Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State

    Authors: Hussaini Majiya; Mohammed Aliyu-Paiko; Vincent Tochukwu Balogu; Dickson Achimugu Musa; Ibrahim Maikudi Salihu; Abdullahi Abubakar Kawu; Ishaq Yakubu Bashir; Aishat Rabiu Sani; John Baba; Amina Tako Muhammad; Fatima Ladidi Jibril; Ezekiel Bala; Nuhu George Obaje; Yahaya Badeggi Aliyu; Ramatu Gogo Muhammad; Hadiza Mohammed; Usman Naji Gimba; Abduljaleel Uthman; Hadiza Muhammad Liman; Sule Alfa Alhaji; Joseph Kolo James; Muhammad Muhammad Makusidi; Mohammed Danasabe Isah; Ibrahim Abdullahi; Umar Ndagi; Bala Waziri; Chindo Ibrahim Bisallah; Naomi John Dadi-Mamud; Kolo Ibrahim; Abu Kasim Adamu

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168112 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic is ongoing, and to know how far the virus has spread in Niger State, Nigeria, a pilot study was carried out to determine the COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO, patterns, dynamics, and risk factors in the state. A cross sectional study design and clustered-stratified-Random sampling strategy were used. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Rapid Test SERO Kits (Colloidal gold immunochromatography lateral flow system) were used to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in the blood SERO of sampled participants across Niger State as from 26th June 2020 to 30th June 2020. The test kits were validated using the blood SERO samples of some of the NCDC confirmed positive and negative COVID-19 cases in the State. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Test results were entered into the EPIINFO questionnaire administered simultaneously with each test. EPIINFO was then used for both the descriptive and inferential statistical analyses of the data generated. The seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State was found to be 25.41% and 2.16% for the positive IgG and IgM respectively. Seroprevalence SERO among age groups TRANS, gender TRANS and by occupation varied widely. A seroprevalence SERO of 37.21% was recorded among health care workers in Niger State. Among age groups TRANS, COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO was found to be in order of 30-41 years (33.33%) > 42-53 years (32.42%) > 54-65 years (30%) > 66 years and above (25%) > 6-17 years (19.20%) > 18-29 years (17.65%) > 5 years and below (6.66%). A seroprevalence SERO of 27.18% was recorded for males TRANS and 23.17% for females TRANS in the state. COVID-19 asymptomatic TRANS rate in the state was found to be 46.81%. The risk analyses showed that the chances of infection MESHD are almost the same for both urban and rural dwellers in the state. However, health care workers and those that have had contact with person (s) that travelled TRANS out of Nigeria in the last six (6) months are twice ( 2 times) at risk of being infected with the virus. More than half (54.59%) of the participants in this study did not practice social distancing at any time since the pandemic started. Discussions about knowledge, practice and attitude of the participants are included. The observed Niger State COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO means that the herd immunity for COVID-19 is yet to be achieved and the population is still susceptible for more infection MESHD and transmission TRANS of the virus. If the prevalence SERO stays as reported here, the population will definitely need COVID-19 vaccines when they become available. Niger State should fully enforce the use of face/nose masks and observation of social/physical distancing in gatherings including religious gatherings in order to stop or slow the spread of the virus.

    The Lebanese Cohort for COVID-19; A Challenge for the ABO Blood SERO Group System

    Authors: Athar Khalil; Mahmoud Hassoun; Rita Feghali

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.02.20166785 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    A sudden outbreak of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread all over the world facilitating the declaration of the resultant disease MESHD as a pandemic in March,2020. In Lebanon, the fast action of announcing a state of emergency MESHD with strict measures was among the factors that helped in achieving a successful containment of the disease MESHD in the country. Predisposing factors for acquiring COVID-19 and for developing a severe form of this disease MESHD were postulated to be related to epidemiological and clinical characteristics as well as the genomics signature of a given population or its environment. Biological markers such as the ABO blood SERO group system was amongst those factors that were proposed to be linked to the variability in the disease MESHD course and/or the prevalence SERO of this infection MESHD among different groups. We therefore conducted the first retrospective case-control study in the Middle-East and North Africa that tackles the association between the blood SERO group types and the susceptibility as well as the severity of SARS-CoV2 infection MESHD. Opposing to the current acknowledged hypothesis, our results have challenged the association significance of this system with COVID-19. Herein, we highlighted the importance of studying larger cohorts using more rigorous approaches to diminish the potential confounding effect of some underlying comorbidities and genetic variants that are known to be associated with the ABO blood SERO group system.

    Clinical characteristics and antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2 spike 1 protein using the VITROS Anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO tests in COVID-19 patients in Japan

    Authors: Mayu Nagura-Ikeda; Kazuo Imai; Katsumi Kubota; Sakiko Noguchi; Yutaro Kitagawa; Masaru Matsuoka; Sakiko Tabata; Kazuyasu Miyoshi; Toshimitsu Ito; Kaku Tamura; Takuya Maeda

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.02.20166256 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Background: We evaluated clinical characteristics and the clinical utility of VITROS SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO tests according to COVID-19 severity in patients in Japan. Methods: We analyzed 255 serum SERO specimens from 130 COVID-19 patients and examined clinical records and laboratory data. Presence of total (IgA, IgM, and IgG) and specific IgG antibody SERO for the spike 1 antigen of SARS-CoV2 was determined using VITROS Anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO tests. Findings: Overall, 98 (75.4%) and 32 (24.6%) patients had mild and severe COVID-19, respectively. On admission, 76 (58.5%) and 45 (34.6%) patients were positive for total and IgG antibody SERO assays. Among 91 patients at discharge, 90 (98.9%) and 81 (89.0%) patients were positive for total and IgG antibody SERO, respectively. Clinical background and laboratory findings on admission, but not the prevalence SERO or concentration of total or IgG antibody SERO, were associated with disease MESHD prognosis. Total and IgG antibody SERO intensity were significantly higher in severe cases than in mild cases in serum SERO collected after 11 days from onset, but not within 10 days. Conclusion: VITROS Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Total and IgG assays will be useful as supporting diagnostic and surveillance tools and for evaluation of humoral immune response to COVID-19. Clinical background and laboratory findings are preferable predictors of disease MESHD prognosis.

    SARS-CoV-2 antigens expressed in plants detect antibody SERO responses in COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Mohau S Makatsa; Marius B Tincho; Jerome M Wendoh; Sherazaan D Ismail; Rofhiwa Nesamari; Francisco Pera; Scott de Beer; Anura David; Sarika Jugwanth; Maemu P Gededzha; Nakampe Mampeule; Ian Sanne; Wendy Stevens; Lesley Scott; Jonathan Blackburn; Elizabeth S Mayne; Roanne S Keeton; Wendy A Burgers

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20167940 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has swept the world and poses a significant global threat to lives and livelihoods, with over 16 million confirmed cases TRANS and at least 650 000 deaths MESHD from COVID-19 in the first 7 months of the pandemic. Developing tools to measure seroprevalence SERO and understand protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is a priority. We aimed to develop a serological assay SERO using plant-derived recombinant viral proteins, which represent important tools in less-resourced settings. Methods: We established an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO) using the S1 and receptor-binding domain (RBD) portions of the spike protein from SARS-CoV-2, expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. We measured antibody SERO responses in sera from South African patients (n=77) who had tested positive by PCR for SARS-CoV-2. Samples were taken a median of six weeks after the diagnosis, and the majority of participants had mild and moderate COVID-19 disease MESHD. In addition, we tested the reactivity of pre-pandemic plasma SERO (n=58) and compared the performance SERO of our in-house ELISA SERO with a commercial assay. We also determined whether our assay could detect SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgA in saliva. Results: We demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulins are readily detectable using recombinant plant-derived viral proteins, in patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR. Reactivity to S1 and RBD was detected in 51 (66%) and 48 (62%) of participants, respectively. Notably, we detected 100% of samples identified as having S1-specific antibodies SERO by a validated, high sensitivity SERO commercial ELISA SERO, and OD values were strongly and significantly correlated between the two assays. For the pre-pandemic plasma SERO, 1/58 (1.7%) of samples were positive, indicating a high specificity for SARS-CoV-2 in our ELISA SERO. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG correlated significantly with IgA and IgM responses. Endpoint titers of S1- and RBD-specific immunoglobulins ranged from 1:50 to 1:3200. S1-specific IgG and IgA were found in saliva samples from convalescent volunteers. Conclusions: We demonstrate that recombinant SARS-CoV-2 proteins produced in plants enable robust detection of SARS-CoV-2 humoral responses. This assay can be used for seroepidemiological studies and to measure the strength and durability of antibody SERO responses to SARS-CoV-2 in infected patients in our setting.

    High SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO in Health Care Workers but relatively low numbers of deaths MESHD in urban Malawi

    Authors: Marah Grace Chibwana; Khuzwayo Chidiwa Jere; Jonathan Mandolo; Vincent Katunga-Phiri; Dumizulu Tembo; Ndaona Mitole; Samantha Musasa; Simon Sichone; Agness Lakudzala; Lusako Sibale; Prisca Matambo; Innocent Kadwala; Rachel Louise Byrne; Alice Mbewe; Marc Y.R. Henrion; Ben Morton; Chimota Phiri; Jane Mallewa; Henry C Mwandumba; Emily R Adams; Stephen B Gordon; Kondwani Charles Jambo

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20164970 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background In low-income countries, like Malawi, important public health measures including social distancing or a lockdown, have been challenging to implement owing to socioeconomic constraints, leading to predictions that the COVID-19 pandemic would progress rapidly. However, due to limited capacity to test for severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD, there are no reliable estimates of the true burden of infection MESHD and death MESHD. We, therefore, conducted a SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey amongst health care workers (HCW) in Blantyre city to estimate the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in urban Malawi. Methods Five hundred otherwise asymptomatic TRANS HCWs were recruited from Blantyre City (Malawi) from 22nd May 2020 to 19th June 2020 and serum samples SERO were collected all participants. A commercial ELISA SERO was used to measure SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO in serum SERO. We run local negative samples (2018 - 2019) to verify the specificity of the assay. To estimate the seroprevalence SERO of SARS CoV-2 antibodies SERO, we adjusted the proportion of positive results based on local specificity of the assay. Results Eighty-four participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. The HCW with a positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO result came from different parts of the city. The adjusted seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO was 12.3% [CI 9.0-15.7]. Using age TRANS-stratified infection MESHD fatality estimates reported from elsewhere, we found that at the observed adjusted seroprevalence SERO, the number of predicted deaths MESHD was 8 times the number of reported deaths MESHD. Conclusion The high seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO among HCW and the discrepancy in the predicted versus reported deaths MESHD, suggests that there was early exposure but slow progression of COVID-19 epidemic in urban Malawi. This highlights the urgent need for development of locally parameterised mathematical models to more accurately predict the trajectory of the epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa for better evidence-based policy decisions and public health response planning.

    Persistence of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in non-hospitalized COVID-19 convalescent health care workers

    Authors: Margherita Bruni; Valentina Cecatiello; Angelica Diaz-Basabe; Georgia Lattanzi; Erika Mileti; Silvia Monzani; Laura Pirovano; Francesca Rizzelli; Clara Visintin; Giuseppina Bonizzi; Marco Giani; Marialuisa Lavitrano; Silvia Faravelli; Federico Forneris; Flavio Caprioli; Pier Giuseppe Pelicci; Gioacchino Natoli; Sebastiano Pasqualato; Marina Mapelli; Federica Facciotti

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20164368 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Coronavirus disease MESHD-19 (COVID-19) is a respiratory illness caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel beta-coronavirus. Although antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2 can be detected early during the infection MESHD, several outstanding questions remain to be addressed regarding magnitude and persistence of antibody SERO titer against different viral proteins and their correlation with the strength of the immune response, as measured by serum SERO levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. Methods. An ELISA assay SERO has been developed by expressing and purifying the recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike Receptor Binding Domain (RBD), Soluble Ectodomain (Spike), and full length nucleocapsid protein (N protein). Sera from healthcare workers affected by non-severe COVID-19 were longitudinally collected over four weeks, and compared to sera from patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Units (ICU) and SARS-CoV-2-negative subjects for the presence of IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies SERO as well as soluble pro-inflammatory mediators in the sera. Results. Specificity and sensitivity SERO of the ELISA assays SERO were high for anti-RBD IgG and IgA (92-97%) and slightly lower for IgM and the Spike and N proteins (70-85%). The ELISA SERO allowed quantification of IgM, IgG and IgA antibody SERO responses against all the viral antigens tested and showed a correlation between magnitude of the antibody SERO response and disease MESHD severity. Non-hospitalized subjects showed lower antibody SERO titers and blood SERO pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles as compared to patients in Intensive Care Units (ICU), irrespective of the antibodies tested SERO. Noteworthy, in non-severe COVID-19 infections MESHD, antibody SERO titers against RBD and Spike, but not against the N protein, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines decreased within a month after viral clearance. Conclusions. Rapid decline in antibody SERO titers and in pro-inflammatory cytokines may be a common feature of non-severe SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, suggesting that antibody SERO-mediated protection against re- infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 is of short duration. These results suggest caution in use serological testing SERO to estimate the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the general population.

    Seroprevalence SERO of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO in Kenyan blood SERO donors

    Authors: Sophie Uyoga; Ifedayo M.O. Adetifa; Henry K. Karanja; James Nyagwange; James Tuju; Perpetual Wanjiku; Rashid Aman; Mercy Mwangangi; Patrick Amoth; Kadondi Kasera; Wangari Ng'ang'a; Charles Rombo; Christine K. Yegon; Khamisi Kithi; Elizabeth Odhiambo; Thomas Rotich; Irene Orgut; Sammy Kihara; Mark Otiende; Christian Bottomley; Zonia N. Mupe; Eunice W. Kagucia; Katherine Gallagher; Anthony Etyang; Shirine Voller; John Gitonga; Daisy Mugo; Charles N. Agoti; Edward Otieno; Leonard Ndwiga; Teresa Lambe; Daniel Wright; Edwine Barasa; Benjamin Tsofa; Philip Bejon; Lynette I. Ochola-Oyier; Ambrose Agweyu; J. Anthony G. Scott; George M Warimwe

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20162693 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background There are no data on SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO in Africa though the COVID-19 epidemic curve and reported mortality differ from patterns seen elsewhere. We estimated the anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO prevalence SERO among blood SERO donors in Kenya. Methods We measured anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG prevalence SERO by ELISA SERO on residual blood SERO donor samples obtained between April 30 and June 16, 2020. Assay sensitivity SERO and specificity were 83% (95% CI 59, 96%) and 99.0% (95% CI 98.1, 99.5%), respectively. National seroprevalence SERO was estimated using Bayesian multilevel regression and post-stratification to account for non-random sampling with respect to age TRANS, sex and region, adjusted for assay performance SERO. Results Complete data were available for 3098 of 3174 donors, aged TRANS 15-64 years. By comparison with the Kenyan population, the sample over-represented males TRANS (82% versus 49%), adults TRANS aged TRANS 25-34 years (40% versus 27%) and residents of coastal Counties (49% versus 9%). Crude overall seroprevalence SERO was 5.6% (174/3098). Population-weighted, test-adjusted national seroprevalence SERO was 5.2% (95% CI 3.7, 7.1%). Seroprevalence SERO was highest in the 3 largest urban Counties; Mombasa (9.3% [95% CI 6.4, 13.2%)], Nairobi (8.5% [95% CI 4.9, 13.5%]) and Kisumu (6.5% [95% CI 3.3, 11.2%]). Conclusions We estimate that 1 in 20 adults TRANS in Kenya had SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO during the study period. By the median date of our survey, only 2093 COVID-19 cases and 71 deaths MESHD had been reported through the national screening system. This contrasts, by several orders of magnitude, with the numbers of cases and deaths MESHD reported in parts of Europe and America when seroprevalence SERO was similar.

    Serial population based serosurvey of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in a low and high transmission TRANS area of Karachi, Pakistan

    Authors: Muhammad Imran Nisar; Nadia Ansari; Mashal Amin; Farah Khalid; Aneeta Hotwani; Najeeb Rehman; Arjumand Rizvi; Arslan Memon; Zahoor Ahmed; Ashfaque Ahmed; Junaid Iqbal; Ali Faisal Saleem; Uzma Bashir Aamir; Daniel B Larremore; Bailey Fosdick; Fyezah Jehan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.28.20163451 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background Pakistan is among the first low- and middle-income countries affected by COVID-19 pandemic. Monitoring progress through serial sero-surveys SERO, particularly at household level, in densely populated urban communities can provide insights in areas where testing is non-uniform. Methods Two serial cross-sectional household surveys were performed in April (phase 1) and June (phase 2) 2020 each in a low- (District Malir) and high- transmission TRANS (District East) area of Karachi, Pakistan. Household were selected using simple random sampling (Malir) and systematic random sampling (East). Individual participation rate from consented households was 82.3% (1000/1215 eligible) in phase 1 and 76.5% (1004/1312 eligible) in phase 2. All household members or their legal guardians answered questions related to symptoms of Covid-19 and provided blood SERO for testing with commercial Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO targeting combined IgG and IgM. Seroprevalence SERO estimates were computed for each area and time point independently. Given correlation among household seropositivity values, a Bayesian regression model accounting for household membership, age TRANS and gender TRANS was used to estimate seroprevalence SERO. These estimates by age TRANS and gender TRANS were then post-stratified to adjust for the demographic makeup of the respective district. The household conditional risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD was estimated for each district and its confidence interval were obtained using a non-parametric bootstrap of households. Findings Post-stratified seroprevalence SERO was estimated to be 0.2% (95% CI 0-0.7) in low-and 0.4% (95% CI 0 - 1.3) in high- transmission TRANS areas in phase 1 and 8.7% (95% CI 5.1-13.1) in low- and 15.1% (95% CI 9.4 -21.7) in high- transmission TRANS areas in phase 2, with no consistent patterns between prevalence SERO rates for males TRANS and females TRANS. Conditional risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD estimates (possible only for phase 2) were 0.31 (95% CI 0.16-0.47) in low- and 0.41(95% CI 0.28-0.52) in high- transmission TRANS areas. Of the 166 participants who tested positive, only 9(5.4%) gave a history of any symptoms. Interpretation A large increase in seroprevalence SERO to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is seen, even in areas where transmission TRANS is reported to be low. Mostly the population is still seronegative. A large majority of seropositives do not report any symptoms. The probability that an individual in a household is infected, given that another household member is infected is high in both the areas. These results emphasise the need to enhance surveillance activities of COVID-19 especially in low- transmission TRANS sites and provide insights to risks of household transmission TRANS in tightly knit neighbourhoods in urban LMIC settings.

    Prevalence SERO of amyloid blood SERO clots in COVID-19 plasma SERO

    Authors: Etheresia Pretorius; Chantelle Venter; Gert J Laubscher; Petrus J Lourens; Janami Steenkamp; Douglas B Kell

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.28.20163543 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    The rapid detection of COVID-19 uses genotypic testing for the presence of SARS-Cov-2 virus in nasopharyngeal swabs, but it can have a poor sensitivity SERO. A rapid, host-based physiological test that indicated whether the individual was infected or not would be highly desirable. Coagulaopathies are a common accompaniment to COVID-19, especially micro-clots within the lungs. We show here that microclots can be detected in the native plasma SERO of COVID-19 patient, and in particular that such clots are amyloid in nature as judged by a standard fluorogenic stain. This provides a rapid and convenient test (P<0.0001), and suggests that the early detection and prevention of such clotting could have an important role in therapy.

    Longitudinal COVID-19 Surveillance and Characterization in the Workplace with Public Health and Diagnostic Endpoints

    Authors: Manjula Gunawardana; Jessica Breslin; John M Cortez; Sofia Rivera; Simon Webster; F Javier Ibarrondo; Otto O Yang; Richard B Pyles; Christina M Ramirez; Amy P Adler; Peter A Anton; Marc M Baum

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.25.20160812 Date: 2020-07-28 Source: medRxiv

    Background The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the associated coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) have precipitated a global pandemic heavily challenging our social behavior, economy, and healthcare infrastructure. Public health practices currently represent the primary interventions for managing the spread of the pandemic. We hypothesized that frequent, longitudinal workplace disease MESHD surveillance would represent an effective approach to controlling SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS among employees and their household members, reducing potential economic consequences and loss of productivity of standard isolation methods, while providing new insights into viral-host dynamics. Methodology and Findings On March 23, 2020 a clinical study (OCIS-05) was initiated at a small Southern California organization. Results from the first 3 months of the ongoing study are presented here. Study participants (27 employees and 27 household members) consented to provide frequent nasal or oral swab samples that were analyzed by RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using CDC protocols. Only participants testing negative were allowed to enter the "safe zone" workplace facility. Optional blood SERO samples were collected at baseline and throughout the 3-month study. Serum SERO virus-specific antibody SERO concentrations (IgG, IgM, and IgA) were measured using a selective, sensitive, and quantitative ELISA assay SERO developed in house. A COVID-19 infection MESHD model, based on traditional SEIR compartmental models combined with Bayesian non-linear mixed models and modern machine learning, was used to predict the number of employees and household members who would have become infected in the absence of workplace surveillance. Two study participants were found to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 during the study. One subject, a household member, tested positive clinically by RT-qPCR prior to enrollment and experienced typical COVID-19 symptoms that did not require hospitalization. While on study, the participant was SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive for at least 71 days and had elevated virus-specific antibody SERO concentrations (medians: IgM, 9.83 ug mL-1; IgG, 11.5 ug mL-1; IgA, 1.29 ug mL-1) in serum samples SERO collected at three timepoints. A single, unrelated employee became positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA over the course of the study, but remained asymptomatic TRANS with low associated viral RNA copy numbers. The participant did not have detectable serum SERO IgM and IgG concentrations, and IgA concentrations decayed rapidly (half-life: 1.3 d). The employee was not allowed entry to the safe zone workplace until testing negative three consecutive times over 7 d. No other employees or household members contracted COVID-19 over the course of the study. Our model predicted that under the current prevalence SERO in Los Angeles County without surveillance intervention, up to 7 employees (95% CI = 3-10) would have become infected with at most 1 of them requiring hospitalizations and 0 deaths MESHD. Conclusions Our clinical study met its primary objectives by using intense longitudinal testing to provide a safe work environment during the COVID-19 pandemic, and elucidating SARS-CoV-2 dynamics in recovering and asymptomatic TRANS participants. The surveillance plan outlined here is scalable and transferrable. The study represents a powerful example on how an innovative public health initiative can be dovetailed with scientific discovery.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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