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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    Macrophage activation in obese type 2 diabetes: an enhanced risk for COVID-19 MESHD and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome?

    Authors: Abu Moin; Thozhukat Sathyapalan; Ilhame Diboun; Stephen Atkin; Alexandra Butler

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-95244/v2 Date: 2020-10-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective Hyperactivation of the immune system through obesity MESHD and diabetes MESHD may enhance infection severity complicated by Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome MESHD ( ARDS MESHD), the hallmark of severe COVID-19 MESHD disease. Objectives: to determine the circulatory biomarkers for macrophage activation at baseline and after serum glucose normalization in obese type 2 diabetes MESHD ( OT2D MESHD) subjects.Methods A case-controlled interventional pilot study in OT2D MESHD (n=23) and control subjects (n=23). Subjects underwent hyperinsulinemic MESHD clamp normalizing serum glucose. Plasma macrophage-related proteins were determined using Slow Off-rate Modified Aptamer (SOMA)-scan plasma protein measurement at baseline (control and OT2D MESHD subjects) and after 1-hour of insulin clamp ( OT2D MESHD subjects only).Results. Basal M1 macrophage activation was characterized by elevated levels of M1 macrophage-specific surface proteins, CD80 HGNC and CD38 HGNC, and cytokines or chemokines ( CXCL1 HGNC, CXCL5 HGNC, RANTES HGNC) released by activated M1 macrophages. Two potent M1 macrophage activation markers CXCL9 HGNC and CXCL10 HGNC were decreased in OT2D MESHD. Activated M2 macrophages were characterized by elevated levels of plasma CD163 HGNC, TFGβ-1, MMP7 HGNC and MMP9 HGNC in OT2D MESHD. Conventional mediators of both M1 and M2 macrophage activation markers ( IFN-γ HGNC, IL-4 HGNC, IL-13 HGNC) were not altered. No changes were observed in plasma levels of M1/M2 macrophage activation markers in OT2D MESHD in response to acute normalization of glycemia.Conclusion In the basal state, macrophage activation markers are elevated, and these reflect the expression of circulatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and matrix metalloproteinases in obese MESHD individuals with type 2 diabetes MESHD, that were not changed by glucose normalisation. These differences may predispose the diabetic MESHD individuals to ARDS MESHD reflecting in increased COVID-19 MESHD disease severity.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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