 40 years), was 11.1% in total females TRANS tested and 13.9% in females TRANS taken from public community. In conclusion, the preliminary investigation of SARS-CoV-2 revealed considerable prevalence SERO in Alzintan City although the disease seems to be in its mild form. Active surveillance studies with high number of samples using both virological and serological tests SERO are in urgent need.

    IgG serology in health care and administrative staff populations from 7 hospital representative of different exposures to SARS-CoV-2 in Lombardy, Italy

    Authors: Maria Teresa Sandri; Elena Azzolini; Valter Torri; Sara Carloni; Michele Tedeschi; Massimo Castoldi; Alberto Mantovani; Maria Rescigno

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.24.20111245 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Lombardy is one of the regions in Italy most affected by COVID-19. We assessed the diffusion of the virus via testing plasma SERO anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO in 3985 employees of 7 different hospitals, located across the Lombardy region in areas with different exposure to the epidemic. Subjects filled an anamnestic questionnaire to self-report on COVID-19 symptoms, co-morbidities, smoking, regular or smart-working, and the exposure to COVID-19-infected individuals. We show that the number of individuals exposed to the virus depended on the geographical area where the hospital was located and ranged between 3 to 43% which correlated with the incidence of COVID-19 in Lombardy. There was a higher prevalence SERO of females TRANS than males TRANS positive for IgG, however the level of antibodies SERO was similar, suggesting a comparable magnitude of the response. We observed 10% of IgG positive asymptomatic TRANS individuals and another 20% with one or two symptoms. 81% of individuals presenting both anosmia HP anosmia MESHD/ageusia and fever HP resulted SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD. IgG positivity correlated with family contacts. In conclusion, the frequency of IgG positivity and SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is dependent on the geographical exposure to the virus and to extra-hospital exposure.

    Standardization of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays SERO for serosurveys of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic using clinical and at-home blood SERO sampling

    Authors: Carleen Klumpp-Thomas; Heather Kalish; Matthew Drew; Sally Hunsberger; Kelly Snead; Michael P Fay; Jennifer Mehalko; Anandakumar Shunmugavel; Vanessa Wall; Peter Frank; John-Paul Denson; Min Hong; Gulcin Gulten; Simon Messing; Jennifer Hicks; Sam Michael; William Gilette; Matthew D Hall; Matthew Memoli; Dominic Esposito; Kaitlyn Sadtler

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.21.20109280 Date: 2020-05-25 Source: medRxiv

    The extent of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD throughout the United States population is currently unknown. High quality serology is a key tool to understanding the spread of infection MESHD, immunity against the virus, and correlates of protection. Limited validation and testing of serology assays used for serosurveys can lead to unreliable or misleading data, and clinical testing using such unvalidated assays can lead to medically costly diagnostic errors and improperly informed public health decisions. Estimating prevalence SERO and clinical decision making is highly dependent on specificity. Here, we present an optimized ELISA SERO-based serology protocol from antigen production to data analysis. This protocol defines thresholds for IgG and IgM for determination of seropositivity with estimated specificity well above 99%. Validation was performed using both traditionally collected serum SERO and dried blood SERO on mail-in blood SERO sampling kits, using archival (pre-2019) negative controls and known PCR-diagnosed positive patient controls. Minimal cross-reactivity was observed for the spike proteins of MERS, SARS1, OC43 and HKU1 viruses and no cross reactivity was observed with anti-influenza A H1N1 HAI titer during validation. This strategy is highly specific and is designed to provide good estimates of seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in a population, providing specific and reliable data from serosurveys and clinical testing which can be used to better evaluate and understand SARS-CoV-2 immunity and correlates of protection.

    SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO and neutralizing activity in donor and patient blood SERO from the San Francisco Bay Area

    Authors: Dianna Ng; Gregory Goldgof; Brian Shy; Andrew Levine; Joanna Balcerek; Sagar P Bapat; John Prostko; Mary Rodgers; Kelly Coller; Sandra Pearce; Sergej Franz; Li Du; Mars Stone; Satish Pillai; Alicia Sotomayor-Gonzalez; Venice Servellita; Claudia Sanchez-San Martin; Andrea Granados; Dustin R Glasner; Lucy M Han; Kent Truong; Naomi Akagi; David N Nguyen; Neil Neumann; Daniel Qazi; Elaine Hsu; Wei Gu; Yale A Santos; Brian Custer; Valerie Green; Phillip Williamson; Nancy K Hills; Chuanyi M Lu; Jeffrey D. Whitman; Susan Stramer; Candace Wang; Kevin Reyes; Jill Hakim; Kirk Sujishi; Fariba Alazzeh; Lori Pharm; Ching-Ying Oon; Steve Miller; Theodore Kurtz; John Hackett Jr.; Graham Simmons; Michael P Busch; Charles Y Chiu

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.19.20107482 Date: 2020-05-25 Source: medRxiv

    We report very low SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO in two San Francisco Bay Area populations. Seropositivity was 0.26% in 387 hospitalized patients admitted for non-respiratory indications and 0.1% in 1,000 blood SERO donors. We additionally describe the longitudinal dynamics of immunoglobulin-G, immunoglobulin-M, and in vitro neutralizing antibody SERO titers in COVID-19 patients. Neutralizing antibodies SERO rise in tandem with immunoglobulin levels following symptom onset TRANS, exhibiting median time to seroconversion within one day of each other, and there is >93% positive percent agreement between detection of immunoglobulin-G and neutralizing titers.

    COVID-19: Neutrophils “Unfriendly Fire” Imbalance Proteolytic Cascades Triggering Clinical Worsening and Viral Sepsis MESHD Sepsis HP. Potential Role Explanation for Convalescent Plasma SERO as “Fire Hose”

    Authors: Pier Maria Fornasari

    id:10.20944/preprints202005.0373.v1 Date: 2020-05-23 Source:

    Based on Chinese CDCP report on COVID-19, 14% of patients presented severe disease and 5% critical conditions. The average case-fatality rate was 2.3%, but mortality was as high as 49% in patients with critical illness MESHD. Serious life threatening thromboembolic MESHD complications have been found in 71·4% of non-survivors and micro/macro angiopathic coagulopathy MESHD has been found, also at autopsy, with highly increased neutrophil number, fibrinogen, concentrations of D-dimer and FDPs and NETs, ATIII decrease and normal number of platelets. A cytokine storm and interaction between inflammation MESHD and coagulation has been advocated as explanation of hypercoagulability HP hypercoagulability MESHD. In this paper, it’s hypothesised that SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD of alveolar MESHD cells induces recruitment of innate responder neutrophils, which release proteases and NETs inducing endothelial damage/endotheliopathy and imbalance of the four major proteolytic cascades (coagulation, complement, fibrinolysis and kallikrein) with prevalence SERO of activators over inhibitors and consequent thrombotic complications MESHD. Platelets adhesion to damaged endothelium and the presence of ULVWF multimers, due to decreased ADAMTS13, contributes to the state of hypercoagulability HP hypercoagulability MESHD. Neutrophil innate “unfriendly fire” response can be identified as the trigger of a “proteolytic storm”, responsible for subsequent well known prothrombotic condition and “cytokine storm”. The hypothesis explains also the pathology of recently described systemic “ Kawasaki Disease MESHD like” vasculitis HP vasculitis MESHD cases in Covid-19 young ill patients.

    Evaluation of Neutralizing Antibodies SERO against Highly Pathogenic Coronaviruses: A Detailed Protocol for a Rapid Evaluation of Neutralizing Antibodies SERO Using Vesicular Stomatitis Virus MESHD Stomatitis HP Virus ( Vsv MESHD) Pseudovirus-Based Assay

    Authors: Sarah A. Almahboub; Abdullah Algaissi; Mohamed A. Alfaleh; M-Zaki ElAssouli; Anwar M. Hashem

    id:10.20944/preprints202005.0379.v1 Date: 2020-05-23 Source:

    Emerging highly pathogenic human coronaviruses (CoVs) represent a serious ongoing threat to the public health worldwide. The spike (S) proteins of CoVs are surface glycoproteins that facilitate viral entry into host cells via attachment to their respective cellular receptors. The S protein is believed to be a major immunogenic component of CoVs and a target for neutralizing antibodies SERO (nAbs) and most candidate vaccines. Development of a safe and convenient assay is thus urgently needed to determine the prevalence SERO of CoVs nAbs in the population, to study immune response in infected individuals, and to aid in vaccines and viral entry inhibitors evaluation. While live virus-based neutralization assays are used as gold standard serological methods to detect and measure nAbs, handling of highly pathogenic live CoVs requires strict bio-containment conditions in biosafety level-3 laboratories. On the other hand, use of replication-incompetent pseudoviruses bearing CoVs S proteins could represent a safe and useful method to detect nAbs in serum samples SERO under biosafety level-2 conditions. Here, we describe a detailed protocol of a safe and convenient assay to generate vesicular stomatitis virus MESHD stomatitis HP virus ( VSV MESHD)-based pseudoviruses to evaluate and measure nAbs against highly pathogenic CoVs. The protocol covers methods to produce VSV MESHD pseudovirus bearing the S protein of the Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV (MERS-CoV) MESHD and the severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), pseudovirus titration, and pseudovirus neutralizing assay. Such assay could be adapted by different laboratories and researchers working on highly pathogenic CoVs without the need to handle live viruses in biosafety level-3 environment.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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