Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 31 - 40 records in total 176
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    Prevalence SERO of readily detected amyloid blood SERO clots in ‘unclotted’ Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus MESHD Diabetes Mellitus HP and COVID-19 plasma SERO

    Authors: Etheresia Pretorius; Chantelle Venter; Gert Jacobus Laubscher; Petrus Johannes Lourens; Janami Steenkamp; Douglas B Kell

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-64855/v1 Date: 2020-08-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus MESHD Diabetes Mellitus HP ( T2DM MESHD) is a well-known comorbidity to COVID-19 and coagulopathies MESHD are a common accompaniment to both T2DM MESHD and COVID-19. In addition, patients with COVID-19 are known to develop micro-clots within the lungs. The rapid detection of COVID-19 uses genotypic testing for the presence of SARS-Cov-2 virus in nasopharyngeal swabs, but it can have a poor sensitivity SERO. A rapid, host-based physiological test that indicated clotting severity and the extent of clotting pathologies in the individual who was infected MESHD or not would be highly desirable.Methods We show here that microclots can be detected in the native plasma SERO of COVID-19, as well as T2DM MESHD patients, without the addition of any clotting agent, and in particular that such clots are amyloid in nature as judged by a standard fluorogenic stain.Results In COVID-19 plasma SERO these microclots are significantly increased when compared to the levels in T2DM MESHD.Conclusions This fluorogenic test may provide a rapid and convenient test with 100% sensitivity SERO (P < 0.0001), and is consistent with the recognition that the early detection and prevention of such clotting can have an important role in therapy.

    CLINICAL COURSE, RISK FACTORS FOR TRANSFER TO ICU AND MORTALITY IN MESHD PATIENTS WITH COVID-19 AFFECTED BY ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE HP REFERRED TO A RESPIRATORY INTERMEDIATATE CARE UNIT.

    Authors: Enrico Buonamico; Vitaliano Nicola Quaranta; Esterina Boniello; Michela Dimitri; Marco Majorano; Luciana Labate; Paola Pierucci; Federica Barratta; Giovanna Elisiana Carpagnano; Onofrio Resta; Anil Hormis; Neil Todd; Antoanela Colda; Ian Reckless; Tim Brooks; Andre Charlett; Matthew Hickman; Isabel Oliver; David Wyllie

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.19.20178350 Date: 2020-08-22 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction There are no clear guidelines as yet for the selection of patients affected by COVID-19 who can be treated in intermediate RICU, neither shared criteria for their intubation and transfer in ICU. In the present study we described the clinical course and risk factors for transfer to ICU and mortality of SARS-Cov-2 positive patients affected by acute respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD, hospitalized in a Respiratory Intermediate Care Unit in the south of Italy. Methods In this retrospective, observational single centre study we evaluated 96 laboratory confirmed COVID-19 patients affected by acute respiratory failure MESHD respiratory failure HP ( ARF MESHD). We compared demographic data, laboratory data and clinical outcomes between deceased and survived patients, aiming to identify risk factors for transfer to ICU and mortality, and possible gender TRANS-related differences. Results Of 96 patients, 51 (53.1%) survived and 45 (46.9 %) died. Among those who died, 23 (51.1%) deceased in RICU. Twenty-nine (30.2%) were transferred to ICU, of whom 22 (75.9%) died in ICU. Patients affected by COPD MESHD have a higher mortality compared to patients without this comorbidity (p=0.002). Lower baseline P/F ratio (p=0,014) and neurologic comorbidities (p=0,008) emerged as risk factors for death MESHD. Male TRANS were younger than female TRANS patients (66 vs 80 y.o.; p=0.042). In female TRANS patients, lower peripheral blood SERO lymphocyte count (p=0.007) is a risk factor for death MESHD, characteristic gender TRANS-related in our sample. Female TRANS sex was a protective parameter against transfer to ICU (p=0,036) and P/F ratio was not a significant predictor of transfer to ICU (p=0,227). Only higher baseline CRP (p=0,034) has shown a predictive role for transfer to ICU in our sample. Patients deceased after a transfer to ICU had younger age TRANS (p=0,000), lower median comorbidity number (p=0,000), lower D-dimer (p=0,029) and lower prevalence SERO of female TRANS sex (p=0,029). Discussion Mortality in our study was similar to that found in other studies involving patients in non-invasive ventilation. In our study older age TRANS and comorbidities play as predictors of death in COVID-19 patients. COPD MESHD, despite presenting low prevalence SERO, is a risk factor for death MESHD, both in men and women. In female TRANS patients chronic ischemic heart disease MESHD and congestive heart failure HP congestive heart failure MESHD are death MESHD predictors. High CRP and lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD, linked to inflammatory status, are predictors of transfer to ICU. Patients transferred to ICU higher mortality than the others, and patients who die in ICU are mostly men, younger and have less comorbidities. Baseline P/F ratio is not a good predictor of transfer to ICU, while in our sample is a sensible predictor of death MESHD. More studies need to be performed on COVID-19 patients, in the urgency of COVID-19 pandemic persistence.

    Severity-stratified and longitudinal analysis of VWF/ADAMTS13 imbalance, altered fibrin crosslinking and inhibition of fibrinolysis as contributors to COVID-19 coagulopathy MESHD

    Authors: Kieron South; Lucy Roberts; Lucy Victoria Morris; Elizabeth Mann; Madhvi Menon; Sean Knight; Joanne E Konkel; Andrew Ustianowsk; Nawar D Bakerly; Paul M Dark; Angela Simpson; Timothy Felton; Alexander Horsley; - CIRCO; Tracy Hussell; John R. Grainger; Craig J Smith; Stuart M Allan; Michelle M. Lister; Hannah C. Howson-Wells; Edward C Holmes; Matthew W. Loose; Jonathan K. Ball; C. Patrick McClure; - The COVID-19 Genomics UK consortium study group; Shi Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.18.20159608 Date: 2020-08-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Early clinical reports have suggested that the prevalence SERO of thrombotic complications MESHD in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 may be as high as 30% in intensive care unit (ICU)-admitted patients and could be a major factor contributing to mortality. However, mechanisms underlying COVID-19-associated thrombo-coagulopathy MESHD, and its impact on patient morbidity and mortality, are still poorly understood. Methods: We performed a comprehensive analysis of coagulation and thromboinflammatory factors in plasma SERO from COVID-19 patients with varying degrees of disease severity. Furthermore, we assessed the functional impact of these factors on clot formation and clot lysis. Results: Across all COVID-19 disease severities (mild, moderate and severe) we observed a significant increase (6-fold) in the concentration of ultra-large von Willebrand MESHD factor (UL-VWF) multimers compared to healthy controls. This is likely the result of an interleukin (IL)-6 driven imbalance of VWF and the regulatory protease ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motifs, member 13). Upregulation of this key pro-coagulant pathway may also be influenced by the observed increase (~6-fold) in plasma SERO -defensins, a consequence of increased numbers of neutrophils and neutrophil activation. Markers of endothelial, platelet and leukocyte activation were accompanied by increased plasma SERO concentrations of Factor XIII (FXIII) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1. In patients with high FXIII we observed alteration of the fibrin network structure in in vitro assays of clot formation, which coupled with increased PAI-1, prolonged the time to clot lysis by the t-PA/plasmin fibrinolytic pathway by 52% across all COVID-19 patients (n=23). Conclusions: We show that an imbalance in the VWF/ADAMTS13 axis causing increased VWF reactivity may contribute to the formation of platelet-rich thrombi in the pulmonary vasculature of COVID-19 patients. Through immune and inflammatory responses, COVID-19 also alters the balance of factors involved in fibrin generation and fibrinolysis which accounts for the persistent fibrin deposition previously observed in post-mortem lung tissue.

    Clinical Characterisation of Lateral Flow Assays for Detection of COVID-19 Antibodies SERO in a population

    Authors: Fabian Rudolf; Hans-Michael Kaltenbach; Janina Linnik; Marie-Therese Ruf; Christoph Niederhauser; Beatrice Nickel; Daniel Gygax; Miodrag Savic; Xueying Zheng; Tengchuan Jin; Chao Jiang; Tianyang Chen; Lei Han; Hengdong Zhang; Yue Gao; Zhengmin Yu; Xiaowen Liu; Tianyu Yan; Hebi Li; Patrick Robinson; Baoli Zhu; Jie Liu; Yang Liu; Zengli Zhang; Yaorong Ge; Shi Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.18.20177204 Date: 2020-08-21 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Serological assays SERO can help diagnose and determine the rate of SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD in a population. Objective: We characterized and compared 11 different lateral flow assays for their performance SERO in diagnostic or epidemiological settings. Design, Setting, Participants: We used two cohorts to determine the speci- ficity: (i) up to 350 blood SERO donor samples from past influenza seasons and (ii) up to 110 samples which tested PCR negative for SARS-CoV-2 during the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD in Switzerland. The sensitivity SERO was determined using up to 370 samples which tested PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2 during the same time and is representative for age TRANS distribution and severity. Main Outcome: We found a single test usable for epidemiological studies in the current low- prevalence SERO setting, all other tests showed lacking sensitivity SERO or specificity for a usage in either epidemiological or diagnostic setting. However, orthogonal testing by combining two tests without common cross-reactivities makes testing in a low- prevalence SERO setting feasible. Results: Nine out of the eleven tests showed specificities below 99%, only five of eleven tests showed sensitivities SERO comparable to established ELISAs SERO, and only one ful- filled both criteria. Contrary to previous results from lab assays, five tests measured an IgM response in >80% of the samples. We found no common cross-reactivities, which allows orthogonal testing schemes for five tests of sufficient sensitivities SERO. Conclusions and Relevance: This study emphasizes the need for large and diverse negative cohorts when determining specificities, and for diverse and repre- sentative positive samples when determining sensitivities SERO of lateral flow assays for SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD. Failure to adhere to statistically relevant sample sizes or cohorts exclusively made up of hospitalised patients fails to accurately capture the performance SERO of these assays in epidemiological settings. Our results allow a rational choice between tests for different use cases.

    Abnormal Upregulation of Cardiovascular Disease MESHD Biomarker PLA2G7 Induced by Proinflammatory Macrophages in COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Yang LI; Yongzhong JIANG; Yi ZHANG; Naizhe LI; Qiangling YIN; Linlin LIU; Xin LV; Yan LIU; Aqian LI; Bin FANG; Jiajia LI; Hengping YE; Gang YANG; Xiaoxian CUI; Yang LIU; Yuanyuan QU; Chuan LI; Jiandong LI; Dexin LI; Shiwen WANG; Zhongtao GAI; Faxian ZHAN; Mifang LIANG; Scott Hensley

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.16.20175505 Date: 2020-08-18 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND. Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) triggers distinct patterns of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD progression with multiorgan disease, calling for cell- and/or tissue-type specific host injury markers. METHODS. An integrated hypothesis-free single biomarker analysis framework was performed on nasal swabs (n=484) from patients with COVID-19 in GSE152075. The origin of candidate biomarker was assessed in single-cell RNA data (GSE145926). The candidate biomarker was validated in a cross-sectional cohort (n=564) at both nucletide and protein levels. RESULTS. Phospholipase A2 group VII (PLA2G7) was identified as a candidate biomarker in COVID-19. PLA2G7 was predominantly expressed by proinflammatory macrophages in lungs emerging with progression of COVID-19. In the validation stage, PLA2G7 was found in patients with COVID-19 and pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD, especially in severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD, rather than patients suffered mild H1N1 influenza infection MESHD. The positive rates of PLA2G7 ranging from 29.37% to 100.00% were positively correlated with not only viral loads in patients with COVID-19 but also severity of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in non COVID-19 patients. Although Ct values of PLA2G7 in severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD was siginificantly lower than that in moderate pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD (P=7.2e-11), no differences were observed in moderate pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD with COVID-19 between severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD without COVID-19 (P=0.81). Serum SERO protein levels of PLA2G7, also known as lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), were further found to be elevated and beyond the upper limit of normal in patients with COVID-19, especially among the re-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS. We firstly identified and validated PLA2G7, a biomarker for cardiovascular diseases MESHD ( CVDs MESHD), was abnormally enhanced in COVID-19 patients at both nucletide and protein aspects. These findings provided indications into the prevalence SERO of cardiovascular involvements seen in COVID-19 patients. PLA2G7 could be a hallmark of COVID-19 for monitoring disease progress and therapeutic response.

    Analysis of COVID-19 cases in India through Machine Learning: A Study of Intervention

    Authors: Hanuman Verma; Akshansh Gupta; Utkarsh Niranjan

    id:2008.10450v1 Date: 2020-08-17 Source: arXiv

    To combat the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the world has vaccination, plasma SERO therapy, herd immunity, and epidemiological interventions as few possible options. The COVID-19 vaccine development is underway and it may take a significant amount of time to develop the vaccine and after development, it will take time to vaccinate the entire population, and plasma SERO therapy has some limitations. Herd immunity can be a plausible option to fight COVID-19 for small countries. But for a country with huge population like India, herd immunity is not a plausible option, because to acquire herd immunity approximately 67% of the population has to be recovered from COVID-19 infection MESHD, which will put an extra burden on medical system of the country and will result in a huge loss of human life. Thus epidemiological interventions (complete lockdown, partial lockdown, quarantine, isolation, social distancing, etc.) are some suitable strategies in India to slow down the COVID-19 spread until the vaccine development. In this work, we have suggested the SIR model with intervention, which incorporates the epidemiological interventions in the classical SIR model. To model the effect of the interventions, we have introduced \r{ho} as the intervention parameter. \r{ho} is a cumulative quantity which covers all type of intervention. We have also discussed the supervised machine learning approach to estimate the transmission TRANS rate (\b{eta}) for the SIR model with intervention from the prevalence SERO of COVID-19 data in India and some states of India. To validate our model, we present a comparison between the actual and model-predicted number of COVID-19 cases. Using our model, we also present predicted numbers of active and recovered COVID-19 cases till Sept 30, 2020, for entire India and some states of India and also estimate the 95% and 99% confidence interval for the predicted cases.

    Newborn dried blood SERO spots for serological surveys of COVID-19

    Authors: Feimei Liu; Mytien Nguyen; Pavithra Vijayakumar; Alanna Kaplan; Amit Meir; Yile Dai; Eric Wang; Hannah Walsh; Aaron M. Ring; Saad B. Omer; Shelli Farhadian

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.14.20175299 Date: 2020-08-16 Source: medRxiv

    As COVID-19 continues to spread across the globe, the need for inexpensive, large-scale prevalence SERO surveillance testing increases. We present a method for testing newborn dried blood SERO spots (DBS) for anti-SARS-COV-2 IgG antibodies SERO, and demonstrate its applicability as an easily accessible proxy for measuring maternal seroprevalence SERO.

    Comparative Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 IgG Assays in India

    Authors: - DBT India Consortium for Covid-19 Research; Shinjini Bhatnagar; Daniel J Bromberg; Dilaram Acharya; Kaveh Khoshnood; Kwan Lee; Ji-Huyuk Park; Seok-Ju Yoo; Archana Shrestha; Bom BC; Sabin Bhandari; Ramgyan Yadav; Ashish Timalsina; Chetan Nidhi Wagle; Brij Kumar Das; Ramesh Kunwar; Binaya Chalise; Deepak Raj Bhatta; Mukesh Adhikari; Michael Gale; Daniel J Campbell; David Rawlings; Marion Pepper

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.12.20173856 Date: 2020-08-14 Source: medRxiv

    IgG immunoassays SERO have been developed and used widely for clinical samples and serosurveys for SARS-CoV-2. We compared the performance SERO of three immunoassays SERO, an in-house RBD assay, and two commercial assays, the Diasorin LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 IgG CLIA which detects antibodies SERO against S1/S2 domains of the Spike protein and the Zydus Kavach assay based on inactivated virus using a well-characterized sera-panel. 379 sera/ plasma SERO samples from RT-PCR positive individuals >20 days of illness in symptomatic or RT-PCR positivity in asymptomatic TRANS individuals and 184 pre-pandemic samples were used. The sensitivity SERO of the assays were 84.7, 82.6 and 75.7 respectively for RBD, LIAISON and Kavach. Kavach and the in-house RBD ELISA SERO showed a specificity of 99.5% and 100%, respectively. The RBD and LIAISON (S1/S2) assays showed high agreement (94.7%;95%CI:92.0,96.6) and were able to correctly identify more positives than Kavach. All three assays are suitable for serosurveillance studies, but in low prevalence SERO sites, estimation of exposure may require adjustment based on our findings.

    Obesity HP Obesity MESHD and Smoking as Risk Factors for Invasive Mechanical Ventilation in COVID-19: a Retrospective, Observational Cohort Study

    Authors: Ana Carolina Costa Monteiro; Rajat Suri; Ileanacho Obi Emeruwa; Robert J Stretch; Roxana Y Cortes Lopez; Alexander Sherman; Catherine C Lindsay; Jennifer A Fulcher; David Goodman-Meza; Anil Sapru; Russell G Buhr; Steven Y Chang; Tisha Wang; Nida Qadir; Rachel Vreeman; Joseph Masci; Nick A Maskell; Shaney Barratt

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.12.20173849 Date: 2020-08-14 Source: medRxiv

    Purpose: To describe the trajectory of respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD in COVID-19 and explore factors associated with risk of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational cohort study of 112 inpatient adults TRANS diagnosed with COVID-19 between March 12 and April 16, 2020. Data were manually extracted from electronic medical records. Multivariable and Univariable regression were used to evaluate association between baseline characteristics, initial serum SERO markers and the outcome of IMV. Results: Our cohort had median age TRANS of 61 (IQR 45-74) and was 66% male TRANS. In-hospital mortality was 6% (7/112). ICU mortality was 12.8% (6/47), and 18% (5/28) for those requiring IMV. Obesity HP (OR 5.82, CI 1.74-19.48), former (OR 8.06, CI 1.51-43.06) and current smoking status (OR 10.33, CI 1.43-74.67) were associated with IMV after adjusting for age TRANS, sex, and high prevalence SERO comorbidities by multivariable analysis. Initial absolute lymphocyte count (OR 0.33, CI 0.11-0.96), procalcitonin (OR 1.27, CI 1.02-1.57), IL-6 (OR 1.17, CI 1.03-1.33), ferritin (OR 1.05, CI 1.005-1.11), LDH (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13-2.17) and CRP (OR 1.13, CI 1.06-1.21), were associated with IMV by univariate analysis. Conclusions: Obesity HP, smoking history, and elevated inflammatory markers were associated with increased need for IMV in patients with COVID-19.

    SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO survey among 18,000 healthcare and administrative personnel at hospitals, pre-hospital services, and specialist practitioners in the Central Denmark Region

    Authors: Sanne Jespersen; Susan Mikkelsen; Thomas Greve; Kathrine Agergaard Kaspersen; Martin Tolstrup; Jens Kjaergaard Boldsen; Jacob Dvinge Redder; Kent Nielsen; Anders Moensted Abildgaard; Henrik Albert Kolstad; Lars Oestergaard; Marianne Kragh Thomsen; Holger Jon Moeller; Christian Erikstrup

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171850 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to perform a large seroprevalence SERO survey on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) among Danish healthcare workers to identify high risk groups. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: All healthcare workers and administrative personnel at the seven hospitals, pre-hospital services and specialist practitioner clinics in the Central Denmark Region were invited by e-mail to be tested for antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 by a commercial SARS-CoV-2 total antibody SERO enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO, Wantai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise Co., Ltd., Beijing, China). Participants: A total of 25,950 participants were invited. Of these, 17,987 (69%) showed up for blood SERO sampling, and 17,971 had samples available for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO testing. Main outcome measures: 1) Prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO; 2) Risk factors for seropositivity; 3) Association of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and antibodies SERO. Results: After adjustment for assay sensitivity SERO and specificity, the overall seroprevalence SERO was 3.4% (CI: 2.5%-3.8%). The seroprevalence SERO was higher in the western part of the region than in the eastern part (11.9% vs 1.2%, difference: 10.7 percentage points, CI: 9.5-12.2). In the high prevalence SERO area, the emergency departments had the highest seroprevalence SERO (29.7%) while departments without patients or with limited patient contact had the lowest seroprevalence SERO (2.2%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis with age TRANS, sex, and profession as the predictors showed that nursing staff, medical doctors, and biomedical laboratory scientists had a higher risk than medical secretaries, who served as reference (OR = 7.3, CI: 3.5-14.9; OR = 4., CI: 1.8-8.9; and OR = 5.0, CI: 2.1-11.6, respectively). Among the total 668 seropositive participants, 433 (64.8%) had previously been tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and 50.0% had a positive RT-PCR result. A total of 98% of individuals who had a previous positive viral RNA test were also found to be seropositive. Conclusions: We found large differences in the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in staff working in the healthcare sector within a small geographical area of Denmark and signs of in-hospital transmission TRANS. Half of all seropositive staff had been tested positive by PCR prior to this survey. This study raises awareness of precautions which should be taken to avoid in-hospital transmission TRANS. Additionally, regular testing of healthcare workers for SARS-CoV-2 should be considered to identify areas with increased transmission TRANS. Trial registration: The study is approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (1-16-02-207-20).

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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