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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (1492)

ProteinN (428)

NSP5 (315)

ComplexRdRp (187)

ProteinE (102)


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    E-cigarette-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation and Dysregulated Repair are Mediated by nAChR α7 Receptor: Role of nAChR α7 in ACE2 Covid-19 MESHD receptor regulation

    Authors: Qixin Wang; Isaac Sundar; Dongmei Li; Joseph Lucas; Thivanka Muthumalage; Samantha McDonough; Irfan Rahman

    doi:10.21203/rs.2.23829/v2 Date: 2020-02-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Electronic cigarette (e-cig) vaping is increasing rapidly in the United States, as e-cigs are considered less harmful than combustible cigarettes. However, limited research has been conducted to understand the possible mechanism that mediate, toxicity MESHD and pulmonary health effects of e-cigs. We hypothesized that sub-chronic e-cig exposure induces inflammatory response and dysregulated repair/extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, which occur through the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR α7). Adult wild-type (WT), nAChRα7 knockout (KO), and lung epithelial cell-specific KO (nAChRα7 CreCC10) mice were exposed to e-cig aerosol containing propylene glycol (PG) with or without nicotine. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids MESHD ( BALF MESHD) and lungs tissues were collected to determine e-cig induced inflammatory response and ECM remodeling, respectively. Sub-chronic e-cig exposure with nicotine increased the inflammatory cellular influx of macrophages and T-lymphocytes including increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in BALF MESHD and increased ACE2 Covid-19 MESHD receptor, whereas nAChR α7 KO mice show reduced inflammatory responses associated with decreased ACE2 receptor. Interestingly, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), such as MMP2, MMP8, and MMP9 were altered both at the protein and mRNA transcript levels in female and male, but WT mice exposed to PG alone showed a sex-dependent phenotype. Moreover, MMP12 was increased significantly in male mice exposed to PG with or without nicotine in a nAChR α7-dependent manner. Additionally, sub-chronic e-cig exposure with or without nicotine altered the abundance of ECM proteins, such as collagen and fibronectin significantly in a sex-dependent manner, but without the direct role of nAChR α7 gene. Overall, sub-chronic e-cig exposure with or without nicotine affected lung inflammation MESHD and repair responses/ECM remodeling, which were mediated by nAChR α7 in a sex-dependent manner. 

    A spatial model of CoVID-19 MESHD transmission in England and Wales: early spread and peak timing

    Authors: Leon Danon; Ellen Brooks-Pollock; Mick Bailey; Matt J Keeling

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.12.20022566 Date: 2020-02-14 Source: medRxiv

    Background: An outbreak of a novel coronavirus, named CoVID-19 MESHD, was first reported in China on 31 December 2019. As of 9 February 2020, cases have been reported in 25 countries, including probable cases of human-to-human transmission in England. Methods: We adapted an existing national-scale metapopulation model to capture the spread of CoVID-19 MESHD in England and Wales. We used 2011 census data to capture population sizes and population movement, together with parameter estimates from the current outbreak in China. Results: We predict that a CoVID-19 MESHD outbreak will peak 126 to 147 days (~4 months) after the start of person-to-person transmission in England and Wales in the absence of controls, assuming biological parameters remain unchanged. Therefore, if person-to-person transmission persists from February, we predict the epidemic peak would occur in June. The starting location has minimal impact on peak timing, and model stochasticity varies peak timing by 10 days. Incorporating realistic parameter uncertainty leads to estimates of peak time ranging from 78 days to 241 days after person-to-person transmission has been established. Seasonal changes in transmission rate substantially impact the timing and size of the epidemic peak, as well as the total attack rate. Discussion: We provide initial estimates of the potential course of CoVID-19 MESHD in England and Wales in the absence of control measures. These results can be refined with improved estimates of epidemiological parameters, and permit investigation of control measures and cost effectiveness analyses. Seasonal changes in transmission rate could shift the timing of the peak into winter months, which will have important implications for healthcare capacity planning.

    Estimating underdetection of internationally imported COVID-19 MESHD cases

    Authors: Rene Niehus; Pablo M De Salazar; Aimee Taylor; Marc Lipsitch

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.13.20022707 Date: 2020-02-14 Source: medRxiv

    Risk of COVID-19 MESHD infection in Wuhan has been estimated using imported case counts of international travelers, often under the assumption that all cases in travelers are ascertained. Recent work indicates variation among countries in detection capacity for imported cases. Singapore has historically had very strong epidemiological surveillance and contact-tracing capacity and has shown in the COVID-19 MESHD epidemic evidence of a high sensitivity of case detection. We therefore used a Bayesian modeling approach to estimate the relative imported case detection capacity for other countries compared to that of Singapore. We estimate that the global ability to detect imported cases is 38% (95% HPDI 22% - 64%) of Singapore's capacity. Equivalently, an estimate of 2.8 (95% HPDI 1.5 - 4.4) times the current number of imported cases, could have been detected, if all countries had had the same detection capacity as Singapore. Using the second component of the Global Health Security index to stratify likely case-detection capacities, we found that the ability to detect imported cases relative to Singapore among high surveillance locations is 40% (95% HPDI 22% - 67%), among intermediate surveillance locations it is 37% (95% HPDI 18% - 68%), and among low surveillance locations it is 11% (95% HPDI 0% - 42%). Using a simple mathematical model, we further find that treating all travelers as if they were residents (rather than accounting for the brief stay of some of these travelers in Wuhan) can modestly contribute to underestimation of prevalence as well. We conclude that estimates of case counts in Wuhan based on assumptions of perfect detection in travelers may be underestimated by several fold, and severity correspondingly overestimated by several fold. Undetected cases are likely in countries around the world, with greater risk in countries of low detection capacity and high connectivity to the epicenter of the outbreak.

    Trend and forecasting of the COVID-19 MESHD outbreak in China

    Authors: Qiang Li; Wei Feng

    id:2002.05866v1 Date: 2020-02-14 Source: arXiv

    By using the public data from Jan. 20 to Feb. 11 HGNC, 2020, we perform data-driven analysis and forecasting on the COVID-19 MESHD epidemic in mainland China, especially Hubei province. Our results show that the turning points of the daily infections are predicted to be Feb. 6 and Feb. 1, 2020, for Hubei and China other than Hubei, respectively. The epidemic in China is predicted to end up after Mar. 10, 2020, and the number of the total infections are predicted to be 51600. The data trends reveal that quick and active strategies taken by China to reduce human exposure have already had a good impact on the control of the epidemic.

    Visual Data Analysis and Simulation Prediction for COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Baoquan Chen; Mingyi Shi; Xingyu Ni; Liangwang Ruan; Hongda Jiang; Heyuan Yao; Mengdi Wang; Zhenhua Song; Qiang Zhou; Tong Ge

    id:2002.07096v3 Date: 2020-02-14 Source: arXiv

    The COVID-19 MESHD (formerly, 2019-nCoV) epidemic has become a global health emergency, as such, WHO declared PHEIC. China has taken the most hit since the outbreak of the virus, which could be dated as far back as late November by some experts. It was not until January 23rd that the Wuhan government finally recognized the severity of the epidemic and took a drastic measure to curtain the virus spread by closing down all transportation connecting the outside world. In this study, we seek to answer a few questions: How did the virus get spread from the epicenter Wuhan city to the rest of the country? To what extent did the measures, such as, city closure and community quarantine, help controlling the situation? More importantly, can we forecast any significant future development of the event had some of the conditions changed? By collecting and visualizing publicly available data, we first show patterns and characteristics of the epidemic development; we then employ a mathematical model of disease transmission dynamics to evaluate the effectiveness of some epidemic control measures, and more importantly, to offer a few tips on preventive measures.

    Understanding the present status and forecasting of COVID-19 MESHD in Wuhan

    Authors: Toshihisa Tomie

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.13.20022251 Date: 2020-02-14 Source: medRxiv

    The present status of COVID[-]19 is analyzed and the end of the disease is forecasted. The peak of the epidemic is different in three regions, Wuhan, Hubei province except Wuhan, and mainland China except Hubei. In two regions except Wuhan, the peak of the epidemic passed ten days ago. If the trend until February 11 does not change, the disease may end by the end of February. In Wuhan, the epidemic reached a peak but the reported number of newly infected MESHD patients fluctuates largely. We need to know the reason for the big fluctuation to forecast the end of the disease.

    Early epidemiological assessment of the transmission potential and virulence of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in Wuhan City: China, 2019-2020

    Authors: Kenji Mizumoto; Katsushi Kagaya; Gerardo Chowell

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.12.20022434 Date: 2020-02-13 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Since the first cluster of cases was identified in Wuhan City, China, in December, 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) rapidly spread around the world. Despite the scarcity of publicly available data, scientists around the world have made strides in estimating the magnitude of the epidemic, the basic reproduction number, and transmission patterns. Accumulating evidence suggests that a substantial fraction of the infected individuals with the novel coronavirus show little if any symptoms, which highlights the need to reassess the transmission potential of this emerging disease. In this study, we derive estimates of the transmissibility and virulence of COVID-19 MESHD in Wuhan City, China, by reconstructing the underlying transmission dynamics using multiple data sources. Methods: We employ statistical methods and publicly available epidemiological datasets to jointly derive estimates of transmissibility and severity associated with the novel coronavirus. For this purpose, the daily series of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 MESHD cases and deaths MESHD in Wuhan City together with epidemiological data of Japanese repatriated from Wuhan City on board government-chartered flights were integrated into our analysis. Results: Our posterior estimates of basic reproduction number (R) in Wuhan City, China in 2019-2020 reached values at 3.49 (95%CrI: 3.39-3.62) with a mean serial interval of 6.0 days, and the enhanced public health intervention after January 23rd in 2020 was associated with a significantly reduced R at 0.84 (95%CrI: 0.81-0.88), with the total number of infections (i.e. cumulative infections) estimated at 1906634 (95%CrI: 1373500- 2651124) in Wuhan City, elevating the overall proportion of infected individuals to 19.1% (95%CrI: 13.5-26.6%). We also estimated the most recent crude infection fatality ratio (IFR) and time-delay adjusted IFR at 0.04% (95% CrI: 0.03%-0.06%) and 0.12% (95%CrI: 0.08-0.17%), respectively, estimates that are several orders of magnitude smaller than the crude CFR estimated at 4.06% Conclusions: We have estimated key epidemiological parameters of the transmissibility and virulence of COVID-19 MESHD in Wuhan, China during January-February, 2020 using an ecological modelling approach. The power of this approach lies in the ability to infer epidemiological parameters with quantified uncertainty from partial observations collected by surveillance systems.

    Virtual Screening of an FDA Approved Drugs Database on Two COVID-19 MESHD Coronavirus Proteins

    Authors: Alessandro Contini

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.11847381.v1 Date: 2020-02-13 Source: ChemRxiv

    The infection by the 2019-nCoV coronavirus ( COVID-19 MESHD) is a world-wide emergency.The crystal structure of a protein essential for virus replication has been filed in the Protein DataBank recently. Additionally, homology models of 24 COVID-19 MESHD proteins were made available bythe Zhang group. In this paper, we present results deriving from the virtual screening of a databaseof more than 3000 FDA approved drugs on two distinct targets. Results showed that some of theknown protease inhibitors currently used in HIV infections MESHD might be helpful for the therapy of COVID-19 MESHD also.

    Serial interval of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections

    Authors: Hiroshi Nishiura; Natalie M Linton; Andrei R. Akhmetzhanov

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.03.20019497 Date: 2020-02-13 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To estimate the serial interval of novel coronavirus ( COVID-19 MESHD) from information on 28 infector-infectee pairs. Methods: We collected dates of illness onset for primary cases (infectors) and secondary cases (infectees) from published research articles and case investigation reports. We subjectively ranked the credibility of the data and performed analyses on both the full dataset (n=28) and a subset of pairs with highest certainty in reporting (n=18). In addition, we adjusting for right truncation of the data as the epidemic is still in its growth phase. Results: Accounting for right truncation and analyzing all pairs, we estimated the median serial interval at 4.0 days (95% credible interval [CrI]: 3.1, 4.9). Limiting our data to only the most certain pairs, the median serial interval was estimated at 4.6 days (95% CrI: 3.5, 5.9). Conclusions: The serial interval of COVID-19 MESHD is shorter than its median incubation period. This suggests that a substantial proportion of secondary transmission may occur prior to illness onset. The COVID-19 MESHD serial interval is also shorter than the serial interval of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD (SARS), indicating that calculations made using the SARS serial interval may introduce bias.

    Testing Case Number of Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD in China with Newcomb-Benford Law

    Authors: Junyi Zhang

    id:2002.05695v1 Date: 2020-02-13 Source: arXiv

    The coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD bursted out about two months ago in Wuhan has caused the death MESHD of more than a thousand people. China is fighting hard against the epidemics with the helps from all over the world. On the other hand, there appear to be doubts on the reported case number. In this article, we propose a test of the reported case number of coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD in China with Newcomb-Benford law. We find a $p$-value of $92.8\%$ in favour that the cumulative case numbers abide by the Newcomb-Benford law. Even though the reported case number can be lower than the real number of affected people due to various reasons, this test does not seem to indicate the detection of frauds.

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MeSH Disease
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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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