Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Fatigue (26)

Fever (24)

Cough (24)

Disease (16)

Coronavirus Infections (12)


Human Phenotype

Fatigue (26)

Fever (24)

Cough (24)

Pneumonia (10)

Diarrhea (7)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Examining Australian's beliefs, misconceptions, and sources of information for COVID-19: A national online survey

    Authors: Rae Thomas; Hannah Greenwood; Zoe A Michaleff; Eman Abukmail; Tammy Hoffmann; Kirsten J McCaffery; Leah Hardiman; Paul Glasziou

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20163204 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: Public cooperation to practice preventive health behaviours is essential to manage the transmission TRANS of infectious diseases MESHD such as COVID-19. We aimed to investigate beliefs about COVID-19 diagnosis, transmission TRANS and prevention that have the potential to impact the uptake of recommended public health strategies. Design: An online cross-sectional survey conducted May 8 to May 11 2020. Participants: A national sample of 1500 Australian adults TRANS with representative quotas for age TRANS and gender TRANS provided by online panel provider. Main outcome measure: Proportion of participants with correct/incorrect knowledge of COVID-19 preventive behaviours and reasons for misconceptions. Results: Of the 1802 potential participants contacted, 289 were excluded, 13 declined, and 1500 participated in the survey (response rate 83%). Most participants correctly identified washing your hands regularly with soap and water (92%) and staying at least 1.5m away from others (90%) could help prevent COVID-19. Over 40% (incorrectly) considered wearing gloves outside of the home would prevent them contracting COVID-19. Views about face masks were divided. Only 66% of participants correctly identified that regular use of antibiotics would not prevent COVID-19. Most participants (90%) identified fever MESHD fever HP, fatigue MESHD fatigue HP and cough MESHD cough HP as indicators of COVID-19. However, 42% of participants thought that being unable to hold your breath for 10 seconds without coughing MESHD coughing HP was an indicator of having the virus. The most frequently reported sources of COVID-19 information were commercial television channels (56%), the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (43%), and the Australian Government COVID-19 information app (31%). Conclusions: Public messaging about hand hygiene and physical distancing to prevent transmission TRANS appear to have been effective. However, there are clear, identified barriers for many individuals that have the potential to impede uptake or maintenance of these behaviours in the long-term. Currently these non-drug interventions are our only effective strategy to combat this pandemic. Ensuring ongoing adherence to is critical.

    Prediction Model of Severe Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019(COVID-19) Cases Shows the Leading Risk Factor of Hypocalcemia MESHD Hypocalcemia HP

    Authors: Chenchan Hu; Feifei Su; Jianyi Dai; Shushu Lu; Lianpeng Wu; Dong Chen; Qifa Song; Fan Zhou

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-41318/v1 Date: 2020-07-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background A striking characteristic of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019(COVID-19) is the coexistence of clinically mild and severe cases. A comprehensive analysis of multiple risk factors predicting progression to severity is clinically meaningful. Methods The patients were classified into moderate and severe groups. The univariate regression analysis was used to identify their epidemiological and clinical features related to severity, which were used as possible risk factors and were entered into a forward-stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis to develop a multiple factor prediction model for the severe cases.Results 255 patients (mean age TRANS, 49.1±SD 14.6) were included, consisting of 184 (72.2%) moderate cases and 71 (27.8%) severe cases. The common symptoms were dry cough MESHD cough HP (78.0%), sputum (62.7%), and fever MESHD fever HP (59.2%). The less common symptoms were fatigue MESHD fatigue HP (29.4%), diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP (25.9%), and dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP (20.8%). The univariate regression analysis determined 23 possible risk factors. The multiple logistic regression identified seven risk factors closely related to the severity of COVID-19, including dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, exposure history in Wuhan, CRP (C-reactive protein), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), calcium, lymphocytes, and age TRANS. The probability model for predicting the severe COVID-19 was P=1/1+exp (-1.78+1.02×age+1.62×high- transmission TRANS-setting-exposure +1.77×dyspnea+1.54×CRP+1.03×lymphocyte+1.03×AST+1.76×calcium). Dyspnea MESHD Dyspnea HP (OR=5.91) and hypocalcemia MESHD hypocalcemia HP (OR=5.79) were the leading risk factors, followed by exposure to a high- transmission TRANS setting (OR=5.04), CRP (OR=4.67), AST (OR=2.81), decreased lymphocyte count (OR=2.80), and age TRANS (OR=2.78). Conclusions This quantitative prognosis prediction model can provide a theoretical basis for the early formulation of individualized diagnosis and treatment programs and prevention of severe diseases MESHD.

    Community prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 virus in England during May 2020: REACT study

    Authors: Steven Riley; Kylie E. C. Ainslie; Oliver Eales; Benjamin Jeffrey; Caroline E. Walters; Christina J Atchison; Peter J. Diggle; Deborah Ashby; Christl A. Donnelly; Graham Cooke; Wendy Barclay; Helen Ward; Graham Taylor; Ara Darzi; Paul Elliott

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150524 Date: 2020-07-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background England has experienced one of the highest rates of confirmed COVID-19 mortality in the world. SARS-CoV-2 virus has circulated in hospitals, care homes and the community since January 2020. Our current epidemiological knowledge is largely informed by clinical cases with far less understanding of community transmission TRANS. Methods The REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission TRANS (REACT) study is a nationally representative prevalence SERO survey of SARS-CoV-2 virus swab-positivity in the community in England. We recruited participants regardless of symptom status. Results We found 159 positives from 120,610 swabs giving an average prevalence SERO of 0.13% (95% CI: 0.11%,0.15%) from 1st May to 1st June 2020. We showed decreasing prevalence SERO with a halving time of 8.6 (6.2, 13.6) days, implying an overall reproduction number TRANS R of 0.57 (0.45, 0.72). Adults TRANS aged TRANS 18 to 24 yrs had the highest swab-positivity rates, while those >64 yrs had the lowest. Of the 126 participants who tested positive with known symptom status in the week prior to their swab, 39 reported symptoms while 87 did not, giving an estimate that 69% (61%,76%) of people were symptom-free for the 7 days prior testing positive in our community sample. Symptoms strongly associated with swab-positivity were: nausea MESHD nausea and/or vomiting HP and/or vomiting MESHD, diarrhoea, blocked nose, loss of smell, loss of taste, headache MESHD headache HP, chills MESHD chills HP and severe fatigue MESHD fatigue HP. Recent contact with a known COVID-19 case was associated with odds of 24 (16, 38) for swab-positivity. Compared with non-key workers, odds of swab-positivity were 7.7 (2.4, 25) among care home (long-term care facilities) workers and 5.2 (2.9, 9.3) among health care workers. However, some of the excess risk associated with key worker status was explained by recent contact with COVID-19 cases. We found no strong evidence for geographical variability in positive swab results. Conclusion Our results provide a reliable baseline against which the impact of subsequent relaxation of lockdown can be assessed to inform future public health efforts to control transmission TRANS.

    Preparedness and Approaches of Healthcare Providers to Tackle the Transmission TRANS of Covid-19 among North Shewa Zone Hospitals, Amhara, Ethiopia, 2020.

    Authors: Getaneh Baye Mulu; worku Misganaw Kebede; Solomon Adanew worku; Yohannes Moges Mittiku; Birhanu Ayelign Jemere

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-36151/v1 Date: 2020-06-16 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19 is an emerging respiratory disease MESHD that is caused by a novel coronavirus and was first detected in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. The disease MESHD is highly infectious, and its main clinical symptoms include fever MESHD fever HP, dry cough MESHD cough HP, fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, myalgia MESHD myalgia HP, and dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP. Health care providers are in front in fighting the coronavirus spread by making themselves the risk of contracting the disease MESHD. This study aimed to assess the preparedness and approaches of healthcare providers to tackle the transmission TRANS of COVID-19 among North Shewa Zone Hospitals.Methods Facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2020 among 422 healthcare providers in the North Shewa Zone, Amhara, Ethiopia using a self-administered questionnaire. Study subjects were selected through systematic random sampling based on their proportional distribution of sample size to each hospital. A structured questionnaire will be used to collect data. The data were coded and entered into the Epi data 4.2.1 version and the analysis was carried out in statistical package for social science 25 versions.Results 404 participants involved in the study gives a response rate of 95.7%. The self-satisfaction of healthcare providers revealed 301 (74.5%) of study participants feel unsafe in their workplace. Two-third, 260 (64.4%) of them responded that they feel anxious while working with febrile patients. Nearly one -third (31%), 27.4%, 15.9%, 14.5%, 14.2% of HCP had access to gloves, facemask, goggle, shoe, and apron respectively in hospitals.Conclusion Protecting healthcare workers is a public health priority. Access to essential personal protective equipment during the COVID-19 pandemic was limited. The poor perception of healthcare professionals about not having enough support from medical institutions and public health authorities raises the need to urgently implement strategies to protect healthcare workers in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic.

    SARS-CoV-2 Existence in Different Types of Biological Specimens and Leading Public Health Concern

    Authors: Priyanka Yadav

    id:10.20944/preprints202006.0041.v1 Date: 2020-06-04 Source: Preprints.org

    There is a new public health crisis threatening the world with the emergence and spread of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), which originated in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, has been declared a public health emergency MESHD of international concern by WHO. Most patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 exhibited symptoms of fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, myalgia MESHD myalgia HP, fatigue MESHD fatigue HP and shortness of breath. Many infected people may be asymptomatic TRANS. It is generally believed that airway exposure to respiratory droplets from an infected patient is the main transmission TRANS route of this disease MESHD. However, apart from respiratory source, other source specimens like faecal matter and urine could be possible for COVID-19 infectivity. The spreading other routes of the virus has been alarming sign, both for public and health care professionals. Understanding the spreading routes of SARS-CoV-2 is crucial for patient management and defining biosafety strategies for public and health care workers.

    Clinical features of COVID-19 patients in one designated medical institutions in Chengdu, China

    Authors: Gui Zhou; Yun-Hui Tan; Jiang-Cuo Luo; Yi-Xiao Lu; Jing Feng; Juan Li; Yun-Mei Yang; Long Chen; Jian-Ping Zhang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-30405/v1 Date: 2020-05-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical characteristics of patients infected with the 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) responsible for coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-2019).METHODS: Data were collected from 20 patients admitted to the Pidu District People’s Hospital in Chengdu from January 26, 2020 to March 1, 2020 with laboratory-confirmed SARS-Cov-2 infection MESHD. Clinical data were collected using the World Health Organization (WHO) nCoV CASE RECORDFORM Version 1.2 28JAN2020, which includes parameters such as: temperature, epidemiological characteristics, social network, history of exposure, and incubation period TRANS. If information was unclear, the team reviewed the original data and contacted TRANS patients directly if necessary.RESULTS: The median age TRANS of the 20 COVID-19 infected patients studied was 42.5 years. In this cohort, four patients became severely ill and one deteriorated rapidly during treatment. This patient was transferred to another medical center with an intensive care unit (ICU) for treatment. This patient died after admission to the ICU. Two of the twenty patients remained positive SARS-Cov-2 more than three weeks, and they were quarantined in a medical facility without medication. According to our analysis, all of the studied cases were infected by human-to-human transmission TRANS due to the lack of protective measures; transmission TRANS through contact within families requires confirmation. The most common symptoms at onset TRANS of illness were fever MESHD fever HP in 13 (65%) patients, cough MESHD cough HP in 9 (45%), headache MESHD headache HP in 3 (15%), fatigue MESHD fatigue HP in 6 (30%), diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP in 3 (15%), and abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP in 2 (10%). Six patients (30%) developed shortness of breath upon admission. The median time from exposure to onset of illness was6.5 days (interquartile range 3.25–9 days), and from the onset of symptoms TRANS to first hospital admission was 3.5 (1.25–7) days.CONCLUSION: Compared with patients infected with SARS-Cov-2 in Wuhan (up to the end of February 2020), the symptoms of patients in one hospital in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, were relatively mild and patients were discharged from the hospital after only a short stay. However, the fasting blood SERO glucose of the infected individuals was found to be slightly elevated because of the state of emergency MESHD. The dynamic changes in lymphocyte levels can predict disease MESHD status of COVID-19. They are also suggestive of changes in mean platelet volume during disease progression MESHD. This suggests that the patients had mild cases of COVID-19. However, because there is no effective drug treatment for COVID-19, it is important to detect and identify severe cases from mild cases early.

    Epidemiologic, Clinical, and Laboratory Findings of the COVID-19 in the current pandemic: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Authors: Yewei Xie; Zaisheng Wang; Huipeng Liao; Gifty Marley; Dan Wu; Weiming Tang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-28367/v2 Date: 2020-05-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world deeply, with more than 3,000,000 people infected and nearly 200,000 deaths MESHD. This review aimed to summarize the epidemiologic traits, clinical spectrum, CT results and laboratory findings of the COVID-19 pandemic.Methods: We scoped for relevant literatures published during 1st Dec 2019 to 23rd Apr 2020 based on four databases using English and Chinese languages. We reviewed and analyzed the relevant clinic outcomes of COVID-19.Results: The COVID-19 pandemic was found to have a higher transmission TRANS rate compared to SARS and MERS and involved 4 stages of evolution. The basic reproduction number TRANS ( R0 TRANS) is 3.32 (95% CI:3.24-3.39), the incubation period TRANS was 5.24 days (95% CI:3.97-6.50, 5 studies) on average, and the average time for symptoms onset TRANS varied by countries. Common clinical spectrums identified included fever MESHD fever HP (38.1-39.0℃), cough MESHD cough HP and fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, with Acute Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome MESHD (ARDS) being the most common complication reported. Body temperatures above 39.0 ℃, dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, and anorexia MESHD anorexia HP were more common symptoms in severe patients. Aged TRANS over 60 years old, having co-morbidities, and developing complications were the commonest high-risk factors associated with severe conditions. Leucopenia and lymphopenia MESHD lymphopenia HP were the most common signs of infection MESHD while liver and kidney damage were rare but may cause bad outcomes for patients. The bilateral, multifocal Ground-Glass Opacification (GGO) on peripheral, and the consolidative pulmonary opacity HP were the most frequent CT results and the tendency of mortality rates differed by region.Conclusions: We provided a bird’s-eye view of the COVID-19 during the current pandemic, which will help better understanding the key traits of the disease MESHD. The findings could be used for disease’s future research, control and prevention.

    Clinical characteristics and fecal-oral transmission TRANS potential of patients with COVID-19

    Authors: Saibin Wang; Junwei Tu; Yijun Sheng

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.02.20089094 Date: 2020-05-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background: A significant proportion of patients with COVID-19 generate negative pharyngeal swab viral nucleic acid test results but test positive using fecal samples. However, fecal-oral transmission TRANS of COVID-19 has not been established to date. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the duration of fecal swab positivity in COVID-19 patients after pharyngeal swab nucleic acid test turned negative and to explore its potential for fecal-oral transmission TRANS. Methods: A retrospective analysis of clinical records, laboratory results, and chest computed tomography (CT) findings of 17 COVID-19 patients confirmed by laboratory tests from January 22 to February 7, 2020 at a tertiary hospital was performed. The potential of fecal-oral transmission TRANS was assessed by detecting the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in fecal swab samples. Results: A total of 16 patients (94.1%) had fever MESHD fever HP; other symptoms included dry cough MESHD cough HP, dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, nausea MESHD nausea HP, diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP, sore throat, fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, and muscle pain MESHD pain HP. Three patients had decreased white blood SERO cell counts, 7 had decreased lymphocyte numbers, and 7 had increased C-reactive protein levels. Fecal samples of 11 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, of whom the time for the fecal samples to become SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid-negative was longer in 10 patients than that for pharyngeal swab samples, and only one case exhibited a shorter time for his fecal sample to become SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid-negative compared to his pharyngeal swab sample. The remaining 6 patients were negative for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in fecal samples. Conclusion: In COVID-19 patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in both pharyngeal swab and fecal samples, the time for the fecal samples to become SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid-negative was generally longer than that in pharyngeal swab samples. However, there is currently no evidence demonstrating that the virus can be transmitted through the fecal-oral route.

    Effects of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) on Maternal, Perinatal and Neonatal Outcomes: a Systematic Review of 266 Pregnancies

    Authors: Juan Juan; Maria M Gil; Zhihui Rong; Yuanzhen Zhang; Huixia Yang; Liona Chiu Yee Poon

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.02.20088484 Date: 2020-05-06 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To perform a systematic review of available published literature on pregnancies affected by COVID-19 to evaluate the effects of COVID-19 on maternal, perinatal and neonatal outcomes. Methods: We performed a systematic review to evaluate the effects of COVID-19 on pregnancy, perinatal and neonatal outcomes. We conducted a comprehensive literature search using PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database and Wan Fang Data until April 20, 2020 (studies were identified through PubMed alert after April 20, 2020). For the research strategy, combinations of the following keywords and MeSH terms were used: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, coronavirus disease MESHD 2019, pregnancy, gestation, maternal, mothers, vertical transmission TRANS, maternal-fetal transmission TRANS, intrauterine transmission TRANS, neonates, infant, delivery. Eligibility criteria included laboratory-confirmed and/or clinically diagnosed COVID-19, patient was pregnant on admission, availability of clinical characteristics, including maternal, perinatal or neonatal outcomes. Exclusion criteria were unpublished reports, unspecified date and location of the study or suspicion of duplicate reporting, and unreported maternal or perinatal outcomes. No language restrictions were applied. Results: We identified several case-reports and case-series but only 19 studies, including a total of 266 pregnant women with COVID-19, met eligibility criteria and were finally included in the review. In the combined data from seven case-series, the maternal age TRANS ranged from 20 to 41 years and the gestational age TRANS on admission ranged from 5 to 41 weeks. The most common symptoms at presentation were fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP/shortness of breath and fatigue MESHD fatigue HP. The rate of severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP was relatively low, with the majority of the cases requiring intensive care unit admission. Almost all cases from the case-series had positive computer tomography chest findings. There were six and 22 cases that had nucleic-acid testing in vaginal mucus and breast milk samples, respectively, which were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Only a few cases had spontaneous miscarriage or abortion. 177 cases had delivered, of which the majority by Cesarean section. The gestational age TRANS at delivery ranged from 28 to 41 weeks. Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes HP Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes HP ranged from 7 to 10 and 8 to 10, respectively. A few neonates had birthweight less than 2500 grams and over one-third of cases were transferred to neonatal intensive care unit. There was one case each of neonatal asphyxia HP asphyxia MESHD and neonatal death MESHD. There were 113 neonates that had nucleic-acid testing in throat swab, which was negative for SARS-CoV-2. From the case-reports, two maternal deaths MESHD among pregnant women with COVID-19 were reported. Conclusions: The clinical characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 are similar to those of nonpregnant adults TRANS with COVID-19. Currently, there is no evidence that pregnant women with COVID-19 are more prone to develop severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, in comparison to nonpregnant patients. The subject of vertical transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 remains controversial and more data is needed to investigate this possibility. Most importantly, in order to collect meaningful pregnancy and perinatal outcome data, we urge researchers and investigators to reference previously published cases in their publications and to record such reporting when the data of a case is being entered into a registry or several registries.

    Epidemiological and clinical features of 201 COVID-19 patients in Changsha city, Hunan, China

    Authors: Jian Zhou; Jing-jing Sun; Zi-qin Cao; Wan-chun Wang; Kang Huang; Fang Zheng; Yuan-lin Xie; Di-xuan Jiang; Zhi-guo Zhou

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-27266/v1 Date: 2020-05-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In December 2019, a cluster of coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. With the advent of the Chinese Spring Festival, this disease MESHD disease spread TRANS spread rapidly throughout the country. The information about the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients outside of Wuhan is limited.Methods: All of the patients with confirmed COVID-19 were admitted to the First Hospital of Changsha City, the designated hospital for COVID-19 assigned by the Changsha City Government. The clinical and epidemiological characteristics, data of laboratory, radiological picture, treatment, and outcomes records of 201 COVID-19 patients were collected using electronic medical records.Results: This study population consisted of 201 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in Changsha by April 28, 2020. The median age TRANS of the patients was 45 years (IQR 34–59). About half (50.7%) of the patients were male TRANS, and most of the infected patients were staff (96 [47.8%]). Concerning the epidemiologic history, the number of patients linked to Wuhan was 92 (45.8%). The most common symptoms were fever MESHD fever HP (125 [62.2%]), dry cough MESHD cough HP (118 [58.7%]), fatigue MESHD fatigue HP (65 [32.3%]), and pharyngalgia (31 [15.4%]). One hundred and forty-four (71.6%) enrolled patients showed bilateral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Fifty-four (26.9%) patients showed unilateral involvement, and three (1.5%) patients showed no abnormal signs or symptoms MESHD. The laboratory findings differed significantly between the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and non-ICU groups. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had depressed white blood SERO cell (WBC), neutrocytes, lymphocytes, and prolonged prothrombin time HP (PT). Moreover, higher plasma SERO levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), alanine aminotransferase (ALA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), creatinine (CREA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were detected in the ICU group.Conclusions: In this single-center study of 201 COVID-19 patients in Changsha, China, 22.4% of patients were admitted to ICU. Based on our findings, we propose that the risk of cellular immune deficiency, hepatic injury, and kidney injury should be monitored. Previous reports focused on the clinical features of patients from Wuhan, China. With the global epidemic of COVID-19, we should pay more attention to the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients outside of Wuhan.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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