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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (289)

ProteinN (99)

NSP5 (59)

ComplexRdRp (26)

NSP3 (17)


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    Clinical Characteristics of 2019 Novel Infected Coronavirus Pneumonia:A Systemic Review and Meta-analysis

    Authors: Kai Qian; Yi Deng; Yonghang Tai; Jun Peng; Hao Peng; Lihong Jiang

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.14.20021535 Date: 2020-02-17 Source: medRxiv

    Background:A Novel pneumonia MESHD associated with the 2019 coronavirus infected pneumonia MESHD (NCIP) suddenly broke out in Wuhan, China in December 2019. 37287 confirmed cases and 813 death MESHD case in China (Until 8th/Feb/2019) have been reported in just fortnight. Although this risky pneumonia MESHD with high infection rates and high mortality rates need to be resolved immediately, major gaps in our knowledge of clinical characters of it were still not be established. The aim of this study is to summaries and analysis the clinical characteristics of 2019-nCoV pneumonia MESHD. Methods: Literature have been systematically performed a search on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, GreyNet International, and The Cochrane Library from inception up to February 8, 2020. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess quality, and publication bias MESHD was analyzed by Egger test. In the single-arm meta-analysis, A fix-effects model was used to obtain a pooled incidence rate. We conducted subgroup analysis according to geographic region and research scale. Results: A total of nine studies including 356 patients were included in this study, the mean age was 52.4 years and 221 (62.1%) were male. The pooled incidences rate of symptoms as follows: pharyngalgia (12.2%, 95% CI: 0.087-0.167), diarrhea MESHD (9.2%, 95% CI: 0.062-0.133) and headache MESHD (8.9%, 95% CI: 0.063-0.125). Meanwhile, 5.7% (95% CI: 0.027-0.114) of patients were found without any symptoms although they were diagnosed by RT-PCR. In the terms of CT imaging examination, the most of patients showed bilateral mottling or ground-glass opacity, 8.6% (95% CI: 0.048-0.148) of patients with crazy-paving pattern, and 11.5% (95% CI: 0.064-0.197) of patients without obvious CT imaging presentations. The pooled incidence of mortality was 8.9% (95% CI: 0.062-0.126). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence-based medicine research to further elaborate the clinical characteristics of NCIP, which is beneficial to the next step of prevention and treatment.

    Evaluating the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Officially Recommended in China for COVID-19 MESHD Using Ontology-Based Side-Effect Prediction Framework (OSPF) and Deep Learning

    Authors: Zeheng Wang; Liang Li; Jing Yan; Yuanzhe Yao

    id:10.20944/preprints202002.0230.v1 Date: 2020-02-17 Source: Preprints.org

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Novel coronavirus disease MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) outbroke in Wuhan has imposed a huge influence onto the society in term of the public heath and economy. However, so far, no effective drugs or vaccines have been developed. Whereas, the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been considered as a promising supplementary treatment for the disease owing to its clinically proven performance on many diseases MESHD even like severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD (SARS). Meanwhile, many side-effect ( SE MESHD) reports suggest the SE MESHD of the TCM prescriptions cannot be ignored in curing the COVID-19 MESHD, especially because COVID-19 MESHD always simultaneously leads to dramatic degradation of the patients’ physical condition. How to evaluate the TCM regarding to their latent SE MESHD is a urgent challenge. Aim of the study: In this study, we use an ontology-based side-effect prediction framework (OSPF) developed in our previous work and Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based deep learning to evaluate the TCM prescriptions that are officially recommended in China for novel coronavirus ( COVID-19 MESHD). Materials and methods: Firstly, we adopted the OSPF developed in our previous work, where an ontology-based model separate all the ingredients in a TCM prescription into two categories: hot and cold. Then, we established a database by converting each TCM prescription into a vector containing the ingredient dosage and the according hot/cold attribution as well as the safe/unsafe label. And, we trained the ANN model using this database, after which a safety indicator (SI), as the complementary percentage of side-effect ( SE MESHD) possibility, is then given for each TCM prescription. According to the proposed SI from high to low, we re-organize the recommended prescription list. Secondly, by using this method, we also evaluate the safety indicators of some other famous TCM prescriptions that are not in the recommended list but are used traditionally to cure flu-like diseases for extending the potential treatments. Results: Based on the SI generated in the ANN model, FTS HGNC, PMSP, and SF are the safest ones in recommended list, which all own a more-than-0.8 SI. Whereas, JHQG, LHQW, SFJD, XBJ, and SHL are the prescriptions that are most likely unsafe, where the indicators are all below 0.2. In the extra list, the indicators of XC, XQRS, CC, and CHBX are all above 0.8, and at the meantime, XZXS, SJ, QW, and KBD’s indicators are all below 0.2. Conclusions: In total, there are seven TCM prescriptions which own the indicators more than 0.8, suggesting these prescriptions should be considered firstly in curing COVID-19 MESHD, if suitable. We believe this work will provide a reasonable suggestion for the society to choose proper TCM as the supplementary treatment for COVID-19 MESHD. Besides, this work also introduces a pilot and enlightening method for creating a more reasonable recommendation list of TCM to other diseases.

    Structural modeling of 2019-novel coronavirus (nCoV) spike protein PROTEIN reveals a proteolytically-sensitive activation loop as a distinguishing feature compared to SARS-CoV and related SARS-like coronaviruses

    Authors: Javier A. Jaimes; Nicole M. Andre; Jean K. Millet; Gary R. Whittaker

    id:2002.06196v1 Date: 2020-02-14 Source: arXiv

    The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is currently causing a widespread outbreak centered on Hubei province, China and is a major public health concern. Taxonomically 2019-nCoV is closely related to SARS-CoV MESHD and SARS-related bat coronaviruses, and it appears to share a common receptor with SARS-CoV MESHD (ACE-2). Here, we perform structural modeling of the 2019-nCoV spike glycoprotein PROTEIN. Our data provide support for the similar receptor utilization between 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV MESHD, despite a relatively low amino acid similarity in the receptor binding module. Compared to SARS-CoV MESHD, we identify an extended structural loop containing basic amino acids at the interface of the receptor binding (S1) and fusion (S2) domains, which we predict to be proteolytically-sensitive. We suggest this loop confers fusion activation and entry properties more in line with MERS-CoV MESHD and other coronaviruses, and that the presence of this structural loop in 2019-nCoV may affect virus stability and transmission.

    ACE2 HGNC Expression in Kidney and Testis May Cause Kidney and Testis Damage After 2019-nCoV Infection MESHD

    Authors: Caibin Fan; Kai Li; Yanhong Ding; Wei Lu Lu; Jianqing Wang

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.12.20022418 Date: 2020-02-13 Source: medRxiv

    In December 2019 and January 2020, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) - infected pneumonia MESHD (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, and has already posed a serious threat to public health. ACE2 HGNC ( Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 HGNC) has been shown to be one of the major receptors that mediate the entry of 2019-nCoV into human cells, which also happens in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus MESHD (SARS). Several researches have indicated that some patients have abnormal renal function MESHD or even kidney damage MESHD in addition to injury in respiratory system, and the related mechanism is unknown. This arouses our interest in whether coronavirus infection MESHD will affect the urinary and male reproductive systems. Here in this study, we used the online datasets to analyze ACE2 HGNC expression in different human organs. The results indicate that ACE2 HGNC highly expresses in renal tubular cells, Leydig cells and cells in seminiferous ducts in testis. Therefore, virus might directly bind to such ACE2 HGNC positive cells and damage the kidney and testicular tissue of patients. Our results indicate that renal function evaluation and special care should be performed in 2019-nCoV patients during clinical work, because of the kidney damage MESHD caused by virus and antiviral drugs with certain renal toxicity MESHD. In addition, due to the potential pathogenicity of the virus to testicular tissues, clinicians should pay attention to the risk of testicular lesions MESHD in patients during hospitalization and later clinical follow-up, especially the assessment and appropriate intervention in young patients' fertility.

    Estimating the daily trend in the size of COVID-19 MESHD infected population in Wuhan

    Authors: Qiushi Lin; Taojun Hu; Xiao-Hua Zhou

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.12.20022277 Date: 2020-02-13 Source: medRxiv

    There has been an outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) in Wuhan city, Hubei province, China since December 2019. Cases have been exported to other parts of China and more than 20 countries. We provide estimates of the daily trend in the size of the epidemic in Wuhan based on detailed information of 10,940 confirmed cases outside Hubei province.

    Epidemic size of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in the Epicenter Wuhan: using data of five-countries' evacuation action

    Authors: Hongxin Zhao; Sailimai Man; Bo Wang; Yi Ning

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.12.20022285 Date: 2020-02-13 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Since late December 2019, novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia MESHD ( NCP PROTEIN) emerged in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. Meanwhile, NCP PROTEIN rapidly spread from China to other countries, and several countries' government rush to evacuate their citizens from Wuhan. We analyzed the infection rate of the evacuees and extrapolated the results in Wuhan's NCP PROTEIN incidence estimation. Methods: We collected the total number and confirmed cases of 2019-nCov infection MESHD in the evacuation of Korea, Japan, Germany, Singapore, and France and estimated the infection rate of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCov) among people who were evacuated from Wuhan with a meta-analysis. NCP PROTEIN incidence of Wuhan was indirectly estimated based on data of evacuation. Results: From Jan 29 to Feb 2, 2020, 1916 people have been evacuated from Wuhan, among them 17 have been confirmed 2019-nCov infected. The infection rate is estimated to be 1.1% (95% CI 0.4%-3.1%) using one group meta-analysis method with random effect model. We then estimated that almost 110,000 (95% CI: 40,000-310,000) people were infected with 2019-nCov in Wuhan around Feb 2, 2020, assuming the infection risk of evacuees is close to Chinese citizens in Wuhan. Conclusions: At the beginning of the outbreak, incidence of NCP PROTEIN may be vastly underestimated. Our result emphasizes that 2019-nCov has proposed a huge public health threats in Wuhan. We need to respond more rapidly, take large-scale public health interventions and draconian measures to limiting population mobility and control the epidemic.

    Statistical Inference for Coronavirus Infected Patients in Wuhan

    Authors: Yongdao Zhou; Jianghu Dong

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.10.20021774 Date: 2020-02-12 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: The new coronavirus outbreak has seriously affected the quality of life in China. Wuhan is the disaster area, where the number of cases has increased rapidly. However, the current measures of infected MESHD patients in Wuhan are still underestimated. Objective: To estimate the overall infected patients in Wuhan from several sampled data. The correct estimated infected MESHD patients can be helpful for the government to arrange the needed beds in hospital wards to meet the actual needs. Design: We proposed to use the sampling survey to estimate the overall infected patients in Wuhan. The sampling survey is a kind of non-comprehensive survey. It selected some units from all the survey objects to carry out the survey and made the estimation and inference to all the survey objects. Sampling surveys can obtain information that reflects the overall situation, although it is not a comprehensive survey. Setting: We estimated the overall infection rate in Wenzhou city, which has a better data collection system. Simultaneously, another different samples of Wuhan tourists to Singapore will be used to validate the infection rate in Wenzhou city. Combined these two samples, we give the estimation of the number of infected MESHD patients in Wuhan and other prefecture-level cities in Hubei Province. Participants: The number of people who returned from Wuhan to Wenzhou was selected from the daily notification of the pneumonia epidemic MESHD caused by a new coronavirus infection MESHD in the city. Exposures for observational studies: The daily rate of the pneumonia epidemic MESHD caused by the new coronavirus infection MESHD in Wenzhou City. The numerator is the number of people diagnosed and whether each person diagnosed had a history of living in Wuhan. The denominator is the total number of people returning to Wenzhou from Wuhan. Based on this rate, it is reasonable to predict the number of the infected MESHD patients.

    Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of 17 Hospitalized Patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus Infection MESHDs Outside Wuhan, China

    Authors: Jie Li; Shilin Li; Yurui Cai; Qin Liu; Xue Li; Zhaoping Zeng; Yanpeng Chu; Fangcheng Zhu; Fanxin Zeng

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.11.20022053 Date: 2020-02-12 Source: medRxiv

    An increasing number of cases of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) infected MESHD NCP PROTEIN) infected with 2019-nCoV have been identified in Wuhan and other cities in China, since December 2019. We analyzed data on the 17 confirmed cases in Dazhou to provide the epidemiologic characteristics of NCP PROTEIN outside Wuhan. Among them, 12 patients were still quarantined in the hospital, 5 patients were discharged NCP PROTEIN patients according to the national standards. Compared with non-discharged NCP PROTEIN patients, the discharged NCP PROTEIN patients had younger ages. Moreover, discharged NCP PROTEIN patients had higher heart rate, lymphocytes levels and monocytes levels than non-discharged NCP PROTEIN patients on admission to the hospital. Notably, all of 17 patients had abnormal increased C-reactive protein HGNC levels, and 16 patients had abnormal computed tomography images. This study provided some information that younger age, higher lymphocytes levels and monocytes levels at the diagnoses of 2019-nCoV may contributed to faster recovery and better therapeutic outcome.

    Ophthalmologic evidence against the interpersonal transmission of 2019 novel coronavirus through conjunctiva

    Authors: Yunyun Zhou; Yuyang Zeng; Yongqing Tong; ChangZheng Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.11.20021956 Date: 2020-02-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The emerging 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has pushed several countries into state of emergency all over the world. The possible transmission of 2019-nCoV by conjunctiva is controversial and has substantial public health implications. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was initiated to investigate the possible transmission of 2019-nCoV through aerosol contact with conjunctiva. We enrolled 67 cases of confirmed or suspected cases of novel coronavirus pneumonia MESHD ( NCP PROTEIN) during 17-28 Jan 2020. Nasopharyngeal and conjunctival swabs were collected for real time RT-PCR analysis to detect 2019-nCoV. Results: 63 patients were identified as laboratory-confirmed NCP PROTEIN and the remaining four were suspected NCP PROTEIN. Conjunctival swab samples from one NCP PROTEIN patient yielded positive PCR results and two NCP PROTEIN patients yielded probable positive PCR results. None of the three patients had ocular symptoms. The only one NCP PROTEIN patient with conjunctivitis MESHD as the first symptom had negative conjunctival sac 2019-nCoV test. Conjunctival swab samples from the four suspected cases of NCIP were negative. Conclusion: 2019-nCoV can be detected in the conjunctival sac of patients with NCP PROTEIN. Through clinical analysis, viral transmission via the conjunctival route was not supported by the data. Good clinical protection can effectively cut off the transmission path.

    Facemask shortage and the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak: Reflection on public health measures

    Authors: Huailiang Wu; Jian Huang; Casper JP Zhang; Zonglin He; Wai-kit Ming

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.11.20020735 Date: 2020-02-12 Source: medRxiv

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the facemask shortage during the novel coronavirus pneumonia MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) outbreak in China. We have summarized in detail the management strategies implemented by the Chinese governments during the outbreaks. By considering three scenarios for the outbreak development, we simulated the facemasks availability from late-December 2019 to late-April 2020 and estimated the duration of sufficient facemask supplies. Our findings showed that if the COVID-19 MESHD outbreak occurred only in Wuhan city or Hubei province, facemask shortage would not appear with the existing public health measures. However, if the outbreak occurred in the whole of China, a shortage of facemask could be substantial assuming no alternative public health measures. Supplies of facemasks in the whole of China would have been sufficient for both healthcare workers and the general population if the COVID-19 MESHD outbreak only occurred in Wuhan city or Hubei province. However, if the outbreak occurred in the whole of China, facemask supplies in China could last for 5 days if under the existing public health measures and a shortage of 853 million facemasks is expected by 30 Apr 2020. Assuming a gradually decreased import volume, we estimated that dramatic increase in productivity (42.7 times of the usual level) is needed to mitigate the facemask crisis by the end of April. In light of the COVID-19 MESHD outbreak in China, a shortage of facemasks and other medical resources can considerably compromise the efficacy of public health measures. Effective public health measures should also consider the adequacy and affordability of medical resources. Global collaboration should be strengthened to prevent the development of a global pandemic from a regional epidemic via easing the medical resources crisis in the affected countries.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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