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HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    Clinical features of COVID-19 MESHD patients with comorbid coronary heart disease MESHD

    Authors: Hang Yang; RUI GUO; Lincheng Yang; Ruitao Zhang; Yunpeng Ling; Qinggang Ge

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-129449/v1 Date: 2020-12-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In addition to the lungs, the coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) also affects multiple organs throughout the body. The relationship between COVID-19 MESHD infection and cardiovascular disease MESHD, and the mechanisms by which this disease causes damage to the cardiovascular system are unclear. Coronary heart disease MESHD ( CHD MESHD) is one of the common comorbidities of COVID-19 MESHD, but there is insufficient evidence for its clinical features and impact on clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 MESHD patients with comorbid CHD MESHD and the possible risk factors for the occurrence of critical illness. Methods: A single-center, retrospective study was conducted to analyze COVID-19 MESHD patients admitted to the Sino-French New City Campus of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, Hubei Province and treated by the Peking University National Medical Assistance Team between January 29 and March 10 HGNC, 2020. Patients testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 viral nucleic acid in nasopharyngeal swab specimens and who had comorbid CHD MESHD, were included in the study. Clinical data and laboratory test results of eligible patients were collected, and the factors associated with the occurrence of critical illness among these patients were evaluated. Results: A total of 205 patients were enrolled in this study, including 20 CHD MESHD patients and 185 non- CHD MESHD patients. The mean age was 66.7 years. Compared to non- CHD MESHD patients, more CHD MESHD patients had comorbid hypertension MESHD and diabetes MESHD (P < 0.05). In terms of laboratory tests, the CHD MESHD group did not differ significantly from the non- CHD MESHD group in blood routine, blood chemistry, and various inflammatory cytokines. More CHD MESHD patients experienced myocardial injury MESHD (25% vs 8.1% P < 0.031) and CHD MESHD patients were more likely to progress to critical illness MESHD (40% vs 16.8%P = 0.012). Univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that a history of CHD MESHD, occurrence of myocardial injury MESHD, high white blood cell (WBC) count, low lymphocyte count, and elevated levels of Cr, ferritin, IL-2R HGNC, IL-8 HGNC at admission were factors associated with the occurrence of critical illness. Multivariate regression analysis found that a history of CHD MESHD(OR=3.529, 95% CI =1.032-12.075, P =0.044),high WBC count(OR=1.289, 95% CI =1.136-1.463, P<0.001) and low lymphocyte count(OR=0.215, 95% CI =0.075-0.616, P =0.004)were independent factors for the occurrence of critical illness among COVID-19 MESHD patients. Conclusion: COVID-19 MESHD patients with comorbid CHD MESHD commonly exhibited myocardial injury MESHD and were prone to developing critical illness. Among COVID-19 MESHD patients, a history of CHD MESHD,high WBC count and low lymphocyte count were independent risk factors for the occurrence of critical illness. Greater attention and vigilance are needed in this regard during clinical practice.

    Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors for Myocardial Injury and Arrhythmia in COVID-19 MESHD patients

    Authors: Hong Gang Ren; Xingyi Guo; Lei Tu; Qinyong Hu; Kevin Blighe; Luqman Bin Safdar; Justin Stebbing; Shepard D Weiner; Monte S Willis; Frits R Rosendaal; Guogang Xu; Feng Cao; Dao Weng Wang

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.30.20190926 Date: 2020-12-03 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Patients with COVID-19 MESHD can develop myocardial injury MESHD and arrhythmia MESHD during the course of their illness. However, the underlying risk factors for the development of cardiovascular related manifestations are unclear. Methods: Using a register-based multi-center cross-sectional design, we analyzed 80 patients with myocardial injury MESHD and 401 controls, as well as 71 patients with arrhythmia MESHD and 409 controls, all admitted with COVID-19 MESHD. Putative risk factors for myocardial injury MESHD and arrhythmia MESHD were evaluated with logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: COVID-19 MESHD patients with myocardial injury had fatigue MESHD (66.2%) and dyspnea MESHD (63.7%), while those with arrhythmia had dyspnea MESHD (71.8%). Patients with myocardial injury MESHD and arrhythmia MESHD had a significant mortality of 92.5% and 94.4%, respectively. A history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD ( COPD MESHD) or heart diseases MESHD was associated with an increased risk of myocardial injury MESHD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-3.71; OR = 7.43, 95% CI: 3.99-13.83) and arrhythmia MESHD (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.00-3.75; OR = 13.16, 95% CI: 6.75-25.68). In addition, we found that gamma glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) HGNC >50U/L (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.37-3.32; OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.19-2.85), serum creatinine >111mol/L (OR = 8.96, 95% CI: 4.4-18.23; OR = 3.71, 95% CI: 2.01-6.85), serum sodium <136 mmol/L (OR = 4.68, 95% CI: 2.46-8.91; OR = 2.06; 95% CI: 1.06-4.00) were all associated with increased risk of myocardial injury MESHD and arrhythmia MESHD, respectively. Conclusion: Our reported clinical characteristics and identified risk factors are important for clinical study of COVID-19 MESHD patients developing myocardial injury MESHD and arrhythmia MESHD.

    Evaluation of Myocardial Injury Patterns and ST Changes among Critical and Non-critical Patients with Coronavirus-19 Disease

    Authors: Anam Liaqat; Rao Saad Ali-Khan; Muhammad Asad; Zakia Rafique; Syed Shahzad Hasan; Amy T Page; Xiwen Simon Qin

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-106298/v1 Date: 2020-11-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Novel coronavirus disease MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) has led to a major public health crisis globally. Currently, myocardial damage MESHD is speculated to be associated with COVID-19 MESHD, which can be seen as one of the main causes of death MESHD of patients with COVID-19 MESHD. Therefore, in this study, we aim to investigate the effects of COVID-19 MESHD diagnosed patients on myocardial injury MESHD. Methods: A prospective study was conducted among 201 patients with COVID-19 MESHD in the Pakistan Military Hospital from April 1 to August 31, 2020, including non-critical cases and critical cases. COVID-19 MESHD patients were stratified as critical and non-critical according to signs and symptoms with those requiring intensive care and ventilator support as critical and those don’t require ventilator support as non-critical Results: A total of 201 COVID-19 MESHD patients with critical and non-critical categories presented with myocardial injury MESHD. All patients with myocardial injury MESHD had an elevation in CKMB and Trop 1 HGNC levels. Of these patients, 43.7% presented with new electrocardiography (ECG) changes, ST depression MESHD is observed in 36.3% patients, and 16.9% presented with abnormal electrocardiogram findings, with right ventricular dilatation and dysfunction MESHD. Results analyzed by a logistic regression model showing COVID-19 MESHD direct contribution to myocardial injury MESHD in these patients. Conclusion:  COVID-19 MESHD disease directly leads to cardiovascular damage MESHD among critical and non-critical patients. Myocardial injury MESHD is associated not only with abnormal ECG changes but also with myocardial dysfunction MESHD on echocardiography and more commonly observed among critical patients. 

    SARS-CoV-2 Infects Human Engineered Heart Tissues and Models COVID-19 MESHD Myocarditis

    Authors: Adam L Bailey; Oleksandr Dmytrenko; Lina Greenberg; Andrea L Bredemeyer; Pan Ma; Jing Liu; Vinay Penna; Lulu Lai; Emma S Winkler; Sanja Sviben; Erin Brooks; Ajith P Nair; Kent A Heck; Aniket S Rali; Leo Simpson; Mehrdad Saririan; Dan Hobohm; W. Tom Stump; James A Fitzpatrick; Xuping Xie; Pei-Yong Shi; J Travis Hinson; Weng-Tein Gi; Constanze Schmidt; Florian Leuschner; Chieh-Yu Lin; Michael S Diamond; Michael J Greenberg; Kory J Lavine; Pamela J. Bjorkman; Saurabh Mehandru; Paul D. Bieniasz; Marina Caskey; Michel C. Nussenzweig

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.04.364315 Date: 2020-11-05 Source: bioRxiv

    Epidemiological studies of the COVID-19 MESHD COVID-19 MESHD pandemic have revealed evidence of cardiac involvement MESHD and documented that myocardial injury MESHD and myocarditis MESHD are predictors of poor outcomes. Nonetheless, little is understood regarding SARS-CoV-2 tropism within the heart and whether cardiac complications result directly from myocardial infection MESHD. Here, we develop a human engineered heart tissue model and demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 selectively infects cardiomyocytes. Viral infection MESHD is dependent on expression of angiotensin-I converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC) and endosomal cysteine proteases, suggesting an endosomal mechanism of cell entry. After infection with SARS-CoV-2, engineered tissues display typical features of myocarditis MESHD, including cardiomyocyte cell death, impaired cardiac contractility MESHD, and innate immune cell activation. Consistent with these findings, autopsy tissue obtained from individuals with COVID-19 MESHD myocarditis MESHD demonstrated cardiomyocyte infection MESHD, cell death, and macrophage-predominate immune cell infiltrate. These findings establish human cardiomyocyte tropism for SARS-CoV-2 and provide an experimental platform for interrogating and mitigating cardiac complications of COVID-19 MESHD.

    Central Contributions of Myocardial Injury to Adverse Outcomes in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD

    Authors: Hu Tan; Chuan Liu; Jie Yang; Yuanqi Yang; Yang Shen; Renzheng Chen; Xiaohan Ding; Xubin Gao; Jingbin Ke; Fangzhengyuan Yuan; Chunyan He; Qi Li; Mingdong Hu; Limin Zhang; Ping Li; Lan Huang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-99444/v1 Date: 2020-10-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective: this study aimed to explore the impacts of myocardial injury MESHD on the clinical severity and outcomes in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD).Methods: we analyzed the electronic medical records of 1646 COVID-19 MESHD inpatients in Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital. Results: 327 (19.9%) developed into severe cases, 23 (1.4%) died. In comparison to common cases, severe cases showed older age, more comorbidities, abnormal immune responses, as well as liver, renal, cardiac and coagulation disorders MESHD. Multivariable logistic regression identified that older age , combining with arrhythmia MESHD, abnormal lymphocyte percentage, elevated hypersensitive C reactive protein HGNC (hs- CRP HGNC) and myocardial injury MESHD were the independent risk factors for the incidence of severe cases. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with myocardial injury MESHD had increasing risks of mortality, incidence of severe cases, acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD ( ARDS MESHD), and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Particularly, myocardial injury MESHD patients co-existed with any other risk factor further deteriorated the clinical outcomes.Conclusion: The presence of myocardial injury MESHD and its co-existing with older age, arrhythmia MESHD, abnormal lymphocyte percentage, or elevated hs- CRP HGNC were greatly associated with the incidence of severe patients and poor clinical outcomes.

    The Contribution of Endothelial Dysfunction in Systemic Injury Subsequent to SARS-Cov-2 Infection MESHD

    Authors: Jessica Maiuolo; Rocco Mollace; Micaela Gliozzi; Vincenzo Musolino; Cristina Carresi; Sara Paone; Miriam Scicchitano; Roberta Macrì; Saverio Nucera; Francesca Bosco; Federica Scarano; Maria Caterina Zito; Stefano Ruga; Annamaria Tavernese; Vincenzo Mollace

    id:10.20944/preprints202010.0585.v1 Date: 2020-10-28 Source: Preprints.org

    Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) infection MESHD is associated, alongside with lung infection MESHD and respiratory disease MESHD, to cardiovascular dysfunction MESHD that occurs at any stage of the disease. This includes ischemic MESHD heart disease MESHD, arrhythmias MESHD, and cardiomyopathies MESHD. The common pathophysiological link between SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and the cardiovascular events is represented by coagulation abnormalities MESHD and disruption of factors released by endothelial cells which contribute in maintaining the blood vessels into an anti-thrombotic state. Thus, early alteration of the functionality of endothelial cells, which may be found soon after SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, seems to represent the major target of SARS CoV-2 disease MESHD state and accounts for the systemic vascular dysfunction MESHD that leads to detrimental effect in terms of hospitalization and death accompanying the disease MESHD. In particular, the molecular interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with ACE2 HGNC receptor located in endothelial cell surface, either at the pulmonary and systemic level, leads to early impairment of endothelial function which, in turn, is followed by vascular inflammation MESHD and thrombosis MESHD of peripheral blood vessels. This highlights systemic hypoxia MESHD and further aggravates the vicious circle that compromises the development of the disease leading to irreversible tissue damage and death of patients with SARS CoV-2 infection MESHD. The review aims to assess some recent advances to define the crucial role of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of vascular complications accompanying SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. In particular, the molecular mechanisms associated to the interaction of SARS CoV-2 with ACE2 HGNC receptor located on the endothelial cells are highlighted to support its role in compromising endothelial cell functionality. Finally, the consequences of endothelial dysfunction in enhancing pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD are assessed in order to identify early therapeutic interventions able to reduce the impact of the disease in high-risk patients.

    Clinico-laboratory profile, intensive care needs, treatment details, and outcome of Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS): A systematic review and Meta-analysis.

    Authors: Vijai Williams; Nabaneea Dash; Renu Suthar; Vichithra Mohandoss; Nishant Jaiswal; TK Kavitha; Karthi Nallasamy; Suresh Kumar Angurana

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.21.20217034 Date: 2020-10-25 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: To synthesize the current data on clinico-laboratory features, intensive care needs, treatment, and outcome of Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome MESHD temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) or multisystem inflammatory syndrome MESHD in children (MIS-C). Data Sources: Articles published in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and WHO COVID-19 MESHD research database, CDC database, and Cochrane COVID-19 MESHD study register between 1st December 2019 to 10th July 2020. Study Selection: Observational studies involving patients [≤]21 years with PIMS-TS or MIS-C, that reported the clinico-laboratory features, intensive care needs, treatment, and outcome. Data Extraction: The search identified 422 citations and finally 18 studies with 833 participants were included and pooled estimate was calculated for parameters of interest utilising random effect model. Data Synthesis: The median age was 9 (8-11) years. Fever MESHD, gastrointestinal symptoms MESHD, rash MESHD, conjunctival injection, and respiratory symptoms MESHD were common clinical features. Majority had positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody test and only 1/3rd had RT-PCR positive. The commonest laboratory abnormalities were elevated CRP, D-dimer, procalcitonin, BNP HGNC, fibrinogen HGNC, ferritin, troponin, and IL-6 HGNC; and lymphopenia MESHD, hypoalbuminemia MESHD, and thrombocytopenia MESHD. The cardiovascular complications included shock (65%), myocardial dysfunction MESHD (61%), myocarditis MESHD (65%), and coronary artery abnormalities MESHD (39%). Three-fourth children required admission in PICU for mechanical ventilation (25%) and vasoactive drugs (61%). The common treatment provided was IVIG (82%), steroids (54%), antiplatelet drugs (64%), and anticoagulation (51%). The mortality was low (n=13). Conclusion: Fever MESHD, gastrointestinal MESHD and mucocutaneous symptoms, cardiac dysfunction MESHD, shock, and hyperinflammation are common manifestations of PIMS-TS or MIS-C. The short-term outcome is good with supportive intensive care and immunomodulatory treatment.

    Mining transcriptomics and clinical data reveals ACE2 HGNC expression modulators and identifies cardiomyopathy as a risk factor for mortality in COVID-19 MESHD patients

    Authors: Navchetan Kaur; Boris Oskotsky; Atul J Butte; Zicheng Hu

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.20.20216150 Date: 2020-10-23 Source: medRxiv

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC) is the cell-entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2. It plays critical roles in both the transmission and the pathogenesis of the coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD). Comprehensive profiling of ACE2 HGNC expression patterns will help researchers to reveal risk factors of severe COVID-19 MESHD illness. While the expression of ACE2 HGNC in healthy human tissues has been well characterized, it is not known which diseases and drugs might modulate the ACE2 HGNC expression. In this study, we developed GENEVA (GENe Expression Variance Analysis), a semi-automated framework for exploring massive amounts of RNA-seq datasets. We applied GENEVA to 28,6650 publicly available RNA-seq samples to identify any previously studied experimental conditions that could directly or indirectly modulate ACE2 HGNC expression. We identified multiple drugs, genetic perturbations, and diseases that modulate the expression of ACE2 HGNC, including cardiomyopathy MESHD, HNF1A HGNC overexpression, and drug treatments with RAD140 and Itraconazole. Our unbiased meta-analysis of seven datasets confirms ACE2 HGNC up-regulation in all cardiomyopathy MESHD categories. Using electronic health records data from 3936 COVID19 MESHD patients, we demonstrate that patients with pre-existing cardiomyopathy MESHD have an increased mortality risk than age-matched patients with other cardiovascular conditions. GENEVA is applicable to any genes of interest and is freely accessible at http://www.genevatool.org .

    SARS-CoV-2 direct cardiac damage through spike-mediated cardiomyocyte fusion

    Authors: Jay Schneider; David Pease; Chanakha Navaratnarajah; Peter Halfmann; Daniel Clemens; Dan Ye; Changsung Kim; Alison Barkhymer; Stephen Cohle; Aron Banks; Arpit Mehta; Joseph Rantus; Tim Emmerzaal; Tamas Kozicz; Kyle Howell; Jon Charlesworth; Trace Christensen; Yoshihiro Kawaoka; Leslie Cooper; Michael Ackerman; Roberto Cattaneo

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-95587/v1 Date: 2020-10-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    Viruses spread between hosts through particles, but within hosts, viral genomes can spread from cell to cell through fusion, evading antiviral defenses and obviating costly infectious virion production1-3. Billions of electromechanically coupled cardiomyocytes (CMs) make myocardium inherently vulnerable to pathological electromechanical short circuits caused by intercellular viral spread 4-6. Beyond respiratory illness MESHD, COVID-19 MESHD affects the heart7 and cardiac injury and arrhythmias MESHD are serious public health concerns8-12. By studying myocardium of a young woman who died suddenly, diagnosed postmortem with COVID-19 MESHD, we discovered highly focal myocardial SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD spreading from one CM to another through intercellular junctions identified by highly concentrated sarcolemmal t-tubule viral spike glycoprotein PROTEIN. SARS-CoV-2 permissively infected beating human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-CMs building multinucleated cardiomyotubes (CMTs) through cell type-specific fusion driven by proteolytically-activated spike glycoprotein PROTEIN. Recombinant spike glycoprotein PROTEIN, co-localizing to sarcolemma and sarcoplasmic reticulum, produced multinucleated CMTs with pathological structure, electrophysiology and Ca2+ excitation-contraction coupling. Blocking cleavage, a peptide-based protease inhibitor neutralized SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein pathogenicity. We conclude that SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein, efficiently primed, activated and strategically poised during biosynthesis, can exploit the CM’s inherent membranous connectivities to drive heart damage directly, uncoupling clinically common myocardial injury MESHD from lymphocytic myocarditis MESHD, often suspected but rarely confirmed in COVID-19 MESHD.

    A Case Series on Critically Ill Pregnant or Newly Delivered Patients with Covid-19 MESHD, Treated at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm

    Authors: Rasha El-ahmad (Polcer); Karin Pettersson; Elin Jones

    id:10.20944/preprints202010.0248.v1 Date: 2020-10-12 Source: Preprints.org

    In this retrospective report we present five cases of critically ill MESHD pregnant or newly delivered women positive for Covid-19 MESHD admitted to our obstetrical departments at Karolinska University Hospital. They compose 6% of eighty-three pregnant women that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during the period March 25 to May 4, 2020. Three patients were at the time of admission in gestational week between 21+4 to 22+5 and treated during their antenatal period, meanwhile the other two were admitted within 1 week postpartum. All of them were in a need of intensive care, one was treated with high flow oxygen therapy, the other four with invasive mechanical ventilation (three with endotracheal intubation and one with extra corporeal membrane oxygenation). Age above thirty, overweight and gestational diabetes MESHD are notable factors in the cases presented. At the time of admission, they all presented with symptoms as fever MESHD, cough MESHD and dyspnea MESHD. Chest imaging with computer tomography scan was performed in each case and demonstrated multifocal pneumonic infiltrates in all of them but no pulmonary embolism MESHD was confirmed in any. Neither did the echocardiogram indicates any cardiomyopathy MESHD. Four of the patients have been discharged from the hospital, with an average of 20 hospital days. One antenatal pregnant woman needed prolonged ECMO therapy, in gestational week 27+3 she went into cardiac arrest MESHD, resulting in an urgent c-section on maternal indication. At the time of writing she is still hospitalized. In coherence with other published reports our cases indicate that critically ill pregnant women infected by SARS-Cov-2 may develop severe respiratory distress syndrome MESHD requiring prolonged intensive care. The material is limited for conclusions to be taken, more detailed information on symptoms, treatment, and outcomes for pregnant and postpartum women managed in intensive care is therefore needed.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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