### Overview

MeSH Disease

Disease (221)

Infections (212)

Death (99)

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (52)

Cough (37)

Fever (35)

Fatigue (13)

Hypertension (9)

Transmission

Seroprevalence
displaying 1 - 10 records in total 453
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### Seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State

doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168112 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: medRxiv

Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic is ongoing, and to know how far the virus has spread in Niger State, Nigeria, a pilot study was carried out to determine the COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO, patterns, dynamics, and risk factors in the state. A cross sectional study design and clustered-stratified-Random sampling strategy were used. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Rapid Test SERO Kits (Colloidal gold immunochromatography lateral flow system) were used to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in the blood SERO of sampled participants across Niger State as from 26th June 2020 to 30th June 2020. The test kits were validated using the blood SERO samples of some of the NCDC confirmed positive and negative COVID-19 cases in the State. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Test results were entered into the EPIINFO questionnaire administered simultaneously with each test. EPIINFO was then used for both the descriptive and inferential statistical analyses of the data generated. The seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State was found to be 25.41% and 2.16% for the positive IgG and IgM respectively. Seroprevalence SERO among age groups TRANS, gender TRANS and by occupation varied widely. A seroprevalence SERO of 37.21% was recorded among health care workers in Niger State. Among age groups TRANS, COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO was found to be in order of 30-41 years (33.33%) > 42-53 years (32.42%) > 54-65 years (30%) > 66 years and above (25%) > 6-17 years (19.20%) > 18-29 years (17.65%) > 5 years and below (6.66%). A seroprevalence SERO of 27.18% was recorded for males TRANS and 23.17% for females TRANS in the state. COVID-19 asymptomatic TRANS rate in the state was found to be 46.81%. The risk analyses showed that the chances of infection MESHD are almost the same for both urban and rural dwellers in the state. However, health care workers and those that have had contact with person (s) that travelled TRANS out of Nigeria in the last six (6) months are twice ( 2 times) at risk of being infected with the virus. More than half (54.59%) of the participants in this study did not practice social distancing at any time since the pandemic started. Discussions about knowledge, practice and attitude of the participants are included. The observed Niger State COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO means that the herd immunity for COVID-19 is yet to be achieved and the population is still susceptible for more infection MESHD and transmission TRANS of the virus. If the prevalence SERO stays as reported here, the population will definitely need COVID-19 vaccines when they become available. Niger State should fully enforce the use of face/nose masks and observation of social/physical distancing in gatherings including religious gatherings in order to stop or slow the spread of the virus.

### SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, disease MESHD and transmission TRANS in domestic cats

Authors: Natasha N Gaudreault; Jessie D Trujillo; Mariano Carossino; David A Meekins; Igor Morozov; Daniel W Madden; Sabarish V Indran; Dashzeveg Bold; Velmurugan Balaraman; Taeyong Kwon; Bianca Libanori Artiaga; Konner Cool; Adolfo Garcia-Sastre; Wenjun Ma; William C Wilson; Jamie Henningson; Udeni BR Balasuriya; Juergen A Richt

doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.235002 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: bioRxiv

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) and responsible for the current pandemic. Recent SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and transmission TRANS studies in cats show that the virus can replicate in these companion animals and transmit to other cats. Here, we present an in-depth study of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, associated disease MESHD and transmission TRANS dynamics in domestic cats. Six 4- to 5-month-old cats were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 via intranasal and oral routes simultaneously. One day post challenge (DPC), two sentinel contact cats were co-mingled with the principal infected animals. Animals were monitored for clinical signs, clinicopathological abnormalities and viral shedding throughout the 21 DPC observation period. Postmortem examinations were performed at 4, 7 and 21 DPC to investigate disease progression MESHD. Viral RNA was not detected in blood SERO but transiently in nasal, oropharyngeal and rectal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as various tissues. Tracheobronchoadenitis of submucosal glands with the presence of viral RNA and antigen was observed in airways of the infected cats on 4 and 7 DPC. Serology showed that both, principal and sentinel cats, developed SARS-CoV-2-specific and neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO detectable at 7 DPC or 10 DPC, respectively. All animals were clinically asymptomatic TRANS during the course of the study and capable of transmitting SARS-CoV-2 to sentinels within 2 days of comingling. The results of this study are critical for our understanding of the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 in a naturally susceptible host species, and for risk assessment of the maintenance of SARS-CoV-2 in felines and transmission TRANS to other animals and humans.

### Land Use Change and Coronavirus Emergence Risk

Authors: Maria Cristina Rulli; Paolo D'Odorico; Nikolas Galli; David Hayman

doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20166090 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) and severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD (SARS) causing coronaviruses are mostly discovered in Asian horseshoe bats. It is still unclear how ongoing land use changes may facilitate SARS-related coronavirus transmission TRANS to humans. Here we use a multivariate hotspot analysis of high-resolution land-use data to show that regions of China populated by horseshoe bats are hotspots of forest fragmentation, livestock and human density. We also identify areas susceptible to new hotspot emergence in response to moderate expansion of urbanization, livestock production, or forest disturbance, thereby highlighting regions vulnerable to SARS-CoV spillover under future land-use change. In China population growth and increasing meat consumption associated with urbanization and economic development have expanded the footprint of agriculture, leading to human encroachment in wildlife habitat and increased livestock density in areas adjacent to fragmented forests. The reduced distance between horseshoe-bats and humans elevates the risk for SARS-related coronavirus transmission TRANS to humans.

### Face masks prevent transmission TRANS of respiratory diseases MESHD: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Authors: Hanna M Ollila; Markku Partinen; Jukka Koskela; Riikka Savolainen; Anna Rotkirch; Liisa T Laine

doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20166116 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

### COVID19: An Opinion on Animal Infections MESHD and Role of Veterinarians in One Health Perspective

Authors: SWAGATIKA PRIYADARSINI; ROHIT SINGH; ARUN SOMAGOND; PUJA MECH

id:10.20944/preprints202008.0069.v1 Date: 2020-08-03 Source: preprints.org

Coronavirus disease MESHD is the current cause of global concern. The massive outbreak of COVID-19 has led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare this as a pandemic situation. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV-2) is responsible for COVID-19 leading to acute respiratory distress HP and substantial mortality in humans. However, the first laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 in a pet dog in Hong Kong has shown the possibility of human-to-animal transmission TRANS (zooanthroponotic) of the virus. Thereafter, many animals including cat, tiger, lion and mink have also been reported to acquire the virus in several countries. In this situation the role of veterinarian assumes important in treating the animals, helping in food security, disease MESHD diagnosis, surveillance and boosting the economy of livestock stakeholders at the grassroot level. In the absence of any selective vaccine or drug against SARS-CoV-2, the world is anticipated to triumph over this pandemic with collaborative, multisectoral, and transdisciplinary approach linking human, animal and environmental health. This article gives an insight into the confirmed SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in animals, including the factors behind the shuffling of the virus among variety of species and also emphasizes on the role of veterinarian in managing and safeguarding public health so as to pave the way for adopting one health approach in order to conserve biodiversity.

### Repurposing of Approved Drugs with Potential to Interact with SARS-CoV-2 Receptor

Authors: Abu Sajib

id:202004.0369/v2 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: preprints.org

Respiratory transmission TRANS is the primary route of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD. Angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the known receptor of SARS-CoV-2 surface spike glycoprotein for entry into human cells. A recent study reported absent to low expression of ACE2 in a variety of human lung epithelial cell samples. Three bioprojects (PRJEB4337, PRJNA270632 and PRJNA280600) invariably found abundant expression of ACE1 (a homolog of ACE2 and also known as ACE) in human lungs compared to very low expression of ACE2. In fact, ACE1 has a wider and more abundant tissue distribution compared to ACE2. Although it is not obvious from the primary sequence alignment of ACE1 and ACE2, comparison of X-ray crystallographic structures show striking similarities in the regions of the peptidase domains (PD) of these proteins, which is known (for ACE2) to interact with the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Critical amino acids in ACE2 that mediate interaction with the viral spike protein are present and organized in the same order in the PD of ACE1. In silico analysis predicts comparable interaction of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with ACE1 and ACE2. In addition, this study predicts from a list of 1263 already approved drugs that may interact with ACE2 and/or ACE1, potentially interfere with the entry of SARS-CoV-2 inside the host cells and alleviate the symptoms of Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19).

The ZB MED preprint Viewer preVIEW includes all COVID-19 related preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv, from ChemRxiv, from ResearchSquare, from arXiv and from Preprints.org and is updated on a daily basis (7am CET/CEST).

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 All None MeSH Disease Human Phenotype Transmission Seroprevalence

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