Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (12)

Cough (9)

Pneumonia (8)

Lymphopenia (6)

Fatigue (4)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 90
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    Telmisartan for treatment of Covid-19 patients: an open randomized clinical trial. Preliminary report.

    Authors: Mariano Duarte; Facundo G Pelorosso; Liliana Nicolosi; M. Victoria Salgado; Hector Vetulli; Analia Aquieri; Francisco Azzato; Mauro Basconcel; Marcela Castro; Javier Coyle; Ignacio Davolos; Eduardo Esparza; Ignacio Fernandez Criado; Rosana Gregori; Pedro Mastrodonato; Maria Rubio; Sergio Sarquis; Fernando Wahlmann; Rodolfo Pedro Rothlin

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20167205 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Covid-19, the disease MESHD caused by SARS-CoV-2, is associated with significant respiratory-related morbidity and mortality. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been postulated as tentative pharmacological agents to treat Covid-19-induced lung inflammation MESHD. Trial design. This trial is a parallel group, randomized, two arm, open label, multicenter superiority trial with 1:1 allocation ratio. Methods. Participants included patients who were 18 years of age TRANS or older and who had been hospitalized with confirmed Covid-19 with 4 or fewer days since symptom onset TRANS. Exclusion criteria included intensive care unit admission prior to randomization and use of angiotensin receptor blocker or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors at admission. Participants in the treatment arm received telmisartan 80 mg bid during 14 days plus standard care. Participants in the control arm received standard care alone. Primary outcome was to achieve significant reductions in plasma SERO levels of C-reactive protein in telmisartan treated Covid-19 patients at day 5 and 8 after randomization. Key secondary outcomes included time to discharge evaluated at 15 days after randomization and admission to ICU and death MESHD at 15- and 30-days post randomization. We present here a preliminary report. Results. A total of 78 patients were included in the interim analysis, 40 in the telmisartan and 38 in the control groups. CRP levels at day 5 in the control group were 51.1 +/- 44.8 mg/L (mean +/- SD; n=28) and in the telmisartan group were 24.2 +/- 31.4 mg/L (mean +/- SD; n=32, p<0.05). At day 8, CRP levels were 41.6 +/- 47.6 mg/L (mean +/- SD; n=16) and 9.0 +/- 10.0 mg/L (mean +/- SD; n=13, p < 0.05) in the control and telmisartan groups, respectively. Also, analysis of time to discharge by Kaplan-Meier method showed that telmisartan treated patients had statistically significant lower time to discharge (median time to discharge control group=15 days; telmisartan group=9 days). No differences were observed for ICU admission or death MESHD. No significant adverse events related to telmisartan were reported. Conclusions. In the present preliminary report, despite the small number of patients studied, ARB telmisartan, a well-known inexpensive safe antihypertensive drug, administered in high doses, demonstrates anti-inflammatory effects and improved morbidity in hospitalized patients infected with SARS -CoV-2, providing support for its use in this serious pandemia (NCT04355936).

    Serology assessment of antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19 by rapid IgM/IgG antibody test SERO

    Authors: Yang De Marinis; Torgny Sunnerhagen; Pradeep Bompada; Anna Blackberg; Runtao Yang; Joel Svensson; Ola Ekstrom; Karl-Fredrik Eriksson; Ola Hansson; Leif Groop; Isabel Goncalves; Magnus Rasmussen

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20168815 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created a global health- and economic crisis. Lifting confinement restriction and resuming to normality depends greatly on COVID-19 immunity screening. Detection of antibodies SERO to severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which causes COVID-19 by serological methods is important to diagnose a current or resolved infection MESHD. In this study, we applied a rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG antibody test SERO and performed serology assessment of antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2. In PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients (n=45), the total antibody SERO detection rate is 92% in hospitalized patients and 79% in non-hospitalized patients. We also studied antibody SERO response in relation to time after symptom onset TRANS and disease MESHD severity, and observed an increase in antibody SERO reactivity and distinct distribution patterns of IgM and IgG following disease progression MESHD. The total IgM and IgG detection is 63% in patients with < 2 weeks from disease MESHD onset; 85% in non-hospitalized patients with > 2 weeks disease MESHD duration; and 91% in hospitalized patients with > 2 weeks disease MESHD duration. We also compared different blood SERO sample types and suggest a potentially higher sensitivity SERO by serum SERO/ plasma SERO comparing with whole blood SERO measurement. To study the specificity of the test, we used 69 sera/ plasma SERO samples collected between 2016-2018 prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, and obtained a test specificity of 97%. In summary, our study provides a comprehensive validation of the rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG serology test, and mapped antibody SERO detection patterns in association with disease MESHD progress and hospitalization. Our study supports that the rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG test may be applied to assess the COVID-19 status both at the individual and at a population level.

    Evidence for sustained mucosal and systemic antibody SERO responses to SARS-CoV-2 antigens in COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Baweleta Isho; Kento T Abe; Michelle Zuo; Alainna J Jamal; Bhavisha Rathod; Jenny H Wang; Zhijie Li; Gary Chao; Olga L Rojas; Yeo Myong Bang; Annie Pu; Natasha Christie-Holmes; Christian Gervais; Derek Ceccarelli; Payman Samavarchi-Tehrani; Furkan Guvenc; Patrick Budylowski; Angel Li; Aimee Paterson; Yue Feng Yun; Lina G Marin; Lauren Caldwell; Jeffrey L Wrana; Karen Colwill; Frank Sicheri; Samira Mubareka; Scott D Gray-Owen; Steven J Drews; Walter L Siqueira; Miriam Barrios-Rodiles; Mario Ostrowski; James M Rini; Yves Durocher; Allison J McGeer; Jennifer L Gommerman; Anne-Claude Gingras

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.20166553 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    While the antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2 has been extensively studied in blood SERO, relatively little is known about the mucosal immune response and its relationship to systemic antibody SERO levels. Since SARS-CoV-2 initially replicates in the upper airway, the antibody SERO response in the oral cavity is likely an important parameter that influences the course of infection MESHD. We developed enzyme linked immunosorbent assays SERO to detect IgA and IgG antibodies SERO to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (full length trimer) and its receptor binding domain (RBD) in serum SERO (n=496) and saliva (n=90) of acute and convalescent patients with laboratory-diagnosed COVID-19 ranging from 3-115 days post- symptom onset TRANS (PSO), compared to negative controls. Anti-CoV-2 antibody SERO responses were readily detected in serum SERO and saliva, with peak IgG levels attained by 16-30 days PSO. Whereas anti-CoV-2 IgA antibodies SERO rapidly decayed, IgG antibodies SERO remained relatively stable up to 115 days PSO in both biofluids. Importantly, IgG responses in saliva and serum SERO were correlated, suggesting that antibodies SERO in the saliva may serve as a surrogate measure of systemic immunity.

    A distinct innate immune signature marks progression from mild to severe COVID-19

    Authors: Stéphane Chevrier; Yves Zurbuchen; Carlo Cervia; Sarah Adamo; Miro E Raeber; Natalie de Souza; Sujana Sivapatham; Andrea Jacobs; Esther Bächli; Alain Rudiger; Melina Stüssi-Helbling; Lars C Huber; Dominik J Schaer; Jakob Nilsson; Onur Boyman; Bernd Bodenmiller

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.236315 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: bioRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) manifests with a range of severities, but immune signatures of mild and severe disease MESHD are still not fully understood. Excessive inflammation MESHD has been postulated to be a major factor in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 and innate immune mechanisms are likely to be central in the inflammatory response. We used 40-plex mass cytometry and targeted serum SERO proteomics to profile innate immune cell populations from peripheral blood SERO of patients with mild or severe COVID-19 and healthy controls. Sampling at different stages of COVID-19 allowed us to reconstruct a pseudo-temporal trajectory of the innate immune response. Despite the expected patient heterogeneity, we identified consistent changes during the course of the infection MESHD. A rapid and early surge of CD169+ monocytes associated with an IFN{gamma}+MCP-2+ signature quickly followed symptom onset TRANS; at symptom onset TRANS, patients with mild and severe COVID-19 had a similar signature, but over the course of the disease MESHD, the differences between patients with mild and severe disease MESHD increased. Later in the disease MESHD course, we observed a more pronounced re-appearance of intermediate/non-classical monocytes and mounting systemic CCL3 and CCL4 levels in patients with severe disease MESHD. Our data provide new insights into the dynamic nature of the early inflammatory response to severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD and identifies sustained pathological innate immune responses as a likely key mechanism in severe COVID-19, further supporting investigation of targeted anti-inflammatory interventions in severe COVID-19.

    Analytical and clinical performances SERO of five immunoassays SERO for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in comparison with neutralization activity

    Authors: Mario Plebani; Andrea Padoan; Laura Sciacovelli; Francesco Bonfante; Matteo Pagliari; Dania Bozzato; Chiara Cosma; Alessio Bortolami; Davide Negrini; Silvia Zuin

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.20166546 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Reliable high-throughput serological assays SERO for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO (Abs) are urgently needed for the effective containment of the COVID-19 pandemic, as it is of crucial importance to understand the strength and duration of immunity after infection MESHD, and to make informed decisions concerning the activation or discontinuation of physical distancing restrictions. Methods. In 184 serum samples SERO from 130 COVID-19 patients and 54 SARS-CoV-2 negative subjects, the analytical and clinical performances SERO of four commercially available chemiluminescent assays (Abbott SARS-Cov-2 IgG, Roche Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2, Ortho SARS-CoV-2 total and IgG) and one enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO (Diesse ENZY-WELL SARS-CoV-2 IgG) were evaluated and compared with the neutralization activity achieved using the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Findings. Precision results ranged from 0.9% to 11.8% for all assays. Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 demonstrated linearity of results at concentrations within the cut-off value. Overall, sensitivity SERO ranged from 78.5 to 87.8%, and specificity, from 97.6 to 100%. On limiting the analysis to samples collected 12 days after onset of symptoms TRANS, the sensitivity SERO of all assays increased, the highest value (95.2%) being obtained with VITRO Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Total and Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG. The strongest PRNT50 correlation with antibody SERO levels was obtained with ENZY-Well SARS-CoV-2 IgG (rho = 0.541, p < 0.001). Interpretation. The results confirmed that all immunoassays SERO had an excellent specificity, whereas sensitivity SERO varied across immunoassays SERO, depending strongly on the time interval between symptoms onset TRANS and sample collection. Further studies should be conducted to achieve a stronger correlation between antibody SERO measurement and PRNT50 in order to obtain useful information for providing effective passive antibody SERO therapy, and developing a vaccine against the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

    Self-Reported Taste and Smell Disorders in Patients with COVID-19: Distinct Features in China

    Authors: Jia Song; Yi-Ke Deng; Hai Wang; Zhi-Chao Wang; Bo Liao; Jin Ma; Chao He; Li Pan; Yang Liu; Isam Alobid; De-Yun Wang; Ming Zeng; Joaquim Mullol; Zheng Liu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-52752/v1 Date: 2020-08-03 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Last December 2019, a cluster of viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP cases identified as coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), was reported in Wuhan, China. We aimed to explore the frequencies of nasal symptoms in patients with COVID-19, including loss of smell and taste, as well as their presentation as the first symptom of the disease MESHD and their association with the severity of COVID-19.Methods: In this retrospective study, 1,206 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were included and followed-up by telephone call one month after discharged from Tongji Hospital, Wuhan. Demographic data, laboratory values, comorbidities, symptoms, and numerical rating scale scores (0-10) of nasal symptoms were extracted from the hospital medical records, and confirmed or reevaluated by the telephone follow-up. Results: From COVID-19 patients (N = 1,172) completing follow-up, 199 (17%) subjects had severe COVID-19 and 342 (29.2%) reported nasal symptoms. The most common nasal symptom was loss of taste (20.6%, median score = 6), while 11.4% had loss of smell (median score = 5). The incidence of nasal symptom including loss of smell and loss of taste as the first onset symptom TRANS was <1% in COVID-19 patients. Loss of smell or taste scores showed no correlation with the scores of other nasal symptoms. Loss of taste scores, but not loss of smell scores, were significantly increased in severe vs. non-severe COVID-19 patients. Interleukin (IL)-6 and lactose dehydrogenase (LDH) serum SERO levels positively correlated with loss of taste scores. About 80% of COVID-19 patients recovered from smell and taste dysfunction in 2 weeks.Conclusions: In the Wuhan COVID-19 cohort, only 1 out of 10 hospital admitted patients had loss of smell while 1 out 5 reported loss of taste which was associated to severity of COVID-19. Most patients recovered smell and taste dysfunctions in 2 weeks.

    Comparison of sixteen serological SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays SERO in sixteen clinical laboratories

    Authors: Lene Holm Harritshoej; Mikkel Gybel-Brask; Shoaib Afzal; Pia R. Kamstrup; Charlotte Svaerke Joergensen; Marianne K. Thomsen; Linda M. Hilsted; Lennart J. Friis-Hansen; Pal B. Szecsi; Lise Pedersen; Lene Nielsen; Cecilie B. Hansen; Peter Garred; Trine-Line Korsholm; Susan Mikkelsen; Kirstine O. Nielsen; Bjarne K. Moeller; Anne T. Hansen; Kasper K. Iversen; Pernille B. Nielsen; Rasmus B. Hasselbalch; Kamille Fogh; Jakob B. Norsk; Jonas H. Kristensen; Kristian Schoenning; Nikolai S. Kirkby; Alex C.Y. Nielsen; Lone H. Landsy; Mette Loftager; Dorte K. Holm; Anna C. Nilsson; Susanne G. Saekmose; Birgitte Grum-Svendsen; Bitten Aagaard; Thoeger G. Jensen; Dorte M. Nielsen; Henrik Ullum; Ram BC Dessau

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165373 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    Serological SARS-CoV-2 assays are needed to support clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigations. Recently, assays for the large-volume detection of total antibodies SERO (Ab) and immunoglobulin (Ig) G and M against SARS-CoV-2 antigens have been developed, but there are limited data on the diagnostic accuracy of these assays. This study was organized as a Danish national collaboration and included fifteen commercial and one in-house anti-SARS-CoV-2 assays in sixteen laboratories. Sensitivity SERO was evaluated using 150 serum samples SERO from individuals diagnosed with asymptomatic TRANS, mild or moderate nonhospitalized (n=129) or hospitalized (n=31) COVID-19, confirmed by nucleic acid amplification tests, collected 13-73 days from symptom onset TRANS. Specificity and cross-reactivity were evaluated in samples collected prior to the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic from > 586 blood SERO donors and patients with autoimmune diseases MESHD or CMV or EBV infections MESHD. Predefined specificity criteria of [≥]99% were met by all total-Ab and IgG assays except one (Diasorin/LiaisonXL-IgG 97.2%). The sensitivities SERO in descending order were: Wantai/ ELISA SERO total-Ab (96.7%), CUH/NOVO in-house ELISA SERO total-Ab (96.0%), Ortho/Vitros total-Ab (95.3%), YHLO/iFlash-IgG (94.0%), Ortho/Vitros-IgG (93.3%), Siemens/Atellica total-Ab (93.2%), Roche-Elecsys total-Ab (92.7%), Abbott-Architect-IgG (90.0%), Abbott/Alinity-IgG (median 88.0%), Diasorin/LiaisonXL-IgG (84.6%), Siemens/Vista total-Ab (81.0%), Euroimmun/ ELISA-IgG SERO (78.0%), and Snibe/Maglumi-IgG (median 78.0%). The IgM results were variable, but one assay (Wantai/ ELISA SERO-IgM) had both high sensitivity SERO (82.7%) and specificity (99%). The rate of seropositivity increased with time from symptom onset TRANS and symptom severity. In conclusion, predefined sensitivity SERO and specificity acceptance criteria of 90%/99%, respectively, for diagnostic use were met in five of six total-Ab and three of seven IgG assays.

    A Comprehensive Evaluation of Early Predictors of Disease Progression MESHD in Patients with COVID-19: A Case Control Study

    Authors: Qiang Tang; Yanwei Liu; Yingfeng Fu; Ziyang Di; Kailiang Xu; Bo Tang; Hui Wu; Maojun Di

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-50527/v1 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) has become an unprecedented public health crisis with nearly 16 million confirmed cases TRANS and 630,000 deaths MESHD worldwide. Methods: We retrospectively investigated the demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological and treatment data of COVID-19 patients consecutively enrolled from January 18 to May 15, 2020, in Taihe and Jinzhou central hospital. Results: Of all 197 patients, the median age TRANS was 66.5 years (IQR 7-76), and 120 (60.9%) patients were males TRANS. We identified 88 (44.7%) of 197 COVID-19 patients as the disease progression MESHD (aggravation) cases. The aggravation cases tend to have more medical comorbidity: hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (34.1%), diabetes (30.7%), and presented with dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP (34.1%), neutrophilia HP (60.2%), and lymphocytopenia (73.9%), compared with those without. And the patients with disease progression MESHD showed significantly higher level of Fibrinogen (Fbg), D-dimer, IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and serum SERO ferritin, and were more prone to develop organ damage in the liver, kidney, and heart (P<0.05). Multivariable regression showed that advanced age TRANS, comorbidities, lymphopenia MESHD lymphopenia HP, and elevated level of Fbg, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Cardiac troponin (CTnI), IL-6, serum SERO ferritin were the significant predictors of disease progression MESHD. Further, we investigated antibody SERO responses to SARS-CoV-2 and found that the levels of IgM and IgG were significantly higher in the disease progression MESHD cases compared to non-progression cases from 3 weeks after symptom onset TRANS. In addition, the disease progression MESHD group tended to peak later and has a more vigorous IgM/IgG response against SARS-CoV-2. Further, we performed Kaplan-Meier analysis and found that 61.6% of patients had not experienced ICU transfer or survival from hospital within 25 days from admission.Conclusions: Investigating the potential factors of advanced age TRANS, comorbidities and elevated level of IL-6, serum SERO ferritin and Kaplan-Meier analysis enables early identification and management of patients with poor prognosis. Detection of the dynamic antibody SERO may offer vital clinical information during the course of SARS-CoV-2 and provide prognostic value for patients infection MESHD.  

    Infection MESHD of human lymphomononuclear cells by SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Marjorie C Pontelli; Italo A Castro; Ronaldo B Martins; Flavio P Veras; Leonardo LaSerra; Daniele C Nascimento; Ricardo S Cardoso; Roberta Rosales; Diego B Caetite; Mikhael HF Lima; Thais M Lima; Juliano P Souza; Juliana T Kawahisa; Marcela C Giannini; Leticia P Bonjorno; Maria IF Lopes; Sabrina S Batah; Li Siyuan; Rodrigo L Assad; Sergio CL Almeida; Fabiola R Oliveira; Maira N Benatti; Lorena LF Pontes; Rodrigo C Santana; Fernando C Villar; Maria A Martins; Thiago M Cunha; Rodrigo T Calado; Jose C Alves-Filho; Dario S Zamboni; Alexandre Fabro; Paulo Louzada-Junior; Paulo Louzada-Junior; Rene DR Oliveira; Fernando Q Cunha; Eurico Arruda

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.28.225912 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: bioRxiv

    Although SARS-CoV-2 severe infection HP infection MESHD is associated with a hyperinflammatory state, lymphopenia MESHD lymphopenia HP is an immunological hallmark, and correlates with poor prognosis in COVID-19. However, it remains unknown if circulating human lymphocytes and monocytes are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. In this study, SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD of human peripheral blood SERO mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was investigated both in vitro and in vivo. We found that in vitro infection MESHD of whole PBMCs from healthy donors was productive of virus progeny. Results revealed that monocytes, as well as B and T lymphocytes, are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 active infection MESHD and viral replication was indicated by detection of double-stranded RNA. Moreover, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that SARS-CoV-2 was frequently detected in monocytes and B lymphocytes from COVID-19 patients, and less frequently in CD4+T lymphocytes. The rates of SARS-CoV-2-infected monocytes in PBMCs from COVID-19 patients increased over time from symptom onset TRANS. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2-positive monocytes and B and CD4+T lymphocytes were detected by immunohistochemistry in post mortem lung tissue. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD of blood SERO circulating leukocytes in COVID-19 patients may have important implications for disease MESHD pathogenesis, immune dysfunction, and virus spread within the host.

    SARS-CoV-2 viral load dynamics, duration of viral shedding and infectiousness: a living systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Muge Cevik; Matthew Tate; Oliver Lloyd; Alberto Enrico Maraolo; Jenna Schafers; Antonia Ho

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.25.20162107 Date: 2020-07-28 Source: medRxiv

    Background Viral load kinetics and the duration of viral shedding are important determinants for disease MESHD transmission TRANS. We aim i) to characterise viral load dynamics, duration of viral RNA, and viable virus shedding of SARS-CoV-2 in various body fluids and ii) to compare SARS-CoV-2 viral dynamics with SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV. Methods: Medline, EMBASE, Europe PMC, preprint servers and grey literature were searched to retrieve all articles reporting viral dynamics and duration of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV shedding. We excluded case reports and case series with < 5 patients, or studies that did not report shedding duration from symptom onset TRANS. PROSPERO registration: CRD42020181914. Findings: Seventy-nine studies on SARS-CoV-2, 8 on SARS-CoV-1, and 11 on MERS-CoV were included. Mean SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding duration in upper respiratory tract, lower respiratory tract, stool and serum SERO were 17.0, 14.6, 17.2 and 16.6 days, respectively. Maximum duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding reported in URT, LRT, stool and serum SERO was 83, 59, 35 and 60 days, respectively. Pooled mean duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding was positively associated with age TRANS (p=0.002), but not gender TRANS (p = 0.277). No study to date has detected live virus beyond day nine of illness despite persistently high viral loads. SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the upper respiratory tract appears to peak in the first week of illness, while SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV peak later. Conclusion: Although SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding in respiratory and stool can be prolonged, duration of viable virus is relatively short-lived. Thus, detection of viral RNA cannot be used to infer infectiousness. High SARS-CoV-2 titres are detectable in the first week of illness with an early peak observed at symptom onset TRANS to day 5 of illness. This review underscores the importance of early case finding and isolation, as well as public education on the spectrum of illness. However, given potential delays in the isolation of patients, effective containment of SARS-CoV-2 may be challenging even with an early detection and isolation strategy. Funding: No funding was received.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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