Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 198
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    SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO survey among 18,000 healthcare and administrative personnel at hospitals, pre-hospital services, and specialist practitioners in the Central Denmark Region

    Authors: Sanne Jespersen; Susan Mikkelsen; Thomas Greve; Kathrine Agergaard Kaspersen; Martin Tolstrup; Jens Kjaergaard Boldsen; Jacob Dvinge Redder; Kent Nielsen; Anders Moensted Abildgaard; Henrik Albert Kolstad; Lars Oestergaard; Marianne Kragh Thomsen; Holger Jon Moeller; Christian Erikstrup

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171850 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to perform a large seroprevalence SERO survey on severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among Danish healthcare workers to identify high risk groups. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: All healthcare workers and administrative personnel at the seven hospitals, pre-hospital services and specialist practitioner clinics in the Central Denmark Region were invited by e-mail to be tested for antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 by a commercial SARS-CoV-2 total antibody SERO enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO, Wantai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise Co., Ltd., Beijing, China). Participants: A total of 25,950 participants were invited. Of these, 17,987 (69%) showed up for blood SERO sampling, and 17,971 had samples available for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO testing. Main outcome measures: 1) Prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO; 2) Risk factors for seropositivity; 3) Association of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and antibodies SERO. Results: After adjustment for assay sensitivity SERO and specificity, the overall seroprevalence SERO was 3.4% (CI: 2.5%-3.8%). The seroprevalence SERO was higher in the western part of the region than in the eastern part (11.9% vs 1.2%, difference: 10.7 percentage points, CI: 9.5-12.2). In the high prevalence SERO area, the emergency MESHD departments had the highest seroprevalence SERO (29.7%) while departments without patients or with limited patient contact had the lowest seroprevalence SERO (2.2%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis with age TRANS, sex, and profession as the predictors showed that nursing staff, medical doctors, and biomedical laboratory scientists had a higher risk than medical secretaries, who served as reference (OR = 7.3, CI: 3.5-14.9; OR = 4., CI: 1.8-8.9; and OR = 5.0, CI: 2.1-11.6, respectively). Among the total 668 seropositive participants, 433 (64.8%) had previously been tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and 50.0% had a positive RT-PCR result. A total of 98% of individuals who had a previous positive viral RNA test were also found to be seropositive. Conclusions: We found large differences in the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in staff working in the healthcare sector within a small geographical area of Denmark and signs of in-hospital transmission TRANS. Half of all seropositive staff had been tested positive by PCR prior to this survey. This study raises awareness of precautions which should be taken to avoid in-hospital transmission TRANS. Additionally, regular testing of healthcare workers for SARS-CoV-2 should be considered to identify areas with increased transmission TRANS. Trial registration: The study is approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (1-16-02-207-20).

    Low awareness of past SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in healthy adults TRANS

    Authors: Katja van den Hurk; Eva-Maria Merz; Femmeke J. Prinsze; Marloes L.C. Spekman; Franke A. Quee; Steven Ramondt; Ed Slot; Hans Vrielink; Elisabeth M.J. Huis in 't Veld; Hans L. Zaaijer; Boris M. Hogema

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171561 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic challenges governments worldwide to balance appropriate virus control measures and their societal and economic consequences. These control measures include the identification, isolation and testing of potentially infected individuals. As this relies on an individual's awareness of infection MESHD, we investigated the extent to which healthy adults TRANS suspected having had COVID-19, and how COVID-19 suspicion and symptoms relate to antibodies SERO indicative of a past infection MESHD infection with the severe HP with the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods and findings Individuals donating plasma SERO anywhere in the Netherlands between May 11th and 18th were screened for total SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO using ELISA SERO and invited to participate in an online questionnaire about COVID-19-related symptoms and awareness. Antibody SERO and questionnaire data were complete for 3,676 individuals, including 239 (6.5%) that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. Here, we show that a 38% of the individuals that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO reported having had no or only very mild symptoms at any time during the peak of the epidemic. The loss of taste and/or smell in particular was significantly associated with seropositivity, independent of age TRANS and sex. Forty-eight percent of antibody SERO-positive persons did not suspect having had COVID-19, in spite of most of them reporting symptoms. Conclusions Awareness of infection MESHD was low among individuals that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO, even at the peak of the epidemic. Improved awareness and recognition of COVID-19 symptoms and tracing TRANS of asymptomatic TRANS contacts is crucial to halting SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS.

    High prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in care homes affected by COVID-19; a prospective cohort study in England

    Authors: Shamez N Ladhani; Anna J Jeffery-Smith; Monika Patel; Roshni Janarthanan; Jonathan Fok; Emma Crawley-Boevey; Amoolya Vusirikala; Elena Fernandez; Marina Sanchez-Perez; Suzanne Tang; Kate Dun-Campbell; Edward Wynne-Evans; Anita Bell; Bharat Patel; Zahin Amin-Chowdhury; Felicity Aiano; Karthik Paranthaman; Thomas Ma; Maria Saavedra-Campos; Joanna Ellis; Meera Chand; Kevin Brown; Mary E Ramsay; Susan Hopkins; Nandini Shetty; J Yimmy Chow; Robin Gopal; Maria Zambon

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171413 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background: We investigated six London care homes experiencing a COVID-19 outbreak and found very high rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD among residents and staff. Here we report follow-up serological analysis in these care homes five weeks later. Methods: Residents and staff had a convalescent blood SERO sample for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO levels and neutralising antibodies SERO by SARS-COV-2 RT-PCR five weeks after the primary COVID-19 outbreak investigation. Results: Of the 518 residents and staff in the initial investigation, 208/241 (86.3%) surviving residents and 186/254 (73.2%) staff underwent serological testing SERO. Almost all SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive residents and staff were antibody SERO positive five weeks later, whether symptomatic (residents 35/35, 100%; staff, 22/22, 100%) or asymptomatic TRANS (residents 32/33, 97.0%; staff 21/22, 95.1%). Symptomatic but SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negative residents and staff also had high seropositivity rates (residents 23/27, 85.2%; staff 18/21, 85.7%), as did asymptomatic TRANS RT-PCR negative individuals (residents 62/92, 67.3%; staff 95/143, 66.4%). Neutralising antibody SERO was present in 118/132 (89.4%) seropositive individuals and was not associated with age TRANS or symptoms. Ten residents (10/108, 9.3%) remained RT-PCR positive, but with lower RT-PCR cycle threshold values; all 7 tested were seropositive. New infections MESHD were detected in three residents and one staff member. Conclusions: RT-PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 significantly underestimates the true extent of an outbreak in institutional settings. Elderly TRANS frail residents and younger healthier staff were equally able to mount robust and neutralizing antibody SERO responses to SARS-CoV-2. More than two-thirds of residents and staff members had detectable antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 irrespective of their nasal swab RT-PCR positivity or symptoms status.

    Rapid Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies SERO Using Electrochemical Impedance-Based Detector

    Authors: Mohamed Z. Rashed; Jonathan A. Kopecheck; Mariah C. Priddy; Krystal T. Hamorsky; Kenneth E. Palmer; Nikhil Mittal; Joseph Valdez; Joseph Flynn; Stuart Williams

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171652 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    Emerging novel human contagious viruses and pathogens put humans at risk of hospitalization and possibly death MESHD due to the unavailability of vaccines and drugs which may take years to develop. Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was classified as a pandemic by the World Health Organization and has caused over 550,000 deaths MESHD worldwide as of July 2020. Accurate and scalable point-of-care devices would increase screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of COVID-19 patients. Here, we demonstrate rapid label-free electrochemical detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO using a commercially available impedance sensing platform. A 16-well plate containing sensing electrodes was pre-coated with receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and subsequently tested with samples of anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody SERO CR3022 (0.1 g/ml, 1.0 g/ml, 10 g/ml). Subsequent blinded testing was performed on six serum SERO specimens taken from COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients (1:100 dilution factor). The platform was able to differentiate spikes in impedance measurements from a negative control (1% milk solution) for all CR3022 samples. Further, successful differentiation and detection of all positive clinical samples from negative control was achieved. Measured impedance values were consistent when compared to standard ELISA SERO test results showing a strong correlation between them (R2 = 0:9). Detection occurs in less than five minutes and the well-based platform provides a simplified and familiar testing interface that can be readily adaptable for use in clinical settings.

    Comparative analyses of SARS-CoV-2 binding (IgG, IgM, IgA) and neutralizing antibodies SERO from human serum samples SERO

    Authors: Livia Mazzini; Donata Martinuzzi; Inesa Hyseni; Giulia Lapini; Linda Benincasa; Pietro Piu; Claudia Maria Trombetta; Serena Marchi; Ilaria Razzano; Alessandro Manenti; Emanuele Montomoli

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.243717 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: bioRxiv

    A newly identified coronavirus, named SARS-CoV-2, emerged in December 2019 in Hubei Province, China, and quickly spread throughout the world; so far, it has caused more than 18 million cases of disease MESHD and 700,000 deaths MESHD. The diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is currently based on the detection of viral RNA in nasopharyngeal swabs by means of molecular-based assays, such as real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, serological assays SERO aimed at detecting different classes of antibodies SERO constitute the best surveillance strategy for gathering information on the humoral immune response to infection MESHD and the spread of the virus through the population, in order to evaluate the immunogenicity of novel future vaccines and medicines for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 disease MESHD. The aim of this study was to determine SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies SERO in human serum samples SERO by means of different commercial and in-house ELISA SERO kits, in order to evaluate and compare their results first with one another and then with those yielded by functional assays using wild-type virus. It is important to know the level of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies SERO in order to predict population immunity and possible cross-reactivity with other coronaviruses and to identify potentially infectious subjects. In addition, in a small sub-group of samples, we performed a subtyping Immunoglobulin G ELISA SERO. Our data showed an excellent statistical correlation between the neutralization titer and the IgG, IgM and IgA ELISA SERO response against the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein, confirming that antibodies SERO against this portion of the virus spike protein are highly neutralizing and that the ELISA SERO Receptor-Binding Domain-based assay can be used as a valid surrogate for the neutralization assay in laboratories which do not have Biosecurity level-3 facilities.

    Performance SERO of an automated anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO in prepandemic cohorts

    Authors: Elena Riester; Beda Krieter; Peter Findeisen; Michael Laimighofer; Kathrin Schoenfeld; Tina Laengin; Christoph Niederhauser

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20169987 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The Elecsys(R) Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO (Roche Diagnostics) was developed to provide an accurate and reliable method for the detection of antibodies SERO to severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We evaluated the specificity of the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO in prepandemic sample cohorts across five sites in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Methods: Specificity of the immunoassay SERO was evaluated using anonymised, frozen, residual serum SERO and/or plasma SERO samples from blood SERO donors or routine diagnostic testing. All samples were collected before September 2019 and therefore presumed negative for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies SERO. Cohorts included samples from blood SERO donors, pregnant women and paediatric patients. Point estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: Overall specificities for the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO in 9575 samples from blood SERO donors (n = 6714) and diagnostic specimens (n = 2861) were 99.82% (95% CI 99.69-99.91) and 99.93% (95% CI 99.75-99.99), respectively. Among 2256 samples from pregnant women, specificity was 99.91% (95% CI 99.68-99.99). Among 205 paediatric samples, specificity was 100% (95% CI 98.22-100). Conclusion: The Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO demonstrated a very high specificity across blood SERO donor samples and diagnostic specimens from Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Our findings support the use of the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO as a potential tool for determination of an immune response following previous exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in the general population, including in blood SERO donors, pregnant women and paediatric populations.

    Specificity and Performance SERO of Nucleocapsid and Spike-based SARS-CoV-2 Serologic Assays

    Authors: Zahra Rikhtegaran Tehrani; Saman Saadat; Ebtehal Saleh; Xin Ouyang; Niel Constantine; Anthony L. DeVico; Anthony D. Harris; George K. Lewis; Shyam Kottilil; Mohammad M. Sajadi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20168476 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    There is an urgent need for an accurate antibody test SERO for severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this paper, we have developed 3 ELISA SERO methods, trimer spike IgA, trimer spike IgG, and nucleocapsid IgG, for detecting anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. We evaluated their performance SERO in comparison with four commercial ELISAs SERO, EDI Novel Coronavirus COVID-19 ELISA IgG SERO and IgM, Euroimmun Anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA IgG SERO and IgA, and one lateral flow assay, DPP COVID-19 IgM/IgG System (Chembio). Both sensitivity SERO and specificity were evaluated and the causes of false-positive reactions were determined. The assays were compared using 300 pre-epidemic samples and 100 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 samples. The sensitivities SERO and specificities of the assays were as follows: 90%/100% (in-house trimer spike IgA), 90%/99.3% (in-house trimer spike IgG), 89%/98.3% (in-house nucleocapsid IgG), 73.7%/100% (EDI nucleocapsid IgM), 84.5%/95.1% (EDI nucleocapsid IgG), 95%/93.7% (Euroimmun S1 IgA), 82.8%/99.7% (Euroimmun S1 IgG), 82.0%/91.7% (Chembio nucleocapsid IgM), 92%/93.3% (Chembio nucleocapsid IgG). The presumed causes of positive signals from pre-epidemic samples in commercial and in-house assays were mixed. In some cases, positivity varied with assay repetition. In other cases, reactivity was abrogated by competitive inhibition (spiking the sample with analyte prior to performing the assay). In other cases, reactivity was consistently detected but not abrogated by analyte spiking. Overall, there was wide variability in assay performance SERO using our samples, with in-house tests exhibiting the highest combined sensitivity SERO and specificity. The causes of false positivity in pre-epidemic samples may be due to plasma SERO antibodies SERO apparently reacting with the analyte, or spurious reactivity may be directed against non-specific components in the assay system. Identification of these targets will be essential to improving assay performance SERO.

    Neutralizing antibody SERO response in non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients

    Authors: Natalia Ruetalo; Ramona Businger; Karina Althaus; Simon Fink; Felix Ruoff; Klaus Hamprecht; Bertram Flehmig; Tamam Bakchould; Markus F Templin; Michael Schindler

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20169961 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    The majority of infections MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 (SCoV2) are asymptomatic TRANS or mild without the necessity of hospitalization. It is of outmost importance to reveal if these patients develop an antibody SERO response against SCoV2 and to define which antibodies SERO confer virus neutralization. We hence conducted a comprehensive serological survey of 49 patients with a mild course of disease MESHD and quantified neutralizing antibody SERO responses against authentic SCoV2 employing human cells as targets. Four patients (8%), even though symptomatic, did not develop antibodies SERO against SCoV2 and two other sera (4%) were only positive in one of the serological assays SERO employed. For the remainder, antibody SERO response against the S-protein correlated with serum SERO neutralization whereas antibodies SERO against the nucleocapsid were poor predictors of virus neutralization. Only six sera (12%) could be classified as highly neutralizing. Furthermore, sera from several individuals with fairly high antibody SERO levels had only poor neutralizing activity. In addition, our data suggest that antibodies SERO against the seasonal coronavirus 229E contribute to SCoV2 neutralization. Altogether, we show that there is a wide breadth of antibody SERO responses against SCoV2 in patients that differentially correlate with virus neutralization. This highlights the difficulty to define reliable surrogate markers for immunity against SCoV2.

    Prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 among high-risk populations in Lomé (Togo) in 2020

    Authors: Wemboo Afiwa Halatoko; Yao Rodion KONU; Fifonsi Adjidossi Gbeasor-Komlanvi; Arnold Junior Sadio; Martin Kouame Tchankoni; Koffi Segbeaya Komlanvi; Mounerou Salou; Ameyo Monique Dorkenoo; Issaka Maman; Ametepe Agbobli; Majeste Ihou Wateba; Komi Seraphin Adjoh; Edem Goeh Akue; Yem-bla Kao; Innocent Kpeto; Paul Pana; Rebecca Kinde-Sossou; Agbeko Tamakloe; Josee Nayo-Apetsianyi; Simon-Pierre Hamadi Assane; Mireille Prince-David; Sossinou Marcel Awoussi; Mohaman Djibril; Moustafa Mijiyawa; Anoumou Claver Dagnra; Didier Koumavi Ekouevi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20163840 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: This survey aims at estimating the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 in high risk populations in Lomé. Methods: From April 23rd to May 8th 2020, we recruited a sample of participants from five sectors: healthcare, air transport, police, road transport and informal. We collected oropharyngeal swab for direct detection through real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), and blood SERO for antibodies SERO detection by serological tests SERO. The overall prevalence SERO (current and past) of infection MESHD was defined by positivity for both tests. Results: A total of 955 participants with a median age TRANS of 36 (IQR 32-43) were included and 71.6% (n=684) were men. Around 22.1% (n=212) were from the air transport sector, 20.5% (n=196) in the police, and 38.7% (n=370) in the health sector. Seven participants (0.7%, 95% CI: 0.3-1.6%) had a positive rRT-PCR at the time of recruitment and nine (0.9%, 95% CI: 0.4-1.8%) were seropositive for IgM or IgG against SARS-CoV-2. We found an overall prevalence SERO of 1.6% (n=15), 95% CI: 0.9-2.6%. Conclusion: The prevalence SERO of the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD among high-risk populations in Lomé was relatively low and could be explained by the various measures taken by the Togolese government. Therefore, we recommend targeted screening.

    Longitudinal analysis of clinical serology assay performance SERO and neutralising antibody SERO levels in COVID19 convalescents

    Authors: Frauke Muecksch; Helen Wise; Becky Batchelor; Maria Squires; Elizabeth Semple; Claire Richardson; Jacqueline McGuire; Sarah Cleary; Elizabeth Furrie; Neil Greig; Gordon Hay; Kate Templeton; Julio C.C. Lorenzi; Theodora Hatziioannou; Sara J Jenks; Paul Bieniasz

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20169128 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Objectives:To investigate longitudinal trajectory of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies SERO and the performance SERO of serological assays SERO in diagnosing prior infection MESHD and predicting serum SERO neutralisation titres with time Design Retrospective longitudinal analysis of a COVID19 case cohort . Setting NHS outpatient clinics Participants Individuals with RT-PCR diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD that did not require hospitalization Main outcome measures The sensitivity SERO with which prior infection MESHD was detected and quantitative antibody SERO titres were assessed using four SARS-CoV-2 serologic assay platforms. Two platforms employed SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) based antigens and two employed nucleocapsid (N) based antigens. Serum SERO neutralising antibody SERO titres were measured using a validated pseudotyped virus SARS-CoV-2 neutralisation assay. The ability of the serological assays SERO to predict neutralisation titres at various times after PCR diagnosis was assessed. Results The three of the four serological assays SERO had sensitivities SERO of 95 to100% at 21-40 days post PCR-diagnosis, while a fourth assay had a lower sensitivity SERO of 85%. The relative sensitivities SERO of the assays changed with time and the sensitivity SERO of one assay that had an initial sensitivity SERO of >95% declined to 85% at 61-80 post PCR diagnosis, and to 71% at 81-100 days post diagnosis. Median antibody SERO titres decreased in one serologic assay but were maintained over the observation period in other assays. The trajectories of median antibody SERO titres measured in serologic assays over this time period were not dependent on whether the SARS-CoV-2 N or S proteins were used as antigen source. A broad range of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising titres were evident in individual sera, that decreased over time in the majority of participants; the median neutralisation titre in the cohort decreased by 45% over 4 weeks. Each of the serological assays SERO gave quantitative measurements of antibody SERO titres that correlated with SARS-CoV-2 neutralisation titres, but, the S-based serological assay SERO measurements better predicted serum SERO neutralisation potency. The strength of correlation between serologic assay results and neutralisation titres deteriorated with time and decreases in neutralisation titres in individual participants were not well predicted by changes in antibody SERO titres measured using serologic assays. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 serologic assays differed in their comparative diagnostic performance SERO over time. Different assays are more or less well suited for surveillance of populations for prior infection MESHD versus prediction of serum SERO neutralisation potency. Continued monitoring of declining neutralisation titres during extended follow up should facilitate the establishment of appropriate serologic correlates of protection against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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