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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (2)

NSP6 (1)


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    Antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is extremely vivacious in subjects with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Annapaola Callegaro; Daniela Borleri; Claudio Farina; Gavino Napolitano; Daniela Valenti; Marco Rizzi; Franco Maggiolo

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.09.21253203 Date: 2021-03-11 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundThe SARS-CoV-2 pandemic calls for rapid actions, now principally oriented to a world-wide vaccination campaign. In this study we verified if, in individuals with a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, a single dose of mRNA vaccine would be immunologically equivalent to a full vaccine schedule in naive individuals. MethodsHealth care workers (184) with a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD were sampled soon before the second dose of vaccine and between 7 and 10 days after the second dose, the last sampling time was applied to SARS-CoV-2 naive individuals, too. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were measured using Elecsys(R) Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S immunoassay. The study was powered for non-inferiority. We used non parametric tests and Pearson correlation test to perform inferential analysis. ResultsAfter a single vaccine injection, the median titer of specific antibodies in individuals with previous COVID-19 MESHD was 30,527 U/ml (IQR 19,992-39,288) and in subjects with previous SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic infection MESHD was 19,367.5 U/ml (IQR 14,688-31,353) (P=0.032). Both results were far above the median titer in naive individuals after a full vaccination schedule: 1,974.5 U/ml (IQR 895-3,455) (P<0.0001). Adverse events after vaccine injection were more frequent after the second dose of vaccine (mean 0.95, 95%CI from 0.75 to 1.14 versus mean 1.91, 95%CI from 1.63 to 2.19)(P<0.0001) and in exposed compared to naive (mean 1.63; 95%CI from 1.28 to 1.98 versus mean 2.35; 95%CI from 1.87 to 2.82)(P=0.015). ConclusionIn SARS-CoV-2 naturally infected MESHD individuals a single mRNA vaccine dose seems sufficient to reach immunity. Modifying current dosing schedules would speed-up vaccination campaigns.

    Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 stains harbouring the signature mutations of both A2a HGNC and A3 clade

    Authors: Rakesh Sarkar; Dr. Anindita Banerjee; Shanta Dutta; Dr. Mamta Chawla-Sarkar

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.04.21251117 Date: 2021-02-08 Source: medRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 strains with both high transmissibility and potential to cause asymptomatic infection MESHD is expected to gain selective advantage over other circulating strains having either high transmissibility or ability to trigger asymptomatic infection. The D614G mutation in spike glycoprotein PROTEIN, the characteristic mutation A2a HGNC clade, has been associated with high transmissibility, whereas the A3 clade specific mutation L37F in NSP6 PROTEIN protein has been linked with asymptomatic infection. In this study, we performed a comprehensive mutational analysis of 3,77,129 SARS-CoV-2 genomes collected during January, 2020 to December, 2020 from all across the world for the presence of D614G and L37F mutations. Out of 3,77,129 SARS-CoV-2 strains analysed, 14, 598 (3.87%) were found to harbour both the D614G and L37F mutations. Majority of these double mutant SARS-CoV-2 strains were identified in Europe (11097) followed by North America (1915), Asia (980), Oceania (242), Africa (219), and South America (145). Geographical root surveillance revealed their first emergence during February-March in all the six continents. Temporal prevalence analysis from February, 2020 to December, 2020 showed a gradual upsurge in their frequencies worldwide, which strongly demonstrated the adaptive selection of these double mutants. Evolutionary analysis depicted that these double mutants emerged as a new clade in the dendrogram (named as A2a/3), and were sub-divided into four distinct clusters (Cluster I, II, III and IV) according to different sets of coexisting mutations. The frequency distribution pattern showed the global predominance of cluster III (41.42%), followed by cluster IV (23.31%), cluster II (21.02%) and cluster I (14.25%). Overall, our study highlighted the emergence of a unique phylogenetic clade encompassing the double-mutant SARS-CoV-2 strains which may provide a fitness MESHD advantage during course of virus evolution.

    Immunisation, asymptomatic infection, herd immunity and the new variants of COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Alastair Grant; Paul R Hunter

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.16.21249946 Date: 2021-01-20 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives Is herd immunity to COVID-19 MESHD a realistic outcome of any immunisation programme with the two main vaccines currently licenced in the UK (Pfizer vaccine BNT162b2 and Astra Zeneca/Oxford vaccine ChAdOx1-S)? More formally, can these vaccines achieve a sufficient level of population immunity to reduce R, the reproduction number of the infection, to below one in the absence of any non-pharmaceutical interventions? Design The study uses simple mathematical models of the transmission of COVID-19 MESHD infection from primary to secondary cases parameterised using data on virus transmission and vaccine efficacy from the literature and the regulatory approval process for the vaccines. Results In the regulatory approval documents, the efficacy of the Pfizer vaccine is estimated at 0.948 (that for the Moderna vaccine is similar). Efficacy for the Oxford vaccine against primary symptomatic illness is estimated as 0.704, based on pooling of data from two dose regimes. For values of R0 similar to those reported during the first months of the pandemic, the simplest analysis implies that reducing the value of R below 1 would require 69% and 93% of the population to be vaccinated with the Pfizer and Oxford vaccine respectively (or achieve a comparable level of immunity through natural infection). However, the new variant of COVID-19 MESHD (Lineage B.1.1.7, named Variant of Concern VOC-202012/01) is reported to have an R-value 1.56 (0.92 to 2.28) times higher than the original strain. Vaccinating the entire population with the Oxford vaccine would only reduce the R value to 1.325 while the Pfizer vaccine would require 82% of the population to be vaccinated to control the spread of the new variant. The Oxford vaccine reduces the incidence of serious illness to a greater extent than it reduces symptomatic illness. But its efficacy against the incidence of asymptomatic infections MESHD is lower, reducing its efficacy against all infection from 0.704 to 0.525 for the pooled data. Although asymptomatics are less infectious, including them in our calculations still raises R values by 20% or more, from 1.33 to 1.6 for the new variant with 100% vaccination. Neither vaccine is licenced for use in children, and when this is taken into account, this R value rises by a further 37% to 2.2 if the whole adult population is vaccinated. Even the more effective mRNA vaccines may allow the pandemic to persist via transmission amongst children, as current authorisations only allow their use on adults. In the absence of vaccination, R will reduce to 1 when 89% of the population has acquired immunity as a result of previous infection with COVID-19 MESHD. Conclusions All currently licensed vaccines provide substantial protection against serious illness to vaccinated individuals themselves. But the Oxford vaccine appears to have relatively low efficacy against asymptomatic infections. Although no comparable data from human trials are available for the mRNA vaccines, non-human primate studies suggest they are better at preventing nasal shedding and so transmission. Herd immunity to COVID-19 MESHD will be very difficult to achieve, especially so for the less effective vaccine. The possibility of transmission from vaccinated but infected individuals to vulnerable unvaccinated individuals is of serious concern. There is a strong case for preferring the more effective mRNA vaccines for health and social care workers and those who have contact with large numbers of vulnerable others.

    The Rate of Asymptomatic COVID-19 MESHD Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Including 12,713 Infections from 136 Studies

    Authors: Xiao C hen; Ziyue Huang; Jingxuan Wang; Shi Zhao; Martin CS Wong; Marc KC Chong; Daihai He; Jinhui Li

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-126538/v1 Date: 2020-12-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Asymptomatic infection of SARS-CoV-2 MESHD may lead to silent community transmission and compromise pandemic control measures of COVID-19 MESHD. We aimed to estimate the rate of asymptomatic COVID-19 MESHD infection from published studies, and compare this rate among different patient groups. Methods: The electronic databases including Medline, Embase, PubMed, and three Chinese electronic databases (The Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang Data, and VIP HGNC) were searched. Studies with sample size (or number of subjects) not less than 5 were included. The STATA command ‘Metaprop’ was implemented to conduct meta-analysis for the pooled rate estimates of asymptomatic infections MESHD with exact binomial and score test-based 95% confidence intervals (CIs).  Results: A total of 12,713 COVID-19 MESHD patients in 136 studies were included in the meta-analysis, including 2,785 asymptomatic infections. The overall rate of asymptomatic infection was 15.1% (95% CI: 12.0%-18.4%). Subgroup analysis showed that the rate was significantly higher in pregnant women (36.3%, 95% CI: 15.7%-59.6%), children (29.4%, 17.4%-42.9%), and studies for screening settings (25.3%, 15.4%-36.5%) conducted on or after 01 March 2020 (27.8%, 15.7%-41.7%). In terms of geographical regions, the rate was the highest in Asia (excluding China) (27.4%, 14.3%-42.6%), followed by Europe (22.7%, 6.3%-44.9%), the US (15.9%, 8.9%-24.3%), and China (13.1%, 10.2%-16.3%). Conclusions: High proportion of asymptomatic infection were observed in pregnant women, children, European residents, screening programmes, and in studies conducted in and after March 2020. Our findings help inform the true burden of COVID-19 MESHD among different groups of cases, and provide information on cost-effective strategies of identifying and tracing asymptomatic infections.

    The Data Forecast in COVID-19 MESHD Model with Applications to US, South Korea, Brazil, India, Russia and Italy

    Authors: Bo-Cyuan Lin; Yen-Jia Chen; Yi-Cheng Hung; Chun-sheng Chen; Han-Chun Wang; Jann-Long Chern

    id:2011.04738v1 Date: 2020-11-05 Source: arXiv

    In this paper, we firstly propose SQIARD and SIARD models to investigate the transmission of COVID-19 MESHD with quarantine, infected and asymptomatic infected MESHD, and discuss the relation between the respective basic reproduction number $R_0, R_Q$ and the stability of the equilibrium points of model. Secondly, after training the related data parameters, in our numerical simulations, we respectively conduct the forecast of the data of US, South Korea, Brazil, India, Russia and Italy, and the effect of prediction of the epidemic situation in each country. Furthermore, we apply US data to compare SQIARD with SIARD, and display the effects of predictions.

    Does Endometriosis Increase Susceptibility to COVID–19 Infections? A case-control study in Women of Reproductive Age

    Authors: Bahram Moazzami; Shahla Chaichian; Saeed Samie; Masoumeh Majidi Zolbin; Fatemeh Jesmi; Meisam Akhlaghdoust; Mahin Ahmadi Pishkuhi; Zahra Sadat Mirshafiei; Fereshteh Khalilzadeh; Dorsa Safari

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-53422/v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background In today’s world, coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD (COVID–19) is the most critical health problem and research is continued on studying the associated factors. But it is not clear whether endometriosis increases MESHD the risk of COVID–19.Methods Women who referred to the gynecology clinic were evaluated and 507 women with endometriosis MESHD (case group) were compared with 520 women without endometriosis MESHD (control group). COVID–19 infection, symptoms, exposure, hospitalization, isolation, H1N1 infection and vaccination, and past medical history of the participants were recorded and compared between the groups using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows version 21.Results Comparison between the groups represent COVID–19 infection in 3.2% of the case group and 3% of the control group (P = .942). The control group had a higher frequency of asymptomatic infection MESHD (95.7% vs. 94.5%; P < .001) and fever MESHD (1.6% vs. 0%; P = .004), while the frequency of rare symptoms was more common in the case group (P < .001). The average disease period was 14 days in both groups (P = .694). COVID–19 infection was correlated with close contact (r = .331; P < .001 in the case group and r = .244; P < .001 in the control group), but not with the history of thyroid disorders MESHD, H1N1 vaccination, traveling to high-risk areas, and social isolation (P > .05).Conclusion Endometriosis MESHD does not increase the susceptibility to COVID–19 infections, but alters the manifestation of the disease. The prevalence of the disease may depend on the interaction between the virus and the individual’s immune system but further studies are required in this regard.

    Does Endometriosis Increase Susceptibility to COVID–19 Infections? A case-control study in Women of Reproductive Age

    Authors: Bahram Moazzami; Shahla Chaichian; Saeed Samie; Masoumeh Majidi Zolbin; Fatemeh Jesmi; Meisam Akhlaghdoust; Mahin Ahmadi Pishkuhi; Zahra Sadat Mirshafiei; Fereshteh Khalilzadeh; Dorsa Safari

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-45026/v1 Date: 2020-07-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In today’s world, coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD (COVID–19) is the most critical health problem and research is continued on studying the associated factors. But it is not clear whether endometriosis increases MESHD the risk of COVID–19.Methods: Women who referred to the gynecology clinic were evaluated and 507 women with endometriosis MESHD (case group) were compared with 520 women without endometriosis MESHD (control group). COVID–19 infection, symptoms, exposure, hospitalization, isolation, H1N1 infection and vaccination, and past medical history of the participants were recorded and compared between the groups using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows version 21.Results: Comparison between the groups represent COVID–19 infection in 3.2% of the case group and 3% of the control group (P=.942). The control group had a higher frequency of asymptomatic infection MESHD (95.7% vs. 94.5%; P<.001) and fever MESHD (1.6% vs. 0%; P=.004), while the frequency of rare symptoms was more common in the case group (P<.001). The average disease period was 14 days in both groups (P=.694). COVID–19 infection was correlated with close contact (r=.331; P<.001 in the case group and r=.244; P<.001 in the control group), but not with the history of thyroid disorders MESHD, H1N1 vaccination, traveling to high-risk areas, and social isolation (P>.05).Conclusion: Endometriosis does not increase the susceptibility to COVID–19 infections, but alters the manifestation of the disease. The prevalence of the disease may depend on the interaction between the virus and the individual’s immune system but further studies are required in this regard. 

    Detection of antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein in both serum and saliva enhances detection of infection

    Authors: Sian E Faustini; Sian E. Jossi; Marisol Perez-Toledo; Adrian Shields; Joel D. Allen; Yasunori Watanabe; Maddy L. Newby; Alex Cook; Carrie R. Willcox; Mahboob Salim; Margaret Goodall; Jennifer L. Heaney; Edith Marcial-Juarez; Gabriella L. Morley; Barbara Torlinska; David C. Wraith; Tonny Veenith; Stephen Harding; Stephen Jolles; Ponsford J Mark; Tim Plant; Aarnoud Huissoon; Matthew K. O'Shea; Benjamin E. Willcox; Mark T. Drayson; Max Crispin; Adam F. Cunningham; Alex G. Richter

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.16.20133025 Date: 2020-06-18 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Detecting antibody responses during and after SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is essential in determining the seroepidemiology of the virus and the potential role of antibody in disease. Scalable, sensitive and specific serological assays are essential to this process. The detection of antibody in hospitalized patients with severe disease has proven straightforward; detecting responses in subjects with mild disease and asymptomatic infections MESHD has proven less reliable. We hypothesized that the suboptimal sensitivity of antibody assays and the compartmentalization of the antibody response may contribute to this effect. Methods: We systemically developed an ELISA assay, optimising different antigens and amplification steps, in serum and saliva from symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2-infected MESHD subjects. Results: Using trimeric spike glycoprotein PROTEIN, rather than nucleocapsid enabled detection of responses in individuals with low antibody responses. IgG1 and IgG3 HGNC predominate to both antigens, but more anti-spike IgG1 than IgG3 HGNC was detectable. All antigens were effective for detecting responses in hospitalized patients. Anti-spike, but not nucleocapsid, IgG, IgA and IgM antibody responses were readily detectable in saliva from non-hospitalized symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Antibody responses in saliva and serum were largely independent of each other and symptom reporting. Conclusions. Detecting antibody responses in both saliva and serum is optimal for determining virus exposure and understanding immune responses after SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Funding. This work was funded by the University of Birmingham, the National Institute for Health Research (UK), the NIH National Institute for Allergy MESHD and Infectious Diseases, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the University of Southampton.

    Longitudinal Surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 RNA Among Asymptomatic Staff in Five Colorado Skilled Nursing Facilities: Epidemiologic, Virologic and Sequence Analysis.

    Authors: Kendra Quicke; Emily Gallichote; Nicole Sexton; Emily Fitzmeyer; Michael Young; Ashley Janich; Karen Dobos; Kristy Pabilonia; Gregory Gahm; Elizabeth J Carlton; Gregory D Ebel; Nicole Ehrhart

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.08.20125989 Date: 2020-06-09 Source: medRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 emerged in 2019 and has become a major global pathogen in an astonishingly short period of time. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 also has been notable due to its impacts on individuals residing within skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) such as rehabilitation centers and nursing homes. SNF residents tend to possess several risk factors for the most severe outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, including advanced age and the presence of multiple comorbidities. Indeed, residents of long-term care facilities represent approximately 40 percent of US SARS-CoV-2 deaths MESHD. To assess the prevalence and incidence of SARS-CoV-2 among SNF workers, determine the extent of asymptomatic infection by SARS-CoV-2, and provide information on the genomic epidemiology of the virus within these unique care settings, we sampled workers weekly at five SNFs in Colorado using nasopharyngeal swabs, determined the presence of viral RNA and infectious virus among these workers, and sequenced 48 nearly complete genomes. This manuscript reports results from the first five to six weeks of observation. Our data reveal a strikingly high degree of asymptomatic infection MESHD, a strong correlation between RNA detection and the presence of infectious virus in NP swabs, persistent RNA in a subset of individuals, and declining incidence over time. Our data suggests that asymptomatic individuals infected by SARS-CoV-2 may contribute to virus transmission within the workplace.

    Impact of city and residential unit lockdowns on prevention and control of COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Peng Shao

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.13.20035253 Date: 2020-03-17 Source: medRxiv

    With respect to the asymptomatic transmission characteristics of the novel coronavirus that appeared in 2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD), a susceptible-asymptomatic-infected-recovered-death ( SAIRD MESHD) model that considered human mobility was constructed in this study. The dissemination of COVID-19 MESHD was simulated using computational experiments to identify the mechanisms underlying the impact of city and residential lockdowns on controlling the spread of the epidemic. Results: The implementation of measures to lock down cities led to higher mortality rates in these cities, due to reduced mobility. Moreover, implementing city lockdown along with addition of hospital beds led to improved cure and reduced mortality rates. Stringent implementation and early lockdown of residential units effectively controlled the spread of the epidemic, and reduced the number of hospital bed requirements. Collectively, measures to lock down cities and residential units should be taken to prevent the spread of COVID-19 MESHD. In addition, medical resources should be increased in cities under lockdown. Implementation of these measures would reduce the spread of the virus to other cities and allow appropriate treatment of patients in cities under lockdown.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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