Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

COVID-19 (489)

Fever (101)

Pneumonia (94)

Death (80)

Hypertension (72)

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinN (7)

ProteinS (2)

ORF1ab (1)

ProteinS1 (1)


SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 MESHD in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Lixiang Lou Sr.; Hui Zhang Sr.; Baoming Tang Sr.; Ming Li; Zeqing Li; Haifang Cao; Jian Li; Yuliang Chong; Zhaowei Li

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.12.21253472 Date: 2021-03-13 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Although the number of COVID-19 MESHD ( coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD) cases continues to increase globally, there are few studies on the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with COVID-19 MESHD. Objective: To conduct a comprehensive systematic evaluation and meta-analysis of the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 MESHD in children and adolescents to better guide the response to the current epidemic. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI (Chinese database), Clinical and (China). The methodological quality of the included literature was evaluated using the Quality Assessment Tool for Case Series Studies. Meta-analysis was performed using STATA 14.0. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Q statistic and quantified using I2. We used fixed-effects or random-effects models to pool clinical data in the meta-analysis. Publication bias was evaluated by the Begg's test. Results: We analyzed 49 studies involving 1627 patients. In the pooled data, the most common clinical symptoms were fever MESHD (56% [0.50-0.61]) and cough (45% [0.39-0.51]). The most common laboratory abnormalities were elevated procalcitonin (40% [0.23-0.57]), elevated lactate dehydrogenase (31% [0.19-0.43]), increased lymphocyte count (28% [0.17-0.42]), increased creatine kinase (28% [0.18- 0.40]), and elevated C-reactive protein HGNC (26% [0.17-0.36]). The most common abnormalities determined by computed tomography were lower-lobe involvement (56% [0.42- 0.70]), ground-glass opacities (33% [0.25-0.42]), bilateral pneumonia MESHD (32% [0.24- 0.40]), patchy shadowing (31% [0.18- 0.45]), and upper lobe involvement MESHD (30% [0.20- 0.41]). Conclusion: Disease severity among children and adolescents with COVID-19 MESHD was milder than that among adult patients, with a greater proportion of mild and asymptomatic cases, and thus, the diagnosis of COVID-19 MESHD and control of the infection source are more challenging.

    Outcome of Different Therapeutic Interventions in Mild COVID-19 MESHD Patients in a Single OPD Clinic of West Bengal: A Retrospective study

    Authors: Sayak Roy; Shambo Samrat Samajdar; Santanu K Tripathi; Shatavisa Mukherjee; Kingshuk Bhattacharjee

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.08.21252883 Date: 2021-03-12 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: With over 87,273,380 cases being reported and 1,899,440 deaths worldwide as of 9th January 2021, Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) has become the worst-hit pandemic till date. Every day clinicians are bombarded with many new treatment options that claim to be better than the others. Materials and methods: After screening the electronic database of COVID-19 MESHD patients retrospectively, 56 patients with mild COVID-19 MESHD infection matched the inclusion criteria and were divided into the four following groups - group having used Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), group using doxycycline (DOX) + Ivermectin (IVR) combination, group receiving only azithromycin (AZ) and, group receiving only symptomatic treatment. The study's primary objective was to see Clinical response of well-being (CRWB) reporting time after initiating treatment onset between the four different treatment arms. Results: CRWB did not differ between the four groups receiving four different managements (p-value 0.846). There was significant correlation between blood levels of LDH (p-value 0.001), CRP HGNC (p-value 0.03) and D-dimer (p-value 0.04) with CRWB in IVR+DOX group and, between LDH (p-value 0.001), CRP HGNC (p-value 0.01) and age (p-value 0.035) with CRWB in the symptomatic management group. Conclusion: Mild COVID-19 MESHD infection in patients having low-risk to progress can be managed symptomatically without any specific drug intervention.

    Single-Arm, Open-Label Phase 2 Trial of Preemptive Methylprednisolone to Avert Progression to Respiratory Failure MESHD in High-Risk Patients with COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Fernando Cabanillas; Javier Morales; Jose G. Conde; Jorge Bertran-Pasarell; Ricardo Fernandez; Yaimara Hernandez-Silva; Idalia Liboy; James Bryan-Diaz; Juan Arraut-Gonzalez

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.08.21253117 Date: 2021-03-09 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: Covid-19 MESHD is a triphasic disorder first typified by a viral phase that lasts from the first onset of symptoms until seven days later. This is followed by a second and third phase, initially characterized by the appearance of lung infiltrates, followed in 20% by respiratory failure MESHD. The second phase is usually heralded by an elevation of serologic inflammatory markers including CRP HGNC, ferritin, IL-6 HGNC, LDH as well as D-dimers. Approximately 20% proceed to the second phase and are usually then treated with dexamethasone, provided they are oxygen-dependent since these are the only cases that benefit from dexamethasone. If we had objective criteria to predict this 20% that develop severe illness, they could preemptively be treated with steroids. In this exploratory study we investigated the early use of preemptive steroids in the setting of early disease, in high-risk non-oxygen dependent cases. Methods: Eligible patients were those 21 years or older with a diagnosis of Covid-19 MESHD and oxygen saturation >91%. For patients to be classified as high-risk, they had to exhibit two or more of the following abnormalities 7-10 days after first symptom: IL-6 HGNC > 10 pg/ml, ferritin > 500 ng/ml, D-dimer > 1 mg/L (1,000 ng/ml), CRP HGNC > 10 mg/dL (100 mg/L), LDH above normal range lymphopenia MESHD (absolute lymphocyte count <1,000 /microliter), oxygen saturation between 91-94%, or CT chest with evidence of ground glass infiltrates. Primary endpoint was progression to respiratory failure MESHD. CALL score method was used to predict the expected number of cases of respiratory failure MESHD. High risk patients received methylprednisolone (MPS) 80 mg IV daily x 5 days starting no earlier than seven days from first onset of symptoms. The primary endpoint was progression to hypoxemic respiratory failure MESHD defined as PaO2 <60 mm Hg or oxygen saturation <90%. Secondary endpoints included survival at 28 days from registration, admission to intensive care and live discharge from the hospital. Change in levels of inflammatory markers and length of hospitalization were also assessed. Results In 76 patients, the expected number with respiratory failure MESHD was 30 (39.5%), yet only 4 (5.3%) developed that complication (p=.00001). Survival at 28 days was 98.6%. Improvement in inflammatory markers correlated with favorable outcome. Conclusions Our results are encouraging and suggest that this approach is both effective and safe.

    The COVIDome Explorer Researcher Portal

    Authors: Kelly D. Sullivan; Matthew D. Galbraith; Kohl T. Kinning; Kyle Bartsch; Nik Levinsky; Paula Araya; Keith P. Smith; Ross E. Granrath; Jessica R. Shaw; Ryan Baxter; Kimberly R. Jordan; Seth Russell; Monika Dzieciatkowska; Julie A. Reisz; Fabia Gamboni; Francesca Cendali; Tusharkanti Ghosh; Andrew A. Monte; Tellen D. Bennett; Michael G. Miller; Elena W.Y. Hsieh; Angelo D'Alessandro; Kirk C. Hansen; Joaquin M. Espinosa

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.04.21252945 Date: 2021-03-08 Source: medRxiv

    COVID-19 MESHD pathology involves dysregulation of diverse molecular, cellular, and physiological processes. In order to expedite integrated and collaborative COVID-19 MESHD research, we completed multi-omics analysis of hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD patients including matched analysis of the whole blood transcriptome, plasma proteomics with two complementary platforms, cytokine profiling, plasma and red blood cell metabolomics, deep immune cell phenotyping by mass cytometry, and clinical data annotation. We refer to this multidimensional dataset as the COVIDome. We then created the COVIDome Explorer, an online researcher portal where the data can be analyzed and visualized in real time. We illustrate here the use of the COVIDome dataset through a multi-omics analysis of biosignatures associated with C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC), an established marker of poor prognosis in COVID-19 MESHD, revealing associations between CRP HGNC levels and damage-associated molecular patterns, depletion of protective serpins, and mitochondrial metabolism dysregulation MESHD. We expect that the COVIDome Explorer will rapidly accelerate data sharing, hypothesis testing, and discoveries worldwide.

    C-reactive protein HGNC as a prognostic indicator in COVID-19 MESHD patients

    Authors: Mahmoud Sadeghi Haddad Zavareh; Masomeh Bayani; Mehran Shokri; Soheil Ebrahimpour; Arefeh Babazadeh; Zahra Geraili; Emaddudin Moudi; Ali Rostami; Mohammad Barari; Akram sadat Hosseini; Ali Bijani; Mostafa Javanian

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2021-03-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    While some biomolecules have been explored to identify potential biomarkers for prognosis of the COVID-19 MESHD prognosis, there are no reliable prognostic indicators of disease progression and severity. We aimed to evaluate the ability of the C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC) to predict COVID-19 MESHD infection. This retrospective study was conducted on 429 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 MESHD between March 30, 2020, and April 30, 2020. The study population was divided into severe cases (n = 175) and nonsevere cases (n = 254). Data on demographic characteristics, clinical features, and laboratory findings on admission were collected. The proportion of patients with increased CRP HGNC levels was significantly higher in severe cases than in nonsevere patients. Analysis of ROC curve found that CRP HGNC could be used as an independent factor in predicting the severity of COVID-19 MESHD infection. Also, patients with CRP HGNC > 64.75 mg/L were more likely to have severe complications. The serum levels of CRP HGNC can predict the severity and progression of illness in patients with COVID-19 MESHD.

    Clinical course and risk factors for in-hospital mortality of 205 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia MESHD in Como, Lombardy Region, Italy

    Authors: Mauro Turrini; Angelo Gardellini; Livia Beretta; Lucia Buzzi; Stefano Ferrario; Sabrina Vasile; Raffaella Clerici; Andrea Colzani; Luigi Liparulo; Giovanni Scognamiglio; Gianni Imperiali; Giovanni Corrado; Antonella Strada; Marco Galletti; Nunzio Castiglione; Claudio Zanon

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.25.20134866 Date: 2021-03-05 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: With randomized clinical trials ongoing and vaccine still a long distance away, efforts to repurpose old medications used for other diseases provide hope for treatment of COVID-19 MESHD. Objectives: To examine the risk factors for in-hospital mortality and describe the effectiveness of different treatment strategies in a real-life setting of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia MESHD. Design: Real-life single-center study during the Lombardy COVID-19 MESHD outbreak. Setting: Valduce Hospital in Como, Lombardy Region, Italy. Participants: 205 laboratory-confirmed patients presenting with SARS-Cov-2 pneumonia MESHD requiring hospitalization. Interventions: All patients received best supportive care and, based on their clinical needs and comorbidities, specific interventions that included the main drugs being tested for repurposing to treat COVID-19 MESHD, such as hydroxychloroquine, anticoagulation, antiviral drugs, steroids or interleukin-6 HGNC pathway inhibitors. Main outcomes and measures: Clinical, laboratory and treatment characteristics were analyzed with univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods to explore their impact on in-hospital mortality and compared with current literature data. Results: Univariate analyses for clinical variables showed prognostic significance for age equal or greater than 70 years (estimated 28-days survival: 21.4 vs 67.4%; p<0.0001), presence of 2 or more relevant comorbidities (35.3 vs 61.8%; p=0.0008), ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (P/F) less than 200 at presentation (21-days survival: 14.7 vs 52.4%;p<0.0001), high levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (26.4 vs 65.3%; p=0.0001), and elevated C-reactive protein HGNC (CRP) values (25.4 vs 74.9%; p=0.0001), while no statistical significance was found for all the other clinical variables tested. At univariate analysis for the different treatment scheduled, prognostic significance for survival was showed for intermediate or therapeutic-dose anticoagulation (estimated 28-days survival: 37.1 vs 23.4%; p=0.0001), hydroxychloroquine (35.7 vs 27.3%; p=0.0029), early antiviral therapy with lopinavir/ritonavir (60.1 vs 22.4%; p<0.0001), late short-course of steroids (47.9 vs 18.2%; p<0.0001) or tocilizumab therapy (69.4 vs 29.4%; p=0.0059). Multivariable regression confirmed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with age older than 70 years (odds ratio 3.26, 95% CI 1.81 - 5.86; p<0.0001) and showed a reduction in mortality for patients treated with anticoagulant (-0.37, 0.49 - 0.95; p=0.0273), antiviral (-1.22, 0.16 - 0.54; p<0.0001), or steroids (-0.59, 0.35 - 0.87; p=0.0117) therapy.

    Impact of Early Corticosteroids on 60-day Mortality in Critically MESHD Ill Patients with COVID-19 MESHD: A Multicenter Cohort Study of the OUTCOMEREA Network

    Authors: Claire Dupuis; Etienne de Montmollin; Niccolò Buetti; Dany Goldgran-Toledano; Jean Reignier; Carole Schwebel; Julien Domitile; Mathilde Neuville; Moreno Ursino; Shidasp Siami; Stéphane Ruckly; Corinne Alberti; Bruno Mourvillier; Sebastien Bailly; Virginie Laurent; Marc Gainnier; Bertrand Souweine; Jean-François Timsit

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2021-03-03 Source: ResearchSquare

    ObjectivesIn severe COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD, the appropriate timing and dosing of corticosteroids(CS) is not known. Patient subgroups for which CS could be more beneficial also need appraisal. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of early CS in COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD patients admitted to the ICU on the occurrence of 60-day mortality, ICU-acquired-bloodstream infections(ICU-BSI), and hospital-acquired pneumonia MESHD and ventilator-associated pneumonia MESHD(HAP-VAP).MethodsWe included patients with COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD admitted to 11 ICUs belonging to the French OutcomeReaTM network from January to May 2020. We used survival models with ponderation with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Inflammation MESHD was defined as Ferritin >1000 µg/l or D-Dimers >1000 µg/l or C-Reactive Protein HGNC >100 mg/dL.ResultsThe study population comprised 302 patients having a median age of 61.6(53-70) years of whom 78.8% were male and 58.6% had at least one comorbidity. The median SAPS II MESHD was 33(25-44). Invasive mechanical ventilation was required in 34.8% of the patients. Sixty-six (21.8%) patients were in the Early-CS-subgroup. Most of them (n=55, 83.3%) received high doses of steroids. Overall, 60-day mortality was 29.4%. The risks of 60-day mortality (IPTWHR =0.88;95% CI 0.55 to 1.39, p=0.58), ICU-BSI and HAP-VAP were similar in the two groups. Importantly, early CS treatment was associated with a lower mortality rate in patients aged 60 years or more (IPTWHR, 0.51;95% CI, 0.29 – 0.91; p=0.02). But, CS was associated with an increased risk of death for the patients younger than 60 years without inflammation MESHD on admission (IPTWHR =8.17;95% CI, 1.76, 37.85; p=0.01).ConclusionFor patients with COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD, early CS treatment was not associated with patient survival. Interestingly, inflammation MESHD and age can significantly influence the effect of CS.

    Leveraging genetic data to elucidate the relationship between Covid-19 MESHD and ischemic stroke MESHD

    Authors: Verena Zuber; Alan Cameron; Evangelos Pavlos Myserlis; Leonardo Bottolo; Israel Fernandez-Cadenas; Stephen Burgess; Christopher D Anderson; Jesse Dawson; Dipender Gill

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.25.21252441 Date: 2021-03-01 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundThe relationship between coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( Covid-19 MESHD) and ischemic stroke MESHD is poorly defined. We aimed to leverage genetic data to investigate reported associations. MethodsGenetic association estimates for liability to Covid-19 MESHD and cardiovascular traits were obtained from large-scale consortia. Analyses primarily focused on critical Covid-19 MESHD, defined as hospitalization with Covid-19 MESHD requiring respiratory support or resulting in death MESHD. Cross-trait linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to estimate genetic correlations of critical Covid-19 MESHD with ischemic stroke MESHD, other related cardiovascular outcomes, and risk factors common to both Covid-19 MESHD and cardiovascular disease MESHD (body mass index, smoking and chronic inflammation MESHD, estimated using C-reactive protein HGNC). Mendelian randomization analysis was performed to investigate whether liability to critical Covid-19 MESHD was associated with increased risk of any of the cardiovascular outcomes for which genetic correlation was identified. ResultsThere was evidence of genetic correlation between critical Covid-19 MESHD and ischemic stroke MESHD (rg=0.29, FDR p-value=4.65x10-3), body mass index (rg=0.21, FDR-p-value=6.26x10-6) and C-reactive protein HGNC (rg=0.20, FDR-p-value=1.35x10-4), but none of the other considered traits. In Mendelian randomization analysis, liability to critical Covid-19 MESHD was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke MESHD (odds ratio [OR] per logOR increase in genetically predicted critical Covid-19 MESHD liability 1.03, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.06, p-value=0.03). Similar estimates were obtained when considering ischemic stroke MESHD subtypes. Consistent estimates were also obtained when performing statistical sensitivity analyses more robust to the inclusion of pleiotropic variants, including multivariable Mendelian randomization analyses adjusting for potential genetic confounding through body mass index, smoking and chronic inflammation MESHD. There was no evidence to suggest that genetic liability to ischemic stroke MESHD increased the risk of critical Covid-19 MESHD. ConclusionsThese data support that liability to critical Covid-19 MESHD is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke MESHD. The host response predisposing to severe Covid-19 MESHD is likely to increase the risk of ischemic stroke MESHD, independent of other potentially mitigating risk factors.

    A precise score for the regular monitoring of COVID-19 MESHD patients condition validated within the first two waves of the pandemic

    Authors: Evgeny A. Bakin; Oksana V. Stanevich; Vasiliy A. Belash; Anastasia A. Belash; Ludmila F. Sayenko; Evgeny A. Korobenkov; Dmitry A. Lioznov; Yury S. Polushin; Alexander N. Kulikov

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.09.21249859 Date: 2021-03-01 Source: medRxiv

    Purpose. The sudden outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic MESHD have shown that medical community needs an accurate and interpretable aggregated score not only for an outcome prediction but also for a daily patient's condition assessment. Due to a continuously changing pandemic landscape, a robustness becomes a crucial additional requirement for the score. Materials and methods. In this research a real-world data collected within the first two waves of COVID-19 pandemic MESHD was used. The first wave data (1349 cases collected from 27.04.2020 to 03.08.2020) was used as a training set for the score development, while the second wave data (1453 cases collected from 01.11.2020 to 19.01.2021) was used as a validating set. For all the available patients features we tested their association with an outcome using a robust linear regression. Statistically significant features were taken to the further analysis for each of which their partial sensitivity, specificity and promptness were estimated. The sensitivity and the specificity were further combined into a feature informativeness index. Results. The developed score was derived as a weighted sum of the following 9 features showed the best trade-off between informativeness and promptness: APTT (> 42 sec, 4 points), CRP HGNC (> 146 mg/L, 3 points), D-dimer (> 2149 mkg/L, 4 points), Glucose (> 9 mmol/L, 4 points), Hemoglobin (< 115 g/L, 3 points), Lymphocytes (< 0,7*10^9/L, 3 points), Total protein (< 61 g/L, 6 points), Urea (> 11 mmol/L, 5 points) and WBC (> 13,5*10^9/L, 4 points). Thus, the proposed score ranges between 0 and 36 points. Internal and temporal validation showed that sensitivity and specificity over 90% may be achieved with an expected prediction range >7 days. Moreover, we demonstrated a high robustness of the score to the varying peculiarities of the pandemic. For the additional simplicity of application we split the full range of the score into four parts associated with particular death MESHD/discharge odds (3:1, 1:1, 1:4) determined with bounds 22, 14 and 5 points correspondingly. Conclusions. An extensive application of the score within the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic MESHD showed its potential for the optimization of patients management as well as improvement of medical staff attentiveness during a high workload stress. The transparent structure of the score as well as tractable cut-off bounds simplified its implementation into a clinical practice.

    A Comprehensive Study on Prediction Reliability of The Severity of Computed Tomography Involvement in Patients with Covid-19 MESHD

    Authors: Semih Kalkan; Volkan Gurler; AHMET Guner; Macit Kalcik; Kamber Kasali; Mustafa Ferhat Keten; Gokhan Tonkaz; Emrah Bayam; Ahmet Karaduman; Mehmet Ozkan

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2021-02-26 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) emerges as a high–sensitivity tool in diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 virus on admission, even with the cases of negative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Moreover, CT plays a significant role in the evaluation of disease severity. In this study, we aimed to identify several parameters that could aid in evaluating the initial chest CT severity score (CT-SS).Methods: A total of 348 RT-PCR positive patients were divided into three groups by evaluating the chest CT severity score (CT-SS) in detail. These three groups were defined as the CT-SS obtained 0-7, 8-15, 16-40 classified as mild, moderate and severe involvement, respectively. Patients with end-stage malignancy MESHD or immunodeficiency MESHD were excluded from the study. All CT images were evaluated by two chest radiologists, unaware of the clinical data.Results: The analysis of categorical variables show that the chest CT-SS tends to increase with higher CHA2DS2VASC risk score (RS) (p= 0.001), M-CHA2DS2VASC RS (p = 0.001), and CHADS2 RS (p = 0.003). Moreover, age, hypertension MESHD, cardiothoracic ratio, aortic diameter, white blood cell count, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, c-reactive protein HGNC, D-dimer, ferritin, fibrinogen HGNC, blood urea nitrogen, and lactate dehydrogenase were also found to be associated with higher chest CT-SS. A 5-variable multivariable linear regression model, consisting of more frequently used variables, suggests a higher CHA2DS2VASC RS as the only statistically significant variable predicting a higher severity scoreConclusion: The CHA2DS2VASC RS may assist clinicians in predicting the CT-SS in COVID-19 MESHD patients, even if they are asymptomatic.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins

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