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SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    Co-expression of Mitochondrial Genes and ACE2 HGNC in Cornea Involved in COVID-19 MESHD Infection

    Authors: Jian Yuan; dandan Fan; Zhengbo Xue; Jia Qu; Jianzhong Su

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.216770 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: bioRxiv

    The Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) pandemic severely challenges public health and necessitates the need for increasing our understanding of COVID-19 MESHD pathogenesis, especially host factors facilitating virus infection MESHD and propagation. Here, the co-expression network was constructed by mapping the well-known ACE2 HGNC, TMPRSS2 HGNC and host susceptibility genes implicated in COVID-19 MESHD GWAS onto a cornea MESHD, retinal pigment epithelium and lung. We found a significant co-expression module of these genes in the cornea, revealing that cornea is potential extra-respiratory entry portal of SARS-CoV-2. Strikingly, both co-expression and interaction networks show a significant enrichment in mitochondrial function, which are the hub of cellular oxidative homeostasis, inflammation MESHD and innate immune response. We identified a corneal mitochondrial susceptibility module (CMSM) of 14 mitochondrial genes by integrating ACE2 HGNC co-expression cluster and SARS-CoV-2 interactome. Gene ECSIT HGNC, as a cytosolic adaptor protein involved in inflammatory responses, exhibits the strongest correlation with ACE2 HGNC in CMSM, which has shown to be an important risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and prognosis. Our co-expression and protein interaction network analysis uncover that the mitochondrial function related genes in cornea contribute to the dissection of COVID-19 MESHD susceptibility and potential therapeutic interventions.

    Female reproductive tract has low concentration of SARS-CoV2 receptors

    Authors: Jyoti Goad; Joshua Rudolph; Aleksandar Rajkovic

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.20.163097 Date: 2020-06-22 Source: bioRxiv

    There has been significant concern regarding fertility and reproductive outcomes during the SARS-CoV2 pandemic. Recent data suggests a high concentration of SARS-Cov2 receptors, ACE2 HGNC or TMPRSS2 HGNC, in nasal epithelium and cornea MESHD, which explains person-to-person transmission. We investigated the prevalence of SARS-CoV2 receptors among reproductive tissues by exploring the single-cell sequencing datasets from uterus, myometrium, ovary MESHD, fallopian tube MESHD, and breast epithelium. We did not detect significant expression of either ACE2 HGNC or TMPRSS2 HGNC in the normal human myometrium, uterus, ovaries MESHD, fallopian tube MESHD, or breast. Furthermore, none of the cell types in the female reproductive organs we investigated, showed the co-expression of ACE2 HGNC with proteases, TMPRSS2 HGNC, Cathepsin B HGNC ( CTSB HGNC), and Cathepsin L HGNC ( CTSL HGNC) known to facilitate the entry of SARS2-CoV2 into the host cell. These results suggest that myometrium, uterus, ovaries MESHD, fallopian tube MESHD, and breast MESHD are unlikely to be susceptible to infection by SARS-CoV2. Our findings suggest that COVID-19 MESHD is unlikely to contribute to pregnancy-related adverse outcomes such as preterm birth, transmission of COVID-19 MESHD through breast milk, oogenesis and female fertility.

    ACE2 HGNC and TMPRSS2 HGNC are expressed on the human ocular surface, suggesting susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Lingli Zhou; Zhenhua Xu; Gianni M Castiglione; Uri S Soiberman; Charles G Eberhart; Elia J Duh

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.09.086165 Date: 2020-05-09 Source: bioRxiv

    Purpose Conjunctival signs and symptoms are observed in a subset of patients with COVID-19 MESHD, and SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in tears, raising concerns regarding the eye both as a portal of entry and carrier of the virus. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ocular surface cells possess the key factors required for cellular susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 entry/infection MESHD.Methods We analyzed human post-mortem eyes as well as surgical specimens for the expression of ACE2 HGNC (the receptor for SARS-CoV-2) and TMPRSS2 HGNC, a cell surface-associated protease that facilitates viral entry following binding of the viral spike protein PROTEIN to ACE2 HGNC.Results Across all eye specimens, immunohistochemical analysis revealed expression of ACE2 HGNC in the conjunctiva, limbus, and cornea MESHD, with especially prominent staining in the superficial conjunctival and corneal epithelial surface. Surgical conjunctival specimens also showed expression of ACE2 HGNC in the conjunctival epithelium, especially prominent in the superficial epithelium, as well as the substantia propria. All eye and conjunctival specimens also expressed TMPRSS2 HGNC. Finally, western blot analysis of protein lysates from human corneal epithelium obtained during refractive surgery confirmed expression of ACE2 HGNC and TMPRSS2 HGNC.Conclusions Together, these results indicate that ocular surface cells including conjunctiva are susceptible to infection by SARS-CoV-2, and could therefore serve as a portal of entry as well as a reservoir for person-to-person transmission of this virus. This highlights the importance of safety practices including face masks and ocular contact precautions in preventing the spread of COVID-19 MESHD disease.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.View Full Text

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