Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (52)

Cough (37)

Fever (35)

Fatigue (13)

Hypertension (9)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 453
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    Seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State

    Authors: Hussaini Majiya; Mohammed Aliyu-Paiko; Vincent Tochukwu Balogu; Dickson Achimugu Musa; Ibrahim Maikudi Salihu; Abdullahi Abubakar Kawu; Ishaq Yakubu Bashir; Aishat Rabiu Sani; John Baba; Amina Tako Muhammad; Fatima Ladidi Jibril; Ezekiel Bala; Nuhu George Obaje; Yahaya Badeggi Aliyu; Ramatu Gogo Muhammad; Hadiza Mohammed; Usman Naji Gimba; Abduljaleel Uthman; Hadiza Muhammad Liman; Sule Alfa Alhaji; Joseph Kolo James; Muhammad Muhammad Makusidi; Mohammed Danasabe Isah; Ibrahim Abdullahi; Umar Ndagi; Bala Waziri; Chindo Ibrahim Bisallah; Naomi John Dadi-Mamud; Kolo Ibrahim; Abu Kasim Adamu

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168112 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic is ongoing, and to know how far the virus has spread in Niger State, Nigeria, a pilot study was carried out to determine the COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO, patterns, dynamics, and risk factors in the state. A cross sectional study design and clustered-stratified-Random sampling strategy were used. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Rapid Test SERO Kits (Colloidal gold immunochromatography lateral flow system) were used to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in the blood SERO of sampled participants across Niger State as from 26th June 2020 to 30th June 2020. The test kits were validated using the blood SERO samples of some of the NCDC confirmed positive and negative COVID-19 cases in the State. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Test results were entered into the EPIINFO questionnaire administered simultaneously with each test. EPIINFO was then used for both the descriptive and inferential statistical analyses of the data generated. The seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State was found to be 25.41% and 2.16% for the positive IgG and IgM respectively. Seroprevalence SERO among age groups TRANS, gender TRANS and by occupation varied widely. A seroprevalence SERO of 37.21% was recorded among health care workers in Niger State. Among age groups TRANS, COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO was found to be in order of 30-41 years (33.33%) > 42-53 years (32.42%) > 54-65 years (30%) > 66 years and above (25%) > 6-17 years (19.20%) > 18-29 years (17.65%) > 5 years and below (6.66%). A seroprevalence SERO of 27.18% was recorded for males TRANS and 23.17% for females TRANS in the state. COVID-19 asymptomatic TRANS rate in the state was found to be 46.81%. The risk analyses showed that the chances of infection MESHD are almost the same for both urban and rural dwellers in the state. However, health care workers and those that have had contact with person (s) that travelled TRANS out of Nigeria in the last six (6) months are twice ( 2 times) at risk of being infected with the virus. More than half (54.59%) of the participants in this study did not practice social distancing at any time since the pandemic started. Discussions about knowledge, practice and attitude of the participants are included. The observed Niger State COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO means that the herd immunity for COVID-19 is yet to be achieved and the population is still susceptible for more infection MESHD and transmission TRANS of the virus. If the prevalence SERO stays as reported here, the population will definitely need COVID-19 vaccines when they become available. Niger State should fully enforce the use of face/nose masks and observation of social/physical distancing in gatherings including religious gatherings in order to stop or slow the spread of the virus.

    SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, disease MESHD and transmission TRANS in domestic cats

    Authors: Natasha N Gaudreault; Jessie D Trujillo; Mariano Carossino; David A Meekins; Igor Morozov; Daniel W Madden; Sabarish V Indran; Dashzeveg Bold; Velmurugan Balaraman; Taeyong Kwon; Bianca Libanori Artiaga; Konner Cool; Adolfo Garcia-Sastre; Wenjun Ma; William C Wilson; Jamie Henningson; Udeni BR Balasuriya; Juergen A Richt

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.235002 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: bioRxiv

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) and responsible for the current pandemic. Recent SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and transmission TRANS studies in cats show that the virus can replicate in these companion animals and transmit to other cats. Here, we present an in-depth study of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, associated disease MESHD and transmission TRANS dynamics in domestic cats. Six 4- to 5-month-old cats were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 via intranasal and oral routes simultaneously. One day post challenge (DPC), two sentinel contact cats were co-mingled with the principal infected animals. Animals were monitored for clinical signs, clinicopathological abnormalities and viral shedding throughout the 21 DPC observation period. Postmortem examinations were performed at 4, 7 and 21 DPC to investigate disease progression MESHD. Viral RNA was not detected in blood SERO but transiently in nasal, oropharyngeal and rectal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as various tissues. Tracheobronchoadenitis of submucosal glands with the presence of viral RNA and antigen was observed in airways of the infected cats on 4 and 7 DPC. Serology showed that both, principal and sentinel cats, developed SARS-CoV-2-specific and neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO detectable at 7 DPC or 10 DPC, respectively. All animals were clinically asymptomatic TRANS during the course of the study and capable of transmitting SARS-CoV-2 to sentinels within 2 days of comingling. The results of this study are critical for our understanding of the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 in a naturally susceptible host species, and for risk assessment of the maintenance of SARS-CoV-2 in felines and transmission TRANS to other animals and humans.

    Land Use Change and Coronavirus Emergence Risk

    Authors: Maria Cristina Rulli; Paolo D'Odorico; Nikolas Galli; David Hayman

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20166090 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) and severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD (SARS) causing coronaviruses are mostly discovered in Asian horseshoe bats. It is still unclear how ongoing land use changes may facilitate SARS-related coronavirus transmission TRANS to humans. Here we use a multivariate hotspot analysis of high-resolution land-use data to show that regions of China populated by horseshoe bats are hotspots of forest fragmentation, livestock and human density. We also identify areas susceptible to new hotspot emergence in response to moderate expansion of urbanization, livestock production, or forest disturbance, thereby highlighting regions vulnerable to SARS-CoV spillover under future land-use change. In China population growth and increasing meat consumption associated with urbanization and economic development have expanded the footprint of agriculture, leading to human encroachment in wildlife habitat and increased livestock density in areas adjacent to fragmented forests. The reduced distance between horseshoe-bats and humans elevates the risk for SARS-related coronavirus transmission TRANS to humans.

    Face masks prevent transmission TRANS of respiratory diseases MESHD: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Authors: Hanna M Ollila; Markku Partinen; Jukka Koskela; Riikka Savolainen; Anna Rotkirch; Liisa T Laine

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20166116 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and spreads through droplet-mediated transmission TRANS on contaminated surfaces and in air. Mounting scientific evidence from observational studies suggests that face masks for the general public may reduce the spread of infections MESHD. However, results from randomized control trials (RCT) have been presented as inconclusive, and concerns related to the safety and efficacy of non-surgical face masks in non-clinical settings remain. This controversy calls for a meta-analysis which considers non-compliance in RCTs, the time-lag in benefits of universal masking, and possible adverse effects. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of RCTs of non-surgical face masks in preventing viral respiratory infections MESHD in non-hospital and non-household settings at cumulative and maximum follow-up as primary endpoints. The search for RCTs yielded five studies published before May 29th, 2020. We pooled estimates from the studies and performed random-effects meta-analysis and mixed-effects meta-regression across studies, accounting for covariates in compliance vs. non-compliance in treatment. Results: Face masks decreased infections across MESHD all studies at maximum follow-up (p=0.0318$, RR=0.608 [0.387 - 0.956]), and particularly in studies without non-compliance bias. We found significant between-study heterogeneity in studies with bias (I^2=71.2%, p=0.0077). We also used adjusted meta-regression to account for heterogeneity. The results support a significant protective effect of masking (p=0.0006, beta=0.0214, SE= 0.0062). No severe adverse effects were detected. Interpretation: The meta-analysis of existing randomized control studies found support for the efficacy of face masks among the general public. Our results show that face masks protect populations from infections MESHD and do not pose a significant risk to users. Recommendations and clear communication concerning the benefits of face masks should be provided to limit the number of COVID-19 and other respiratory infections MESHD.

    Delayed Interventions, Low Compliance, and Health Disparities Amplified the Early Spread of COVID-19

    Authors: Aliea M. Jalali; Sumaia G. Khoury; JongWon See; Alexis M. Gulsvig; Brent M. Peterson; Richard S. Gunasekera; Gentian Buzi; Jason Wilson; Thushara Galbadage

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20165654 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    The United States (US) public health interventions were rigorous and rapid, yet failed to arrest the spread of the Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as infections MESHD spread throughout the US. Many factors have contributed to the spread of COVID-19, and the success of public health interventions depends on the level of community adherence to preventative measures. Public health professionals must also understand regional demographic variation in health disparities and determinants to target interventions more effectively. In this study, a systematic evaluation of three significant interventions employed in the US, and their effectiveness in slowing the early spread of COVID-19 was conducted. Next, community-level compliance with a state-level stay at home orders was assessed to determine COVID-19 spread behavior. Finally, health disparities that may have contributed to the disproportionate acceleration of early COVID-19 spread between certain counties were characterized. The contribution of these factors for the disproportionate spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD was analyzed using both univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Results of this investigation show that delayed implementation of public health interventions, a low level of compliance with the stay at home orders, in conjunction with health disparities, significantly contributed to the early spread of the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Comparing the impact on COVID-19 mortality of self-imposed behavior change and of government regulations across 13 countries

    Authors: Julian Jamison; Donald Bundy; Dean Jamison; Jacob Spitz; Stephane Verguet

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.02.20166793 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Countries have adopted different approaches, at different times, to reduce the transmission TRANS of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Cross-country comparison could indicate the relative efficacy of these approaches. We assess various non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) over time, comparing the effects of self-imposed (i.e. voluntary) behavior change and of changes enforced via official regulations, by statistically examining their impacts on subsequent death MESHD rates in 13 European countries. Methods and findings: We examine two types of NPI: the introduction of government-enforced closure policies over time; and self-imposed alteration of individual behaviors in response to awareness of the epidemic, in the period prior to regulations. Our proxy for the latter is Google mobility data, which captures voluntary behavior change when disease MESHD salience is sufficiently high. The primary outcome variable is the rate of change in COVID-19 fatalities per day, 16-20 days after interventions take place. Linear multivariate regression analysis is used to evaluate impacts. Voluntarily reduced mobility, occurring prior to government policies, decreases the percent change in deaths MESHD per day by 9.2 percentage points (95% CI 4.5-14.0 pp). Government closure policies decrease the percent change in deaths MESHD per day by 14.0 percentage points (95% CI 10.8-17.2 pp). Disaggregating government policies, the most beneficial are intercity travel TRANS restrictions, cancelling public events, and closing non-essential workplaces. Other sub-components, such as closing schools and imposing stay-at-home rules, show smaller and statistically insignificant impacts. Conclusions: This study shows that NPIs have substantially reduced fatalities arising from COVID-19. Importantly, the effect of voluntary behavior change is of the same order of magnitude as government-mandated regulations. These findings, including the substantial variation across dimensions of closure, have implications for the phased withdrawal of government policies as the epidemic recedes, and for the possible reimposition of regulations if a second wave occurs, especially given the substantial economic and human welfare consequences of maintaining lockdowns.

    Epidemiological characteristics of SARS-COV-2 in Myanmar

    Authors: Aung Min Thway; Htun Tayza; Tun Tun Win; Ye Minn Tun; Moe Myint Aung; Yan Naung Win; Kyaw M Tun

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.02.20166504 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) is an infectious disease MESHD caused by a newly discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In Myanmar, first COVID-19 reported cases were identified on 23rd March 2020. There were 336 reported confirmed cases TRANS, 261 recovered and 6 deaths MESHD through 13th July 2020. The study was a retrospective case series and all COVID-19 confirmed cases TRANS from 23rd March to 13th July 2020 were included. The data series of COVID-19 cases were extracted from the daily official reports of the Ministry of Health and Sports (MOHS), Myanmar and Centers for Disease MESHD Control and Prevention (CDC), Myanmar. Among 336 confirmed cases TRANS, there were 169 cases with reported transmission TRANS events. The median serial interval TRANS was 4 days (IQR 3, 2-5) with the range of 0 - 26 days. The mean of the reproduction number TRANS was 1.44 with (95% CI = 1.30-1.60) by exponential growth method and 1.32 with (95% CI = 0.98-1.73) confident interval by maximum likelihood method. This study outlined the epidemiological characteristics and epidemic parameters of COVID-19 in Myanmar. The estimation parameters in this study can be comparable with other studies and variability of these parameters can be considered when implementing disease MESHD control strategy in Myanmar.

    Analysis of COVID-19 and comorbidity co- infection MESHD Model with Optimal Control

    Authors: Dr. Andrew Omame; Nometa Ikenna

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168013 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    The new coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) infection MESHD is a double challenge for people infected with comorbidities such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases MESHD and diabetes. Comorbidities have been reported to be risk factors for the complications of COVID-19. In this work, we develop and analyze a mathematical model for the dynamics of COVID-19 infection MESHD in order to assess the impacts of prior comorbidity on COVID-19 complications and COVID-19 re- infection MESHD. The model is simulated using data relevant to the dynamics of the diseases MESHD in Lagos, Nigeria, making predictions for the attainment of peak periods in the presence or absence of comorbidity. The model is shown to undergo the phenomenon of backward bifurcation caused by the parameter accounting for increased susceptibility to COVID-19 infection MESHD by comorbid susceptibles as well as the rate of re- infection MESHD by those who have recovered from a previous COVID-19 infection MESHD. Sensitivity SERO analysis of the model when the population of individuals co-infected with COVID-19 and comorbidity is used as response function revealed that the top ranked parameters that drive the dynamics of the co- infection MESHD model are the effective contact rate for COVID-19 transmission TRANS, $\beta\sst{cv}$, the parameter accounting for increased susceptibility to COVID-19 by comorbid susceptibles, $\chi\sst{cm}$, the comorbidity development rate, $\theta\sst{cm}$, the detection rate for singly infected and co-infected individuals, $\eta_1$ and $\eta_2$, as well as the recovery rate from COVID-19 for co-infected individuals, $\varphi\sst{i2}$. Simulations of the model reveal that the cumulative confirmed cases TRANS (without comorbidity) may get up to 180,000 after 200 days, if the hyper susceptibility rate of comorbid susceptibles is as high as 1.2 per day. Also, the cumulative confirmed cases TRANS (including those co-infected with comorbidity) may be as high as 1000,000 cases by the end of November, 2020 if the re- infection MESHD rates for COVID-19 is 0.1 per day. It may be worse than this if the re- infection MESHD rates increase higher. Moreover, if policies are strictly put in place to step down the probability of COVID-19 infection MESHD by comorbid susceptibles to as low as 0.4 per day and step up the detection rate for singly infected individuals to 0.7 per day, then the reproduction number TRANS can be brought very low below one, and COVID-19 infection MESHD eliminated from the population. In addition, optimal control and cost-effectiveness analysis of the model reveal that the the strategy that prevents COVID-19 infection MESHD by comorbid susceptibles has the least ICER and is the most cost-effective of all the control strategies for the prevention of COVID-19.

    COVID19: An Opinion on Animal Infections MESHD and Role of Veterinarians in One Health Perspective

    Authors: SWAGATIKA PRIYADARSINI; ROHIT SINGH; ARUN SOMAGOND; PUJA MECH

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0069.v1 Date: 2020-08-03 Source: preprints.org

    Coronavirus disease MESHD is the current cause of global concern. The massive outbreak of COVID-19 has led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare this as a pandemic situation. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV-2) is responsible for COVID-19 leading to acute respiratory distress HP and substantial mortality in humans. However, the first laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 in a pet dog in Hong Kong has shown the possibility of human-to-animal transmission TRANS (zooanthroponotic) of the virus. Thereafter, many animals including cat, tiger, lion and mink have also been reported to acquire the virus in several countries. In this situation the role of veterinarian assumes important in treating the animals, helping in food security, disease MESHD diagnosis, surveillance and boosting the economy of livestock stakeholders at the grassroot level. In the absence of any selective vaccine or drug against SARS-CoV-2, the world is anticipated to triumph over this pandemic with collaborative, multisectoral, and transdisciplinary approach linking human, animal and environmental health. This article gives an insight into the confirmed SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in animals, including the factors behind the shuffling of the virus among variety of species and also emphasizes on the role of veterinarian in managing and safeguarding public health so as to pave the way for adopting one health approach in order to conserve biodiversity.

    Repurposing of Approved Drugs with Potential to Interact with SARS-CoV-2 Receptor

    Authors: Abu Sajib

    id:202004.0369/v2 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: preprints.org

    Respiratory transmission TRANS is the primary route of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD. Angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the known receptor of SARS-CoV-2 surface spike glycoprotein for entry into human cells. A recent study reported absent to low expression of ACE2 in a variety of human lung epithelial cell samples. Three bioprojects (PRJEB4337, PRJNA270632 and PRJNA280600) invariably found abundant expression of ACE1 (a homolog of ACE2 and also known as ACE) in human lungs compared to very low expression of ACE2. In fact, ACE1 has a wider and more abundant tissue distribution compared to ACE2. Although it is not obvious from the primary sequence alignment of ACE1 and ACE2, comparison of X-ray crystallographic structures show striking similarities in the regions of the peptidase domains (PD) of these proteins, which is known (for ACE2) to interact with the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Critical amino acids in ACE2 that mediate interaction with the viral spike protein are present and organized in the same order in the PD of ACE1. In silico analysis predicts comparable interaction of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with ACE1 and ACE2. In addition, this study predicts from a list of 1263 already approved drugs that may interact with ACE2 and/or ACE1, potentially interfere with the entry of SARS-CoV-2 inside the host cells and alleviate the symptoms of Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19).

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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