Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype


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    Clinical And Analytical Performance SERO Of An Automated Serological Test SERO That Identifies S1/S2 Neutralizing IgG In Covid-19 Patients Semiquantitatively.

    Authors: Fabrizio Bonelli; Antonella Sarasini; Claudia Zierold; Mariella Calleri; Alice Bonetti; Frank A Blocki; Luca Pallavicini; Alberto Chinali; Daniela Campisi; Elena Percivalle; Anna Pia DiNapoli; Carlo Federico Perno; Fausto Balldanti

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.19.105445 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: bioRxiv

    BACKGROUNDIn the Covid-19 pandemic, highly selective serological testing SERO is essential to define exposure to SARS-CoV-2 virus. Many tests have been developed, yet with variable speed to first result, and of unknown quality, particularly when considering the prediction of neutralizing capacity. OBJECTIVES/METHODSThe LIAISON(R) SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay was designed to measure antibodies SERO against the SARS-CoV-2 native S1/S2 proteins in a standardized automated chemiluminescent assay. Clinical and analytical performance SERO of the test were validated in an observational study using residual samples (>1500) with positive or negative Covid-19 diagnosis. RESULTSThe LIAISON(R) SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay proved highly selective and specific, and offers semiquantitative measures of serum SERO or plasma SERO levels of anti-S1/S2 IgG with neutralizing activity. The diagnostic sensitivity SERO was 91.3% and 95.7% at >5 or [≥]15 days from diagnosis respectively, and 100% when assessed against a neutralizing assay. The specificity ranged between 97% and 98.5%. The average imprecision of the assay was <5 % coefficient of variation. Assay performance SERO at 2 different cut-offs was evaluated to optimize predictive values in settings with different % disease prevalence SERO. CONCLUSIONS. The automated LIAISON(R) SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay brings efficient, sensitive, specific, and precise serological testing SERO to the laboratory, with the capacity to test large amounts of samples per day: first results are available within 35 minutes with a throughput of 170 tests/hour. The test also provides a semiquantitative measure to identify samples with neutralizing antibodies SERO, useful also for a large scale screening of convalescent plasma SERO for safe therapeutic use. IMPORTANCEWith the worldwide advance of the COVID-19 pandemic, efficient, reliable and accessible diagnostic tools are needed to support public health officials and healthcare providers in their efforts to deliver optimal medical care, and articulate sound demographic policy. DiaSorin has developed an automated serology based assay for the measurement of IgG specific to SARS CoV-2 Spike protein, and tested its clinical performance SERO in collaboration with Italian health care professionals who provided access to large numbers of samples from infected and non-infected individuals. The assay delivers excellent sensitivity SERO and specificity, and is able to identify samples with high levels of neutralizing antibodies SERO. This will provide guidance in assessing the true immune status of subjects, as well as meeting the pressing need to screen donors for high titer convalescent sera for subsequent therapeutic and prophylactic use.

    Sepsis HP Sepsis MESHD and septic shock MESHD shock HP in COVID-19: a scoping review of the research data

    Authors: Sulaiman Lakoh; Darlinda F. JIBA; Mamadu BALDEH; Alren O. VANDY; Hassan BENYA; Marta LADO; Stephen SEVALIE; George A. YENDEWA; Foday SAHR

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Sepsis HP Sepsis MESHD is a major contributor to global mortality with an estimated 700, 000 sepsis HP sepsis MESHD-related deaths annually. As sepsis HP sepsis MESHD is an acute complication of COVID-19, the ongoing pandemic can increase its global burden. Despite this, there is still limited research evidence on COVID-19 and sepsis HP sepsis MESHD. In this scoping review, we described the research data on sepsis HP sepsis MESHD and septic shock MESHD shock HP among patients with COVID-19.Methods We adapted Arksey and O’Malley framework by reviewing relevant studies published on medRxiv, PubMed, and Google Scholar between January 01, 2020, and April 16, 2020, on sepsis HP sepsis MESHD and septic shock MESHD shock HP with the publication language restriction to English. The findings included the prevalence SERO and outcome of COVID-19 patients with sepsis HP sepsis MESHD or septic shock MESHD shock HP, sepsis HP sepsis MESHD criteria, laboratory data, and the treatment given to COVID patients.Results Of the 16 eligible articles included in this review, 13 (81.2%) were conducted in China. With the exception of one article, the research work for all the articles was conducted in adult TRANS patients. The articles were retrospective studies (12, 75%), case reports (3, 18.8%) and prospective observational studies (1,6.2%). The estimated prevalence SERO of sepsis HP sepsis MESHD and septic shock MESHD shock HP range from 6.8–100% and 4–28.9%, respectively. Serum SERO lactate, platelets, C-reactive protein, white cell counts, and procalcitonin were elevated in 24.5%, 6.2%, 31.2%, 62.5%, 43.8% and 37.5% of the articles, respectively. Bacterial cultures were documented in 4(25%) of the eligible articles. 12 (75%) and 11 (68.8%) articles documented the use of antivirals and antibiotics, respectively. Other antimicrobials used among COVID-19 patients were hydroxychloroquine (1,6.3%), chloroquine (1, 6.3%), and unspecified antifungal drugs (2, 12.5%). Supportive therapies like oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and fluid therapy were documented in 12(75%), 13 (81.3%), and 2 (12.5%) articles, respectively. The highest and lowest mortality among the study participants is 29.8% (134) and 5.4% (12), respectively.Conclusion There is a paucity of data in the literature on sepsis HP sepsis MESHD in COVID-19 despite its high burden among the COVID-19 patient population resulting in a high rate of antimicrobial use that is not backed by clearly documented microbiology laboratory support. Research is needed to understand the burden of sepsis HP sepsis MESHD in COVID-19.

    Serological prevalence SERO of antibodies to SARS CoV-2 SERO amongst cancer MESHD centre staff

    Authors: Karol Sikora; Ian Barwick; Ceri Hamilton

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.16.20099408 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: the aim of this study was to test Rutherford Health (RH) staff for the presence of SARS CoV-2 antibodies SERO to reduce the risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection to cancer MESHD patients. Setting: Between 14 and 24 April 2020 we tested 161 staff at four locations: our cancer MESHD centres in Reading - Berkshire, Newport - S Wales, Liverpool - Merseyside, and Bedlington in Northumberland. Participants: Testing was available to all staff who were on site at the four locations named above at the time the study was carried out. 161 staff (80 men, 81 women) gave voluntary consent to have the tests and all testing gave rise to valid results. Interventions: We used the South Korean test for antibodies SERO to SARS CoV-2: Sugentech SGTi-flex COVID-19 IgM/IgG1. For each test, blood SERO was collected and added to the sample well of the test cassette SERO and buffer solution added. The test result was legible after 15 minutes. Outcome measures: The number of tests positive for the presence of antibodies SERO was the primary outcome measure. The ratio of tests positive for the presence of IgM antibodies SERO versus IgG antibodies SERO was the secondary outcome measure. Results: Between 14 and 24 April 2020, 161 staff ( age TRANS m = 43) were tested at four Rutherford Cancer Care centres that offer proton beam therapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Out of 161, 12 samples (7.50%) tested positive of which 7 samples (4.35%) detected IgM only, 2 samples (1.24%) detected IgG only and 3 samples (1.86%) detected both IgM and IgG. Conclusions: The low seroconversion rate in the sample population limits the current utility of the test as a way of reducing risk to vulnerable patient populations but longitudinal retesting will provide further data.

    The infection MESHD fatality rate of COVID-19 inferred from seroprevalence SERO data

    Authors: John Ioannidis

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.13.20101253 Date: 2020-05-19 Source: medRxiv

    Objective To estimate the infection fatality rate of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) from data of seroprevalence SERO studies. Methods Population studies with sample size of at least 500 and published as peer-reviewed papers or preprints as of July 11, 2020 were retrieved from PubMed, preprint servers, and communications with experts. Studies on blood SERO donors were included, but studies on healthcare workers were excluded. The studies were assessed for design features and seroprevalence SERO estimates. Infection fatality rate was estimated from each study dividing the number of COVID-19 deaths at a relevant time point by the number of estimated people infected MESHD in each relevant region. Correction was also attempted accounting for the types of antibodies SERO assessed. Secondarily, results from national studies were also examined from preliminary press releases and reports whenever a country had no other data presented in full papers of preprints. Results 36 studies (43 estimates) were identified with usable data to enter into calculations and another 7 preliminary national estimates were also considered for a total of 50 estimates. Seroprevalence SERO estimates ranged from 0.222% to 47%. Infection fatality rates ranged from 0.00% to 1.63% and corrected values ranged from 0.00% to 1.31%. Across 32 different locations, the median infection fatality rate was 0.27% (corrected 0.24%). Most studies were done in pandemic epicenters with high death tolls. Median corrected IFR was 0.10% in locations with COVID-19 population mortality rate less than the global average (<73 deaths per million as of July 12, 2020), 0.27% in locations with 73-500 COVID-19 deaths per million, and 0.90% in locations exceeding 500 COVID-19 deaths per million. Among people <70 years old, infection fatality rates ranged from 0.00% to 0.57% with median of 0.05% across the different locations (corrected median of 0.04%). Conclusions The infection fatality rate of COVID-19 can vary substantially across different locations and this may reflect differences in population age TRANS structure and case-mix of infected MESHD and deceased patients as well as multiple other factors. Estimates of infection fatality rates inferred from seroprevalence SERO studies tend to be much lower than original speculations made in the early days of the pandemic.

    Experience of quantitative SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO screening of health-care workers in the southern part of Kyoto city during COVID-19 peri-pandemic period

    Authors: Kohei Fujita; Shinpei Kada; Osamu Kanai; Hiroaki Hata; Takao Odagaki; Noriko Satoh-Asahara; Tetsuya Tagami; Akihiro Yasoda

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.12.20098962 Date: 2020-05-19 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with a heavy burden on the mental and physical health of patients, regional healthcare resources, and global economic activity. While our understanding of the incidence and case-fatality rates increases, data on seroprevalence SERO of antibodies SERO against the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) in healthcare workers during the peri-pandemic period is insufficient. This study quantitatively evaluated seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO in healthcare workers in the southern part of Kyoto city, Japan. Methods: We prospectively recruited healthcare workers from a single hospital between April 10 and April 20, 2020. We collected serum samples SERO from these participants and quantitatively evaluated SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody SERO levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO. Results: Five (5.4%), 15 (16.3%), and 72 (78.3%) participants showed positive, borderline, and negative serum SERO SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody SERO status, respectively. We found the mean titer associated with each antibody SERO status (overall, positive, borderline, and negative) was clearly differentiated. Participants working at the otolaryngology department and/or having a history of seasonal common cold symptoms had a significantly higher titer of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody SERO (p=0.046, p=0.046, respectively). Conclusions: Five (5.4%) and 15 (16.3%) participants tested positive and borderline, respectively, for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody SERO during the COVID-19 peri-pandemic period. These rates were higher than expected based on government situation reports. The present findings suggest that COVID-19 was already spread in the southern part of Kyoto city at the early stage of pandemic.

    Vitamin D deficiency in critically ill MESHD patients diagnosed with COVID -19. Are we doing enough? A retrospective analysis of 226 patients.

    Authors: Tomás Cuñat; Antonio Ojeda; Andrea Calvo

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Vitamin D deficiency MESHD is common in critically ill patients, and its role in COVID-19 patients could be important. Its deficiency has been associated with respiratory distress HP respiratory distress MESHD syndrome, pulmonary fibrosis HP pulmonary fibrosis MESHD (through activation of the renin-angiotensin system), increased levels of IL-2, and cardiovascular adverse events. Various scientific societies recommend the screening of vitamin D in individuals at risk for deficiency. Despite that, the demographics of Vitamin D levels amongst critically ill patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 are currently unknown. We propose a study to determine the prevalence SERO of vitamin D deficiency MESHD in a consecutive population of COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care units and to evaluate its relationship with clinical outcomes. We study 226 COVID-19 patients between March 16 and April 26, 2020. The prevalence SERO of vitamin D deficiency could not be determined because the value of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was obtained in a few patients (17 patients, 7,5%). However, all patients with serum SERO determinations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D presented a level lower than 20 ng/ml and thirteen patients (76,5%) levels < 12,5 ng/ml. We conclude that undiagnosed vitamin D deficiency MESHD is common in critically ill COVID-19 patients, and physicians should be conscious of the relevance of its monitoring and supplementation.

    SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in health care workers

    Authors: Adrian M Shields; Sian E Faustini; Marisol Perez-Toledo; Sian Jossi; Erin L Aldera; Joel D Allen; Saly Al-Taei; Claire Backhouse; Andrew Bosworth; Lyndsey Dunbar; Daniel Ebanks; Beena Emmanuel; Joanne Grey; I Michael Kidd; Golaeh McGinnell; Dee McLoughlin; Gabriella Morley; Danai Papakonstantinou; Oliver Pickles; Charlotte Poxon; Megan Richter; Eloise Walker; Kasun Wanigasooriya; Yasunori Watanabe; Celina Whalley; Agnieszka E Zielinska; Max Crispin; David C Wraith; Andrew D Beggs; Adam F Cunningham; Mark T Drayson; Alex G Richter

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20105197 Date: 2020-05-19 Source: medRxiv

    Background The correlates of protection against SARS-CoV-2 and their longevity remain unclear. Studies in severely ill individuals have identified robust cellular and humoral immune responses against the virus. Asymptomatic TRANS infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 has also been described, but it is unknown whether this is sufficient to produce antibody SERO responses. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study recruiting 554 health care workers from University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust who were at work and asymptomatic TRANS. Participants were tested for current infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 by nasopharyngeal swab for real-time polymerase chain reaction and for seroconversion by the measurement of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein antibodies SERO by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay SERO. Results were interpreted in the context of previous, self-reported symptoms of illness consistent with COVID-19. Results The point prevalence SERO of infection with SARS-CoV-2, determined by the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA on nasopharnygeal swab was 2.39% (n=13/544). Serum SERO was available on 516 participants. The overall rate of seroconversion in the cohort was 24.4% (n=126/516). Individuals who had previously experienced a symptomatic illness consistent with COVID-19 had significantly greater seroconversion rates than those who had remained asymptomatic TRANS (37.5% vs 17.1%, {chi}2 =21.1034, p<0.0001). In the week preceding peak COVID-19-related mortality at UHBFT, seroconversion rates amongst those who were suffering from symptomatic illnesses peaked at 77.8%. Prior symptomatic illness generated quantitatively higher antibody SERO responses than asymptomatic TRANS seroconversion. Seroconversion rates were highest amongst those working in housekeeping (34.5%), acute medicine (33.3%) and general internal medicine (30.3%) with lower rates observed in participants working in intensive care (14.8%) and emergency medicine (13.3%). Conclusions In a large cross-sectional seroprevalence SERO study of health-care workers, we demonstrate that asymptomatic TRANS seroconversion occurs, however prior symptomatic illness is associated with quantitatively higher antibody SERO responses. The identification that the potential for seroconversion in health-care workers can associate differentially with certain hospital departments may inform future infection control and occupational health practices.

    Pulmonary embolism HP Pulmonary embolism MESHD and screening for concomitant proximal deep vein thrombosis MESHD in noncritically ill hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019.

    Authors: Álvaro Dubois-Silva; Cristina Barbagelata-López; Álvaro Mena; Patricia Piñeiro-Parga; Diego Llinares-García; Santiago Freire-Castro

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background The clinical characteristics of noncritically ill patients with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) who develop pulmonary embolism HP pulmonary embolism MESHD ( PE MESHD) and the prevalence SERO of concomitant proximal deep-vein thrombosis MESHD ( DVT MESHD) of the lower limbs have not been evaluated consistently.Methods We identified nonintensive care unit (non-ICU) patients admitted with COVID-19 who were diagnosed with PE MESHD at a single center in northwest Spain. Point-of-care compression ultrasonography (CUS) of the lower limbs was performed to screen for concomitant proximal DVT MESHD. Clinical data were analyzed retrospectively.Results From April 2 to April 17, 2020, 8 patients with COVID-19 and PE MESHD were identified. PE MESHD was diagnosed a median of 19 (interquartile range [IQR], 17–23) days after onset of COVID-19 symptoms and a median of 13 (IQR, 8–15) days after admission. All patients received thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin or biosimilar at a median dose of 40 mg. All tested patients had high levels of D-dimer (≥2000 ng/mL), serum SERO ferritin (≥300 mg/dL) and IL-6 (≥5 pg/mL) at PE MESHD diagnosis. Six (75%) and 7 (87.5%) patients had high C-reactive-protein (≥1 mg/dL) and lactate dehydrogenase (≥250 U/L) levels, respectively. All PE MESHD events were segmental or subsegmental, with lobar involvement in only one. None of these patients had concomitant proximal DVT MESHD of the lower limbs on CUS.Conclusions Non-ICU hospitalized patients with COVID-19 diagnosed with PE MESHD had mainly segmental or subsegmental events without concomitant proximal DVT MESHD of the lower limbs. Our findings suggest a predominance of small-vessel thrombosis MESHD secondary to inflammatory and immune responses in these patients.

    Cancer MESHD Patient Management Strategy in a Cancer Center of Zhejiang, China During the COVID-19 Pandemic 

    Authors: Song-xiao Xu; Xiang-dong Cheng; Zhi-wen Pan; Qian Song; Yi-hong Wang; Juan Xiong; Yong-yi Chen; Fan Fan; Jing Zhu; Wan-ying Wu; Xue-ying Deng; Yan-pin Yu; Xiao-hong Xu; Wen-hu Chen; Tao Zhu; Yang Yu; Kai-zhong Liu; Guo-liang Shao; Ming Chen; En-yan Yu

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Due to the increased risk of viral infection and the severe HP iral infection MESHDand the severe shortage of medical resources during the pandemic of COVID-19, most hospitals in the epidemic areas significantly reduced non-emergency admissions and services, if not closed. As a result, it has been difficult to treat c ancer MESHDpatients on time, which adversely affects their prognosis. To address this problem, c ancer MESHDcenters must develop a strategic plan to manage both inpatients and outpatients during the pandemic, provide them with the necessary treatment, and at the same time prevent the spread of the virus among patients, visitors and medical staff. Methods: Based upon the epidemic situation in Zhejiang Province, China, the number of running non-emergency medical wards in the Zhejiang Cancer Hospital was gradually increased in a controlled manner. All staff of the hospital received COVID-19 preventive training and was provided with three different levels of protection according to the risks of their services. Only patients without a known history of SARS-CoV-2 contact were eligible to schedule an appointment. Body temperature was measured on all patients upon their arrival at the hospital. Chest CT image, blood SERO cell counting and travel TRANS/contact history were investigated in patients with fever HP ever. MESHD Respiratory tract samples, such as sputum and throat swabs, from all patients, including those clinically suspected of S ARS-CoV-2 infection, MESHD were collected for nucleic acid detection of SARS-CoV-2 before treatment.Results: A total of 3697 inpatients and 416 outpatients seeking c ancer MESHDtreatment were enrolled from February 1 to April 3, 2020, in compliance with the hospital’s infection-control interventions. The clinicopathological parameters of the patients were summarized herein. 4237 samples from 4101 patients produced negative RNA testing results. Four clinically suspected patients all presented negative RNA test results and were excluded from the S ARS-CoV-2 infection MESHDthrough follow-up retesting and monitoring. Seven patients with only N-gene positive results were retested, followed by CT scan and SARS-CoV-2 contact history investigation. All of them were finally diagnosed as non-infected patients. There was one outpatient who was confirmed positive by virus RNA test and then followed up. She might be an asymptomatic laboratory- confirmed case TRANS. During the study period, there was no S ARS-CoV-2 infection MESHDamong staff, patients and escorts of patients in the Zhejiang Cancer Hospital.Conclusion: This study suggested our infection-control interventions, including viral nucleic acid test, could be used as a reliable method to screen c ancer MESHDpatients in the area with moderate COVID-19 prevalence SERO. C ancer MESHDmay not be a high-risk factor of S ARS-CoV-2 infection. MESHD 

    The Cardiac Injury MESHD in Hospitalized Patients with Severe COVID-19 in Wuhan, China

    Authors: Sen Lu; Hongli He; Rong an Liu; Yaqiu Wu; Lei Deng; Pin Wang; Weiwei Huang; Yong Peng; Hongwen Xiao; Gang Li; Xiaobo Huang

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic since December 2019, while the date on the relationship between cardiac injury MESHD and mortality in patients with COVID-19 is limited.Methods: All consecutive lab-confirmed critically ill COVID-19 patients in intensive care unit of Wuhan Red Cross Hospital from December 30, 2019 to March 18, 2020, were enrolled. Data of patients were collected. The prevalence SERO of cardiac injury MESHD and its association with in-hospital mortality was analyzed.Results: Among the 50 ICU patients, 36 patients (72.0%) were complicated with cardiac injury MESHD and 14 patients (28.0%) without cardiac injury MESHD. Patients with cardiac injury MESHD had higher white blood SERO cell counts, values of d-dimer, levels of lactate concentration, APACHE II score and lower PaO2/FiO2 at the time of admission than those without cardiac injury MESHD. The in-hospital case fatality ratio was higher in the cardiac injury MESHD than non- cardiac injury MESHD group (75.0% vs 21.4%;p=0.002).Multivariable-adjusted logistic proportional hazard regression analysis showed that a significantly higher risk of death MESHD in patients with cardiac injury MESHD than those without cardiac injury MESHD (OR, 5.876; 95% CI, 1.039–33.228).Conclusions: Cardiac injury MESHD is a common compilation and associated with higher risk of in-hospital death MESHD in patients with severe COVID-19. 

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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