Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (4)

ProteinN (3)


SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    Prevalence and Impact of Myocardial Injury in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19 MESHD Infection

    Authors: Anuradha Lala; Kipp W Johnson; Adam J Russak; Ishan Paranjpe; Shan Zhao; Sulaiman Solani; Akhil Vaid; Fayzan Chaudhry; Jessica K De Freitas; Zahi A Fayad; Sean P Pinney; Matthew Levin; Alexander Charney; Emilia Bagiella; Jagat Narula; Benjamin S Glicksberg; Girish Nadkarni; James Januzzi; Donna M Mancini; Valentin Fuster

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.20.20072702 Date: 2020-04-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The degree of myocardial injury MESHD, reflected by troponin elevation, and associated outcomes among hospitalized patients with Coronavirus Disease MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) in the US are unknown. Objectives: To describe the degree of myocardial injury MESHD and associated outcomes in a large hospitalized cohort with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 MESHD. Methods: Patients with COVID-19 MESHD admitted to one of five Mount Sinai Health System hospitals in New York City between February 27th and April 12th, 2020 with troponin-I (normal value <0.03ng/mL) measured within 24 hours of admission were included (n=2,736). Demographics, medical history, admission labs, and outcomes were captured from the hospital EHR. Results: The median age was 66.4 years, with 59.6% men. Cardiovascular disease MESHD ( CVD MESHD) including coronary artery disease MESHD, atrial fibrillation MESHD, and heart failure MESHD, was more prevalent in patients with higher troponin concentrations, as were hypertension MESHD and diabetes MESHD. A total of 506 (18.5%) patients died during hospitalization. Even small amounts of myocardial injury MESHD (e.g. troponin I 0.03-0.09ng/mL, n=455, 16.6%) were associated with death MESHD (adjusted HR: 1.77, 95% CI 1.39-2.26; P<0.001) while greater amounts (e.g. troponin I>0.09 ng/dL, n=530, 19.4%) were associated with more pronounced risk (adjusted HR 3.23, 95% CI 2.59-4.02). Conclusions: Myocardial injury MESHD is prevalent among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 MESHD, and is associated with higher risk of mortality. Patients with CVD MESHD are more likely to have myocardial injury MESHD than patients without CVD MESHD. Troponin elevation likely reflects non- ischemic MESHD or secondary myocardial injury MESHD.

    Analysis of the Clinical Characteristics of 77 COVID-19 MESHD Deaths

    Authors: Kaige Wang; Zhixin Qiu; Dan Liu; Jianfei Luo; Jiasheng Liu; Tao Fan; Chunrong Liu; Panwen Tian; Ye Wang; Zhong Ni; Shumin Zhang; Weimin Li

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-04-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose: For the emerging pandemic Coronavirus Disease MESHD Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD), no clear description on its deaths’ clinical characteristics and causes of death MESHD is available. Hence, this study analyzed clinical characteristics of 77 COVID-19 MESHD deaths, providing data support to further understand this disease.Method: A retrospective analysis of 77 COVID-19 MESHD deaths in East Branch, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from February 1 to March 7, 2020 was performed in clinical characteristics, laboratory results, causes of death MESHD, and subgroup comparison. Results: Totally 72.7% of the deaths (male-female ratio: 51:26, average age at death: 71, mean survival time: 17.4 days) had hypertension MESHD, heart disease MESHD, diabetes MESHD, chronic lung disease MESHD, and other comorbidities. Acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD ( ARDS MESHD) and sepsis MESHD were the main causes of death MESHD. Increases in C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer and lactic acid (LAC), and decreases in lymphocyte, cluster of differentiation (CD) 4+ and CD8+ cells were common in laboratory results. Subgroup analysis showed: 1) Most female deaths had cough MESHD and diabetes MESHD. 2) The male proportion in young and middle-aged deaths was higher; while elderly deaths were more prone to myocardial injury MESHD and elevated CRP. 3 HGNC) There was no statistical difference between short-term and non-short-term survival subgroups. 4) CRP HGNC and LDH increased and CD4+ and CD8+ cells decreased significantly in patients with hypertension MESHD.Conclusions: The majority of COVID-19 MESHD deaths are males, especially the elderly with underlying diseases. The main causes of death include ARDS MESHD and sepsis MESHD. Most female deaths have cough MESHD and diabetes MESHD. Myocardial injury MESHD is common in elderly deaths. Patients with hypertension MESHD are prone to increased inflammatory index, tissue hypoxia MESHD and cellular immune injury.Authors Kaige Wang and Zhixin Qiu contributed equally to this work.

    Proteome-wide analysis of differentially-expressed SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in early COVID-19 MESHD infection

    Authors: Xiaomei Zhang; Xian Wu; Dan Wang; Minya Lu; Xin Hou; Hongye Wang; Te Liang; Jiayu Dai; Hu Duan; Yingchun Xu; Yongzhe Li; Xiaobo Yu

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.14.20064535 Date: 2020-04-20 Source: medRxiv

    Rapid and accurate tests that detect IgM and IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 proteins are essential in slowing the spread of COVID-19 MESHD by identifying patients who are infected with COVID-19 MESHD. Using a SARS-CoV-2 proteome microarray developed in our lab, we comprehensively profiled both IgM and IgG antibodies in forty patients with early-stage COVID-19 MESHD, influenza, or non-influenza who had similar symptoms. The results revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 N protein PROTEIN is not an ideal biomarker for COVID-19 MESHD diagnosis because of its low immunogenicity, thus tests that rely on this marker alone will have a high false negative rate. Our data further suggest that the S protein PROTEIN subunit 1 receptor binding domain (S1-RBD) might be the optimal antigen for IgM antibody detection, while the S protein PROTEIN extracellular domain (S1+S2ECD) would be the optimal antigen for both IgM and IgG antibody detection. Notably, the combination of all IgM and IgG biomarkers can identify 87% and 73.3% COVID-19 MESHD patients, respectively. Finally, the COVID-19 MESHD-specific antibodies are significantly correlated with the clinical indices of viral infection MESHD and acute myocardial injury MESHD (p[≤]0.05). Our data may help understand the function of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and improve serology tests for rapid COVID-19 MESHD screening.

    Analysis of myocardial enzyme spectrum in 230 COVID-19 MESHD patients of Chongqing, China.

    Authors: Jiao CaiLing; Li Wen Fa; Xie YeHong; Miao JiaWei; Wu YunFang; Tan WanNing; Li Jing; Zhang JianRong

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-04-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background A novel coronavirus disease COVID-19 MESHD outbreak caused pandemic in China and worldwide. In addition to pneumonia MESHD, Cardiac failure MESHD is also a clinical outcome of coronavirus ( COVID-19 MESHD) patients and one of the leading causes for the death of COVID-19 MESHD patients. This study focused on a spectrum of cardiac enzymes to provide biomarkers for the severity of cardiomyopathy MESHD, and provide guidance of clinical treatment.Methods 230 coronavirus patients (182 mild and 48 severe cases) enrolled in Three Gorges Hospital of Chongqing University from January to March 2020 were analyzed for a spectrum of cardiac injury MESHD enzymes including α-hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase (αHBDH), lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), and creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB).Results The severe cases had significantly higher myocardial enzyme levels than mild cases, regardless of male and females. Males appeared to be more susceptible than females to COVID-19 MESHD induced heart injury MESHD, having higher CK and CK-MB in mild cases, and higher αHBDH and LDH levels in severe cases. Age is also a susceptible factor to COVID-19 MESHD, but affected males were younger than females.Conclusions This study reveals that the heart is also a major target of COVID-19 MESHD infection, and myocardial enzyme spectrum assays could help the diagnosis, prognosis and guide the treatments to prevent heart failure MESHD in COVID-19 MESHD patients.

    JAK1 HGNC inhibition blocks lethal sterile immune responses:implications for COVID-19 MESHD therapy

    Authors: Kathryn Tuttle; Ross Minter; Katherine Waugh; Paula Araya; Michael Ludwig; Colin Sempeck; Keith Smith; Zdenek Andrysik; Matthew Burchill; Beth Tamburini; David Orlicky; Kelly D Sullivan; Joaquin Espinosa

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.07.024455 Date: 2020-04-09 Source: bioRxiv

    Cytokine storms are drivers of pathology and mortality in myriad viral infections affecting the human population. In SARS-CoV-2-infected MESHD patients, the strength of the cytokine storm has been associated with increased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD, myocardial damage MESHD, and death MESHD. However, the therapeutic value of attenuating the cytokine storm in COVID-19 MESHD remains to be defined. Here, we report results obtained using a novel mouse model of lethal sterile anti-viral immune responses. Using a mouse model of Down syndrome ( DS MESHD) with a segmental duplication of a genomic region encoding four of the six interferon receptor genes (Ifnrs), we demonstrate that these animals overexpress Ifnrs and are hypersensitive to IFN stimulation. When challenged with viral mimetics that activate Toll-like receptor signaling and IFN anti-viral responses, these animals overproduce key cytokines, show exacerbated liver pathology, rapidly lose weight, and die. Importantly, the lethal immune hypersensitivity MESHD, accompanying cytokine storm, and liver hyperinflammation MESHD are blocked by treatment with a JAK1-specific inhibitor. Therefore, these results point to JAK1 inhibition as a potential strategy for attenuating the cytokine storm and consequent organ failure during overdrive immune responses. Additionally, these results indicate that people with DS, who carry an extra copy of the IFNR HGNC gene cluster encoded on chromosome 21, should be considered at high risk during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD. One Sentence SummaryInhibition of the JAK1 kinase prevents pathology and mortality caused by a rampant innate immune response in mice.

    Cardiovascular Vulnerability to COVID-19 MESHD in Cancer Survivors

    Authors: Beshay Zordoky

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0128.v1 Date: 2020-04-08 Source:

    Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. COVID-19 MESHD is caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-Cov-2). Although primarily a respiratory disease MESHD, cardiovascular complications MESHD of COVID-19 MESHD have been increasingly recognized. In addition, higher fatality has been reported in COVID-19 MESHD patients with underlying cardiovascular diseases MESHD. Cancer MESHD survivors have a considerably increased risk for premature cardiovascular diseases MESHD, mainly due to cardiotoxic cancer MESHD treatments. Therefore, it is foreseeable that cancer MESHD survivors will be more vulnerable to cardiovascular complications MESHD caused by COVID-19 MESHD. In this review, three scenarios for increased cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 MESHD in cancer MESHD patients are proposed. In the first scenario, cardiotoxic cancer MESHD treatment and COVID-19 MESHD synergize to exacerbate direct myocardial damage MESHD. In the second scenario, cardiotoxic cancer MESHD treatment leads to a reduced cardiac reserve in cancer MESHD survivors, making them more vulnerable to COVID-19 MESHD in a “two-hit” model. The third scenario suggests that several shared risk factors may aggravate cardiovascular complications MESHD caused by both cancer MESHD treatment and COVID-19 MESHD. Taken together, cancer MESHD survivors may be more vulnerable to cardiovascular complications MESHD when challenged by the COVID-19 MESHD, and special cardiovascular care should be given to these patients.

    Influence factors of death risk among COVID-19 MESHD patients in Wuhan, China: a hospital-based case-cohort study

    Authors: Lin Fu; Jun Fei; Hui-Xian Xiang; Ying Xiang; Zhu-Xia Tan; Meng-Die Li; Fang-Fang Liu; Hong-Yan Liu; Ling Zheng; Ying Li; Hui Zhao; De-xiang Xu

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.13.20035329 Date: 2020-03-16 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) triggered by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) has been widely pandemic all over the world. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence factors of death risk among 200 COVID-19 MESHD patients. Methods. Two hundred patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD were recruited. Demographic data and clinical characteristics were collected from electronic medical records. Biochemical indexes on admission were measured and patient's prognosis was tracked. The association of demographic data, clinical characteristics and biochemical indexes with death risk was analyzed. Results. Of 200 COVID-19 MESHD patients, 163 (81.5%) had at least one of comorbidities, including diabetes MESHD, hypertension MESHD, hepatic disease MESHD, cardiac disease MESHD, chronic pulmonary disease MESHD and others. Among all patients, critical cases, defined as oxygenation index lower than 200, accounted for 26.2%. Severe cases, oxygenation index from 200 to 300, were 29.7%. Besides, common cases, oxygenation index higher than 300, accounted for 44.1%. At the end of follow-up, 34 (17%) were died on mean 10.9 day after hospitalization. Stratified analysis revealed that older ages, lower oxygenation index and comorbidities elevated death risk of COVID-19 MESHD patients. On admission, 85.5% COVID-19 MESHD patients were with at least one of extrapulmonary organ injuries. Univariable logistic regression showed that ALT and TBIL, two indexes of hepatic injury MESHD, AST HGNC, myoglobin HGNC and LDH, AST HGNC/ALT ratio, several markers of myocardial injury MESHD, creatinine, urea nitrogen and uric acid, three indexes of renal injury MESHD, were positively associated with death risk of COVID-19 MESHD patients. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that AST HGNC/ALT ratio, urea nitrogen, TBIL and LDH on admission were positively correlated with death risk of COVID-19 MESHD patients. Conclusion. Older age, lower oxygenation index and comorbidities on admission elevate death risk of COVID-19 MESHD patients. AST HGNC/ALT ratio, urea nitrogen, TBIL and LDH on admission may be potential prognostic indicators. Early hospitalization is of great significance to prevent multiple organ damage and improve the survival of COVID-19 MESHD patients.

    Retrospective Analysis of Clinical Features in 101 Death Cases with COVID-19 MESHD


    doi:10.1101/2020.03.09.20033068 Date: 2020-03-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background The illness progress of partial patient of COVID-19 MESHD is rapid and the mortality rate is high.we aim to describe the clinical features in death cases with COVID-19 MESHD. Methods In this single center, observational study, We recruited all Death MESHD Cases with COVID-19 MESHD from Dec 30, 2019 to Feb 16, 2020 in Intensive care unit of Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital.Demographics, basic diseases, X-ray/CT results, possible therapy strategies and test results when their entrance into admission, ICU and 48 h before death were collected and analyzed. Results This study involved 101 COVID-19 MESHD dead cases in Intensive care unit of Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital.47 patients went directly to the ICU because of critical condition, and 54 patients were transferred to ICU with aggravated condition.57 (56.44%) were laboratory confirmed by RT-PCR, and 44 (43.6%) were consistent with clinical diagnostic criteria.The cases included 64 males and 37 females with average age of 65.46 years (SD 9.74). The blood type distribution was significantly different, with type A 44.44%, type B 29.29%, type AB 8.08% and type O 18.19%.The clinical manifestations of new coronavirus pneumonia MESHD are non-specific,the common symptom was fever MESHD (91 [90.10%] of 101 patients),Cough (69[68.32%]) and dyspnea MESHD (75[74.26%]). Neutrophils, PCT, CRP,IL-6,D-dimer gradually increased as time went on.Myocardial enzymes were abnormal in most patients at admission,with the progress of the disease, myocardial damage MESHD indicators were significantly increased.61(60.40%) used antiviral drugs,59(58.42%) used glucocorticoids, 63.37% used intravenous immunoglobulins, and 44.55% used thymosin preparations. All patients received antibiotic treatment, 63(62.38%) used restricted antibiotics, 23(22.78%) used antifungal drugs.84(83.17%) used non-invasive ventilator or high-flow oxygen therapy equipment, and 76.24% used invasive mechanical ventilation. 7 patients were treated with ECMO and 8 patients were treated with CRRT.The median time from ARDS to invasive mechanical ventilation was 3.00 days(IQR 0.00-6.00). The duration of invasive mechanical ventilation was 5 days (IQR2.00-8.00). Conclusions Critical COVID-19 MESHD can cause fatal respiratory distress syndrome MESHD and multiple organ failure MESHD with high mortality rate. Heart may be the earliest damaged organ except the lungs. Secondary infection in the later period is worthy of attention.

    Acute Myocardial Injury of Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD

    Authors: Huayan Xu; Keke Hou; Hong Xu; Zhenlin Li; Huizhu Chen; Na Zhang; Rong Xu; Hang Fu; Ran Sun; Lingyi Wen; Linjun Xie; Hui Liu; Kun Zhang; Joseph B Selvanayagam; Chuan Fu; Shihua Zhao; Zhigang Yang; Ming Yang; Yingkun Guo

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.05.20031591 Date: 2020-03-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Since the outbreak of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) in China, respiratory manifestations of the disease have been observed. However, as a fatal comorbidity, acute myocardial injury MESHD ( AMI MESHD) in COVID-19 MESHD patients has not been previously investigated in detail. We investigated the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 MESHD patients with AMI MESHD and determined the risk factors for AMI MESHD in them. Methods: We analyzed data from 53 consecutive laboratory-confirmed and hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD patients (28 men, 25 women; age, 19-81 years). We collected information on epidemiological and demographic characteristics, clinical features, routine laboratory tests (including cardiac injury MESHD biomarkers), echocardiography, electrocardiography, imaging findings, management methods, and clinical outcomes. Results: Cardiac complications were found in 42 of the 53 (79.25%) patients: tachycardia MESHD (n=15), electrocardiography abnormities (n=11), diastolic dysfunction MESHD (n=20), elevated myocardial enzymes (n=30), and AMI MESHD (n=6). All the six AMI MESHD patients were aged >60 years; five of them had two or more underlying comorbidities ( hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, cardiovascular diseases MESHD, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD). Novel coronavirus pneumonia MESHD ( NCP PROTEIN) severity was higher in the AMI MESHD patients than in patients with non-definite AMI MESHD (p<0.001). All the AMI MESHD patients required care in intensive care unit; of them, three died, two remain hospitalized. Multivariate analyses showed that C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC) levels, NCP PROTEIN severity, and underlying comorbidities were the risk factors for cardiac abnormalities MESHD in COVID-19 MESHD patients. Conclusions: Cardiac complications MESHD are common in COVID-19 MESHD patients. Elevated CRP HGNC levels, underlying comorbidities, and NCP PROTEIN severity are the main risk factors for cardiac complications in COVID-19 MESHD patients.

    Clinical course and outcome of 107 patients infected with the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, discharged from two hospitals in Wuhan, China.

    Authors: Dawei Wang; Yimei Yin; Chang Hu; Xing Liu; Xingguo Zhang; Shuliang Zhou; Mingzhi Jian; Haibo Xu; John Prowle; Bo Hu; Yirong Li; Zhi-Yong Peng

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-03-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background In December 2019, Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) outbreak was reported from Wuhan, China. Information on the clinical course and prognosis of COVID-19 MESHD was not thoroughly described. We described the clinical courses and prognosis in COVID-19 MESHD patients. Methods Retrospective case series of COVID-19 MESHD patients from Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University in Wuhan, and Xi-shui Hospital, Hubei Province, China, up to February 10, 2020. Epidemiological, demographic and clinical data were collected. Clinical course of survivors and non-survivors were compared. Risk factors for death MESHD were analyzed. Results A total of 107 discharged patients with COVID-19 MESHD were enrolled. The clinical course of COVID-19 MESHD presented as a tri-phasic pattern. Week 1 after illness onset was characterized by fever MESHD, cough MESHD, dyspnea MESHD, lymphopenia MESHD and radiological multilobar pulmonary infiltrates. In severe cases, thrombocytopenia MESHD, acute kidney injury MESHD, acute myocardial injury MESHD or adult respiratory distress syndrome MESHD were observed. During week 2, in mild cases, fever MESHD, cough MESHD and systemic symptoms began to resolve and platelet count rose to normal range, but lymphopenia MESHD persisted. In severe cases, leukocytosis MESHD, neutrophilia and deteriorating multi-organ dysfunction were dominant. By week 3, mild cases had clinically resolved except for lymphopenia MESHD. However, severe cases showed persistent lymphopenia MESHD, severe acute respiratory dyspnea syndrome MESHD , refractory shock MESHD, anuric acute kidney injury MESHD, coagulopathy MESHD, thrombocytopenia MESHD and death MESHD. Older age and male sex were independent risk factors for poor outcome of the illness. Conclusions A period of 7–13 days after illness onset is the critical stage in COVID-19 MESHD course. Age and male gender were independent risk factors for death of COVID-19 MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins

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