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HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    Impact of SARS-CoV-2 on reperfusion therapies for acute ischemic stroke in Lombardy, Italy. The STROKOVID network

    Authors: Alessandro Pezzini; Mario Grassi; Giorgio Silvestrelli; Martina Locatelli; Nicola Rifino; Simone Beretta; Massimo Gamba; Elisa Raimondi; Giuditta Giussani; Federico Carimati; Davide Sangalli; Manuel Corato; Simonetta Gerevini; Stefano Masciocchi; Matteo Cortinovis; Sara La Gioia; Francesca Barbieri; Valentina Mazzoleni; Debora Pezzini; Sonia Bonacina; Andrea Pilotto; Alberto Benussi; Mauro Magoni; Enrico Premi; Alessandro Cesare Prelle; Elio Clemente Agostoni; Fernando Palluzzi; Valeria De Giuli; Anna Magherini; Daria Valeria Roccatagliata; Luisa Vinciguerra; Valentina Puglisi; Laura Fusi; Rubjona Xhani; Federico Pozzi; Susanna Diamanti; Francesco Santangelo; Giampiero Grampa; Maurizio Versino; Andrea Salmaggi; Simona Marcheselli; Anna Cavallini; Alessia Giossi; Bruno Censori; Carlo Ferrarese; Alfonso Ciccone; Maria Sessa; Alessandro Padovani

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-105649/v1 Date: 2020-11-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    Whether and how SARS-CoV-2 outbreak affected in-hospital acute stroke MESHD care system is still matter of debate. In the setting of the STROKOVID network, a collaborative project between the 10 centers designed as hubs for the treatment of acute stroke MESHD during SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Lombardy, Italy, we retrospectively compared clinical features and process measures of patients with confirmed infection ( COVID-19 MESHD) and non-infected MESHD patients (non- COVID-19 MESHD) who underwent reperfusion therapies for acute ischemic stroke MESHD. Between March 8 HGNC and April 30, 2020, 296 consecutive patients (median age, 74 [interquartile range (IQR), 62–80.75] years; males, 154 [52.0%]; 34 [11.5%] COVID-19 MESHD) qualified for the analysis. Time from symptoms onset to treatment was longer in the COVID-19 MESHD group (230 [IQR, 200.5–270] minutes vs 190 [IQR, 150–245] minutes; p=0.007), especially in the first half of the study period. Patients with COVID-19 MESHD who underwent endovascular thrombectomy had more frequently absent collaterals or collaterals filling ≤50% of the occluded territory (50.0% vs 16.6%; OR, 5.05; 95% CI, 1.82–13.80) and a lower rate of good/complete recanalization of the primary arterial occlusive lesion MESHD (55.6% vs 81.0%; OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.10–0.80). Post-procedural intracranial hemorrhages MESHD were more frequent (35.3% vs 19.5%; OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.04-4.83) and outcome was worse among COVID-19 MESHD patients (in-hospital death, 38.2% vs 8.8%; OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 2.85-14.50). Our findings showed longer delays in the intra-hospital management of acute ischemic stroke MESHD in COVID-19 MESHD patients, especially in the early phase of the outbreak, that likely impacted patients outcome and should be the target of future interventions. 

    Covid-19 MESHD fatality prediction in people with diabetes and prediabetes using a simple score at hospital admission

    Authors: Harald Sourij; Faisal Aziz; Alexander Braeuer; Christian Ciardi; Martin Clodi; Peter Fasching; Mario Karolyi; Alexandra Kautzky-Willer; Carmen Klammer; Oliver Malle; Abderrahim Oulhaj; Erich Pawelka; Slobodan Peric; Claudia Ress; Caren Sourij; Lars Stechemesser; Harald Stingl; Thomas Stulnig; Norbert Tripolt; Michael Wagner; Peter Wolf; Andreas Zitterl; Susanne Kaser

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.02.20224311 Date: 2020-11-04 Source: medRxiv

    AIM We assessed predictors of inhospital mortality in people with prediabetes MESHD and diabetes MESHD hospitalized for COVID19 MESHD infection and developed a risk score for identifying those at the highest risk of a fatal outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS A combined prospective and retrospective multicenter cohort study was conducted in 10 sites in Austria on 247 people with diabetes MESHD or newly diagnosed prediabetes MESHD, who were hospitalised for COVID19 MESHD. The primary outcome was inhospital mortality and predictor variables at the time of admission included clinical data, comorbidities of diabetes MESHD or laboratory data. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify significant predictors and develop a risk score for inhospital mortality. RESULTS The mean age of people hospitalized (n=238) for COVID-19 MESHD was 71.1{+/-}12.9 years, 63.6% were males, 75.6% had type 2 diabetes MESHD, 4.6% had type 1 diabetes MESHD, and 19.8% had prediabetes MESHD. The mean duration of hospital stay was 18{+/-}16 days, 23.9% required ventilation therapy, and 24.4% died in the hospital. Mortality rate in people with diabetes MESHD was numerically higher (26.7%) as compared to those with prediabetes MESHD (14.9%) but without statistical significance (p=0.128). A score including age, arterial occlusive disease MESHD, CRP HGNC, eGFR HGNC and AST HGNC levels at admission predicted inhospital mortality with a Cstatistics of 0.889 (95%CI: 0.837-0.941) and calibration of 1.000 (p=0.909). CONCLUSIONS The inhospital mortality for COVID-19 MESHD was high in people with diabetes MESHD and not significantly different to the risk in people with prediabetes MESHD. A risk score using five routinely available patient parameters demonstrated excellent predictive performance for assessing inhospital mortality.

    Plasma tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD patients

    Authors: Yu Zuo; Mark Warnock; Alyssa Harbaugh; Srilakshmi Yalavarthi; Kelsey Gockman; Melanie Zuo; Jacqueline A. Madison; Jason S. Knight; Yogendra Kanthi; Daniel A. Lawrence

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.29.20184358 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Patients with coronavirus disease MESHD 19 ( COVID-19 MESHD) are at high risk for thrombotic arterial and venous occlusions MESHD, while lung histopathology often reveals fibrin-based occlusion of small vessels in patients who succumb to the disease. At the same time, bleeding MESHD complications have been observed in some patients. Better understanding the balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis will help inform optimal approaches to thrombosis MESHD prophylaxis and potential utility of fibrinolytic-targeted therapies. Objective: To evaluate fibrinolysis among a large cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD patients. Patients and methods: 118 hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD patients and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. We measured plasma antigen levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 ( PAI-1 HGNC) and performed spontaneous clot lysis assays. Results: We found markedly elevated levels of tPA HGNC and PAI-1 HGNC among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 MESHD. Both factors demonstrated a strong correlation with neutrophil counts and markers of neutrophil activation, but not with D-dimer. High levels of tPA HGNC and PAI-1 HGNC were associated with worse respiratory status. High levels of tPA HGNC, in particular, were also strongly correlated with mortality and with a significant enhancement in spontaneous ex vivo clot lysis. Conclusion: While both tPA HGNC and PAI-1 HGNC are elevated among COVID-19 MESHD patients, extremely high levels of tPA HGNC enhance spontaneous fibrinolysis and are significantly associated with mortality in some patients. These data indicate that fibrinolytic homeostasis in COVID-19 MESHD is complex with a subset of patients expressing a balance of factors that may favor fibrinolysis and suggests that further study of tPA HGNC as a potential biomarker is warranted.

    SARS-CoV-2 and Stroke Characteristics: A Report from the Multinational COVID-19 MESHD Stroke Study Group

    Authors: Shima Shahjouei; Georgios Tsivgoulis; Ghasem Farahmand; Eric Koza; Ashkhan Mowla; Alireza Vafaei Sadr; Arash Kia; Alaleh Vaghefi Far; Stefania Mondello; Achille Cernigliaro; Annemarei Ranta; Martin Punter; Faezeh Khodadadi; Mrina Sabra; Mahtab Ramezani; Soheil Naderi; Oluwaseyi Olulana; Durgesh Chaudhary; Aicha Lyoubi; Bruce Campbell; Juan F Arenillas; Daniel Bock; Joan Montaner; Saeideh Aghayari Sheikh Neshin; Diana Aguiar de Sousa; Mattew Tenser; Ana Aires; Mercedes De Lera Alfonso; Orkhan Alizada; Elsa Azevedo; Nitin Goyal; Zabihollah Babaeepour; Gelareh Banihashemi; Leo H Bonati; Carlo Cereda; Jason J Chang; Miljenko Crnjakovic; GianMarco De Marchis; Massimo del Sette; Seyed Amir Ebrahimadeh; Mehdi Farhoudi; Ilaria Gandoglia; Bruno Goncalves; Christoph Griessenauer; Mehmet Murat Hanci; Aristeidis H. Katsanos; Christos Krogias; Ronen Leker; Lev Lotman; Jeffrey Mai; Shailesh Male; konark Malhotra; Branko Malojcic; Tresa Mesquita; Asadollah Mirghasemi; Hany Mohamed Aref; Zeinab Mohseni Afshar; Junsun Moon; Mika Niemela; Behnam Rezai Jahromi; Lawrence Nolan; Abhi Pandhi; Jong-Ho Park; Joao Pedro Marto; Francisco Purroy; Sakineh Ranji-Burachaloo; Nuno Reis Carreira; Manuel Requena; Marta Rubiera; Seyed Aidin Sajedi; Joao SargentoFreitas; Vijay Sharma; Thorsten Steiner; Kristi Tempro; Guillaume Turc; Yassaman Ahmadzadeh; Mostafa Almasi-Dooghaee; Farhad Assarzadegan; Arefeh Babazadeh; Humain Baharvahdat; Fabricio Cardoso; Apoorva Dev; Mohammad Ghorbani; Ava Hamidi; Zeynab Sadat Hasheminejad; Sahar Hojjat-Anasri Komachali; Fariborz Khorvash; Firas Kobeissy; Hamidreza Mirkarimi; Elahe Mohammadi-Vosough; Debdipto Misra; Alierza Noorian; Peyman Nowrouzi-Sohrabi; Sepideh Paybast; Leila Poorsaadat; mehrdad Roozbeh; Behnam Sabayan; Saeideh Salehizadeh; Alia Saberi; Mercedeh Sepehrnia; Fahimeh Vahabizad; Thomas Yasuda; Ahmadreza Hojati Marvasti; Mojdeh Ghabaee; Nasrin Rahimian; Mohammad Hosein Harirchian; Afshin Borhani-Haghighi; Rohan Arora; Saeed Ansari; Venkatesh Avula; Jian Li; Vida Abedi; Ramin Zand

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20169169 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Stroke MESHD is reported as a consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. However, there is a lack of regarding comprehensive stroke MESHD phenotype and characteristics Methods: We conducted a multinational observational study on features of consecutive acute ischemic stroke MESHD ( AIS MESHD), intracranial hemorrhage MESHD ( ICH MESHD), and cerebral venous or sinus thrombosis MESHD ( CVST MESHD) among SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patients. We further investigated the association of demographics, clinical data, geographical regions, and countrie's health expenditure among AIS MESHD patients with the risk of large vessel occlusion (LVO), stroke MESHD severity as measured by National Institute of Health stroke MESHD scale (NIHSS), and stroke MESHD subtype as measured by the TOAST criteria. Additionally, we applied unsupervised machine learning algorithms to uncover possible similarities among stroke MESHD patients. Results: Among the 136 tertiary centers of 32 countries who participated in this study, 71 centers from 17 countries had at least one eligible stroke MESHD patient. Out of 432 patients included, 323(74.8%) had AIS MESHD, 91(21.1%) ICH MESHD, and 18(4.2%) CVST MESHD. Among 23 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage MESHD, 16(69.5%) had no evidence of aneurysm MESHD. A total of 183(42.4%) patients were women, 104(24.1%) patients were younger than 55 years, and 105(24.4%) patients had no identifiable vascular risk factors. Among 380 patients who had known interval onset of the SARS-CoV-2 and stroke MESHD, 144(37.8%) presented to the hospital with chief complaints of stroke MESHD-related symptoms, with asymptomatic or undiagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Among AIS MESHD patients 44.5% had LVO; 10% had small artery occlusion MESHD according to the TOAST criteria. We observed a lower median NIHSS (8[3-17], versus 11[5-17]; p=0.02) and higher rate of mechanical thrombectomy (12.4% versus 2%; p<0.001) in countries with middle to high-health expenditure when compared to countries with lower health expenditure. The unsupervised machine learning identified 4 subgroups, with a relatively large group with no or limited comorbidities. Conclusions: We observed a relatively high number of young, and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD among stroke MESHD patients. Traditional vascular risk factors were absent among a relatively large cohort of patients. Among hospitalized patients, the stroke MESHD severity was lower and rate of mechanical thrombectomy was higher among countries with middle to high-health expenditure.

    Doxycycline and Pentoxifylline for Mild and Mild-To-Moderate Covid-19 MESHD

    Authors: Emil Toma

    id:10.20944/preprints202006.0293.v1 Date: 2020-06-24 Source: Preprints.org

    We are proposing, for any interested investigator, a randomized open clinical trial for mild and mild-to-moderate Covid-19 MESHD comparing a treatment regimen with standard of care, and eventually with another investigational regimen, if ongoing or will be implemented. The patients could be hospitalized or ambulatory but not requiring admission to intensive care units and mechanical ventilation. The proposed therapeutic regimen consists of doxycycline (an antimicrobial having also anti-inflammatory properties, probable antioxidant and possible some antiviral effects), and pentoxifylline, a hemorheological compound used in occlusive arterial diseases MESHD but also having proven anti-inflammatory properties. Doxycycline is included in the WHO’s list of essential medicine being an effective, safe, widely available, and inexpensive medication and widely accessible. It will be administered at a dosage of 100 mg orally twice daily for ten days. Pentoxifylline, in clinical use since 1972, and also widely accessible, will be given at a dosage of 400 mg orally, also twice daily, for ten days. The primary outcome measures are: 1) Progression of disease to a severe form requiring intensive care admission and mechanical ventilation; 2) Fatality rates and 3) Time to clinical recovery.This proposal was presented to the National Directors and Core Leads meeting of the Canadian Trials Network (CTN) on May 6, 2020. The interventional trial template suggested by CTN was used for designing the trial.

    Prothrombotic antiphospholipid antibodies in COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Yu Zuo; Shanea K. Estes; Ramadan A. Ali; Alex A. Gandhi; Srilakshmi Yalavarthi; Hui Shi; Gautam Sule; Kelsey Gockman; Jacqueline A. Madison; Melanie Zuo; Vinita Yadav; Jintao Wang; Wrenn Woodard; Sean P. Lezak; Njira L. Lugogo; Stephanie A. Smith; James H. Morrissey; Yogendra Kanthi; Jason S. Knight

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.15.20131607 Date: 2020-06-17 Source: medRxiv

    Patients with coronavirus disease MESHD 19 ( COVID-19 MESHD) are at high risk for thrombotic arterial and venous occlusions MESHD. At the same time, lung histopathology often reveals fibrin-based occlusion of small vessels in patients who succumb to the disease. Antiphospholipid syndrome MESHD ( APS MESHD) is an acquired and potentially life-threatening thrombophilia MESHD in which patients develop pathogenic autoantibodies (aPL) targeting phospholipids and phospholipid-binding proteins. Small case series have recently detected aPL in patients with COVID-19 MESHD. Here, we measured eight types of aPL (anticardiolipin IgG/IgM/IgA, anti-beta-2 glycoprotein I IgG/IgM/IgA, and anti- phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (PS/PT) IgG/IgM) in the sera of 172 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 MESHD. We detected anticardiolipin IgM antibodies in 23%, anti-PS/PT IgG in 24%, and anti-PS/PT IgM in 18%. Any aPL was present in 52% of patients using the manufacturer's threshold and in 30% using a more stringent cutoff (>40 units). Higher levels of aPL were associated with neutrophil hyperactivity (including the release of neutrophil extracellular traps/NETs), higher platelet count, more severe respiratory disease MESHD, and lower glomerular filtration rates. Similar to patients with known and longstanding APS MESHD, IgG fractions isolated from patients with COVID-19 MESHD promoted NET release from control neutrophils. Furthermore, injection of these COVID-19 MESHD IgG fractions into mice accelerated venous thrombosis MESHD. Taken together, these studies suggest that a significant percentage of patients with COVID-19 MESHD become at least transiently positive for aPL and that these aPL are potentially pathogenic.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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