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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (49)

ProteinN (10)

NSP5 (10)

ComplexRdRp (8)

ProteinE (7)


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    Disparities in Excess Deaths from the COVID-19 Pandemic MESHD Among Migrant Workers in Kuwait

    Authors: Barrak Alahmad; Dawoud AlMekhled; Ayah Odeh; Janvier Gasana

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.25.21254360 Date: 2021-03-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background-The actual human cost of the pandemic cannot be viewed through the COVID-19 MESHD mortality rates alone. Especially when the pandemic is widening the existing health disparities among different subpopulations within the same society. In Kuwait, migrant workers were already disproportionately impacted by COVID-19 MESHD and its unintended consequences. Objective-To estimate the excess deaths in the pandemic year of 2020 among the Kuwaitis and non-Kuwaiti migrants. Methods-We analyzed publicly available retrospective data on total annual mortality historically (2005 to 2019) and in 2020. We fitted a quasi-poisson generalized linear model adjusted for yearly trend and nationality to estimate the expected deaths in 2020 in the absence of the pandemic. We calculated excess deaths as the difference between observed and expected mortality for the year of the pandemic in both Kuwaitis and non-Kuwaitis MESHD. Results-In the absence of the pandemic, we expect the total mortality in Kuwait to be 6629 (95% CI: 6472 to 6789) deaths. However, the observed total mortality in 2020 was 9975 deaths; about 3346 (3186 to 3503) more deaths above the historical trend. Deaths among migrant workers would have been approximately 71.9% (67.8 to 76.0) lower in the absence of the pandemic. On the other hand, deaths MESHD among Kuwaitis MESHD would have been 32.4% (29.3 to 35.6) lower if the country had not had the pandemic. Conclusion-The mortality burden of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD is substantially higher than what the official tally might suggest. Systematically disadvantaged migrant workers shouldered a larger burden of deaths in the pandemic year. Public health interventions must consider structural and societal determinants that give rise to the health disparities seen among migrant workers.

    Estimated Deaths, Intensive Care Admissions and Hospitalizations Averted in Canada during the COVID-19 Pandemic MESHD

    Authors: David Fisman; Ashleigh Tuite

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.23.21253873 Date: 2021-03-26 Source: medRxiv

    Cross-border comparisons of healthcare structure and outcomes between Canada and the United States have yielded important insights into strengths and weaknesses of their respective health systems. Canada's approach to control of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic was more successful than that of the United States in terms of mortality. We standardized US mortality risk to the Canadian population, in order to estimate hospitalizations, ICU admissions and deaths Canada MESHD averted by outperforming the United States in this regard. We estimate that Canada averted some 45,000 deaths, 185,000 hospital admissions and 38,000 intensive care admissions. Notably, the deaths averted were concentrated in adults in the 50-75 year age group.

    Persistence of SARS-CoV-2 Viral RNA in Nasopharyngeal Swabs after Death: An Observational Study

    Authors: Francesca Servadei; Silvestro Mauriello; Manuel Scimeca; Bartolo Caggiano; Marco Ciotti; Lucia Anemona; Manuela Montanaro; Erica Giacobbi; Michele Treglia; Sergio Bernardini; Luigi Tonino Marsella; Nicoletta Urbano; Orazio Schillaci; Alessandro Mauriello

    id:10.20944/preprints202103.0641.v1 Date: 2021-03-25 Source: Preprints.org

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in post-mortem swabs of subjects who died from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Methods: The presence of the virus was evaluated post-mortem from airways of 27 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients at three different time points (T1 2 hours; T2 12 hours – T3 24 hours) by real-time PCR. Detection of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 was performed by Maglumi 2019-nCoV IgM/IgG chemiluminescence assay. Results: SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA was still detectable in 70,3% of cases within 2 hours after death MESHD and in 66,6% of cases up to 24 hours after death. Our data showed an increase of the viral load in 78,6% of positive individuals 24 hours post-mortem (T3) in comparison to that evaluated 2 hours after death (T1). Noteworthy, we detected a positive T3 post-mortem swab (24 hours after death MESHD) from 4 subjects who were negative at T1 (2 hours after death MESHD). Conclusion: The results of our study may have an important value in the management of deceased subjects not only with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, but also for unspecified causes and in the absence of clinical documentation or medical assistance.

    Mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD: findings from the CLINIMEX exercise cohort in the year of 2020

    Authors: Claudio Gil S Araujo; Christina G De Souza e Silva; Claudia Lucia B Castro; Jari A Laukkanen; Jonathan Myers; Josef Niebauer; Aline Sardinha; Joao Felipe Franca

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.17.21253138 Date: 2021-03-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background and Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic MESHD has heavily hit Brazil and, in particular, our Clinic's current location in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro city, where, as of mid-February 2021, resulting in one 1 death MESHD per 266 inhabitants. After having recently updated the vital status and mortality data in our exercise population (CLINIMEX cohort), we hypothesized that reviewing their evaluation reports would offer a unique opportunity to unearth some relevant information about the association between selected variables assessed in our comprehensive Exercise Medicine evaluation protocol; in particular, aerobic and musculoskeletal (MUSK) fitness MESHD, clinical variables, and death MESHD due to COVID-19 MESHD. Methods: A retrospective study using data from the CLINIMEX cohort that included 6,101 non-athletic men and women aged >30 years who were alive as of March 12th, 2020 and who's vital status was followed up to December 14th, 2020. For data analysis, two approaches were used: 1) comparison of frequency of deaths MESHD and relative % of underlying causes of death MESHD between the last 18-months pre-pandemic and 9-month pandemic periods; and 2) data from 51 variables from the participant's most recent evaluation, including sex, age and clinical profile plus other variables obtained from physical examination, spirometry, (MUSK) fitness (e.g., sitting-rising test) and maximal cycling leg cardiopulmonary testing (e.g. maximal VO2 and cardiorespiratory optimal point) were selected for comparison between groups of non- COVID-19 MESHD and COVID-19 MESHD deaths. Results: Age at death varied from 51 to 102 years [mean = 80 years]. Only 4 participants that died, 3 COVID-19 MESHD and 1 non- COVID-19 MESHD, were healthy at the time of their evaluation [p=.52]. COVID-19 MESHD was the most frequent (n=35; 36.5%) cause among the 96 deaths during this 9-month period. Comparing pre-pandemic and pandemic periods, there was a 35% increase in deaths MESHD and proportionately fewer deaths due to neoplasia MESHD and other causes but not from cardiovascular or endocrine diseases MESHD. Results of aerobic and MUSK fitness MESHD tests indicated that the majority of the study participants were relatively unfit when compared to available age and sex-reference values. Indeed, there were few differences in the 51 selected variables between the two groups, suggesting a somewhat healthier profile among COVID-19 MESHD death MESHD participants; lower body mass index [p=.04], higher % of predicted forced vital capacity [p=.04], lower number of previous percutaneous coronary interventions [p=.04] and lower resting supine diastolic blood pressure [p=.03], with no differences for aerobic/MUSK fitness variables or past history of exercise/sports [p>.05]. Conclusion: Our data support that COVID-19 MESHD was a frequent and premature cause of death MESHD in a convenience sample of primarily white, unhealthy, middle-age and elderly individuals and that data from exercise/sport history and physical fitness MESHD testing obtained some years earlier were unable to distinguish non- COVID-19 MESHD and COVID-19 MESHD deaths.

    Evaluation of the ROX HGNC index in SARS-CoV-2 Acute Respiratory failure MESHD treated with both High-Flow Nasal Oxygen (HFNO) and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure ( CPAP HGNC)

    Authors: Hakim Ghani; Michael Shaw; Phyoe Pyae; Rigers Cama; Meghna Prabhakar; Alessio Navarra; Janice Yu Ji Lee; Felix Chua; Rahul Mogal; Andrew Barlow; Nazril Nordin; Rama Vancheeswaran

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.23.21254203 Date: 2021-03-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Non-invasive respiratory support including high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO), and continuous positive airway pressure ( CPAP HGNC) have been used to provide therapy in selected SARS-CoV-2 patients with acute respiratory failure MESHD ( ARF MESHD). The value of the ROX HGNC index, a validated benchmark for outcomes in HFNO is unknown in CPAP HGNC. Objective: Can the ROX HGNC, a validated benchmark in HFNO be used for measuring treatment outcomes of CPAP HGNC in SARS-COV-2 ARF MESHD? Study Design and Methods: A non-randomised prospective protocol driven observational non-intensive care unit study in 130 SARS-COV-2 patients with ARF MESHD treated with non-invasive therapy from March 2020 to January 2021. The primary end point was failure of therapy ( death MESHD or escalation). Secondary outcomes included time to failure including invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) or death MESHD, the effect of escalation to CPAP HGNC from HFNO and the utility of ROX HGNC in ARF MESHD. Results: HFNO was better than CPAP HGNC in treating SARS-COV-2 ARF MESHD: 17/35 (48.5%) with successful HFNO therapy versus 24/95 (25.2%) with CPAP HGNC. The ROX HGNC index was more sensitive to outcomes with CPAP HGNC compared to HFNO and distinguished treatment failure early at 1, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours with the highest sensitivity at 24 hours ( ROX HGNC-24h). The AUC for the ROX-24h was 0.77 for HFNO (P<0.0001), and 0.84 for CPAP HGNC (P<0.0001). The ROX HGNC-24h cut-points predicted failure with HFNO when < 3.9 (PPV 71%, NPV 75%) and CPAP HGNC < 4.3 (PPV 75%, NPV 91%). For success, ROX HGNC-24h cut-points of 7.6 for HFNO (PPV 85%, NPV 48%) and 6.1 for CPAP HGNC (PPV 88%, NPV 62%) were observed. Escalation from HFNO to CPAP HGNC was mostly not successful. Conclusion: ARF MESHD in SARS-COV-2 can be successfully managed by non-invasive support. The ROX HGNC index, validated for HFNO, provides a timely, low resource measure for both HFNO and CPAP HGNC avoiding delayed intubation. Trial registration: Study approved by NHS HRAREC (20/ HRA MESHD/2344;ethics 283888)

    SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence in 12 Cities of India from July-December 2020

    Authors: Arokiaswamy Velumani; Chaitili Nikam; Wilson Suraweera; Sze Hang Fu; Hellen Gelband; Patrick E Brown; Isaac Bogoch; Nico Nagelkerke; Prabhat Jha

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.19.21253429 Date: 2021-03-24 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: We sought to understand the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in urban India, which has surprisingly low COVID-19 MESHD deaths. Design: Cross-sectional and trend analyses of seroprevalence in self-referred test populations, and of reported cases and COVID mortality data. Participants: 448,518 self-referred individuals using a nationwide chain of private laboratories with central testing of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and publicly available case and mortality data. Setting: 12 populous cities with nearly 92 million total population. Main outcome measures: Seropositivity trends and predictors (using a Bayesian geospatial model) and prevalence derived from mortality data and infection fatality MESHD rates (IFR). Results: For the whole of India, 31% of the self-referred individuals undergoing antibody testing were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Seropositivity was higher in females (35%) than in males (30%) overall and in nearly every age group. In these 12 cities, seroprevalence rose from about 18% in July to 41% by December, with steeper increases at ages <20 and 20-44 years than at older ages. The ?M-shaped? age pattern is consistent with intergenerational transmission. Areas of higher childhood measles vaccination in earlier years had lower seropositivity. The patterns of increase in seropositivity and in peak cases and deaths MESHD varied substantially across cities. In Delhi, death rates and cases first peaked in June and again in November; Chennai had a single peak in July. Based local IFRs and COVID deaths (adjusted for undercounts), we estimate that 43%-65% of adults above age 20 had been infected (range of mid-estimates of 12%-77%) corresponding 26 to 36 million infected adults in these cities, or an average of 9-12 infected adults per confirmed case. Conclusion: Even with relatively low death rates, the large cities of India had remarkably high levels of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Vaccination strategies need to consider widespread intergenerational transmission.

    Improved Prediction of COVID-19 MESHD Transmission and Mortality Using Google Search Trends for Symptoms in the United States

    Authors: Meshrif Alruily; Mohamed Ezz; Ayman Mohamed Mostafa; Nacim Yanes; Mostafa Abbas; Yasser El-Manzalawy

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.14.21253554 Date: 2021-03-24 Source: medRxiv

    Accurate forecasting of emerging infectious diseases MESHD can guide public health officials in making appropriate decisions related to the allocation of public health resources. Due to the exponential spread of the COVID-19 MESHD infection worldwide, several computational models for forecasting the transmission and mortality rates of COVID-19 MESHD have been proposed in the literature. To accelerate scientific and public health insights into the spread and impact of COVID-19 MESHD, Google released the Google COVID-19 MESHD search trends symptoms open-access dataset. Our objective is to develop 7 and 14 -day-ahead forecasting models of COVID-19 MESHD transmission and mortality in the US using the Google search trends for COVID-19 MESHD related symptoms. Specifically, we propose a stacked long short-term memory (SLSTM) architecture for predicting COVID-19 MESHD confirmed and death MESHD cases using historical time series data combined with auxiliary time series data from the Google COVID-19 MESHD search trends symptoms dataset. Considering the SLSTM networks trained using historical data only as the base models, our base models for 7 and 14 -day-ahead forecasting of COVID cases had the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) values of 6.6% and 8.8%, respectively. On the other side, our proposed models had improved MAPE values of 3.2% and 5.6%, respectively. For 7 and 14 -day-ahead forecasting of COVID-19 MESHD deaths, the MAPE values of the base models were 4.8% and 11.4%, while the improved MAPE values of our proposed models were 4.7% and 7.8%, respectively. We found that the Google search trends for " pneumonia MESHD," " shortness of breath MESHD," and "fever MESHD" are the most informative search trends for predicting COVID-19 MESHD transmission. We also found that the search trends for " hypoxia MESHD" and " fever MESHD" were the most informative trends for forecasting COVID-19 MESHD mortality.

    Management of COVID-19 MESHD-related Arterial Thrombosis MESHD Leading to Acute Limb-threatening Ischemia MESHD

    Authors:

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.20.21252888 Date: 2021-03-24 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: Examine the occurrence and clinical outcomes of arterial thrombosis MESHD leading to limb- threatening ischemia MESHD in patients with coronavirus-2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD). Study design: Prospective, descriptive case series. Patients and Methods: Forty-four patients with COVID-19 MESHD infection presenting with critical limb ischemia MESHD were managed between March 2020 and December 2020. The patients were divided into three groups based on the mode of presentation: 1) those who had been admitted; 2) those presenting in the emergency department; and 3) those presenting to vascular clinics. Clinical evidence suggesting limb ischemia MESHD was evaluated with computerized tomographic angiogram. Vascular care was designed according to the need of individual patients, through anticoagulation, revascularization by thrombo-embolectomy MESHD, or bypass grafting and amputation. Results: Ten major amputations and 4 deaths (all in patients admitted) occurred among the 44 patients (9.1%). Most patients (32/44) were males, mean age was 55, and limb ischemia MESHD occurred among patients as young as 29. The initial period of ischemia MESHD was often not appreciated by patients and physicians. Critical limb ischemia MESHD was often not correlated with the severity of COVD symptoms: of 17 patients who presented through the emergency room with limb-threatening ischemia MESHD, 10 (58.9%) were asymptomatic for respiratory and general symptoms. Comorbidities were common among all 3 patient groups (26/44; 59%). Anticoagulants did not consistently prevent thromboembolic MESHD events since all admitted patients were receiving low molecular weight heparin. The rate of revascularization was lower in this population than in the general population with similar limb ischemia MESHD. Conclusion: Acute limb ischemia MESHD in patients with COVID-19 MESHD is a vascular emergency that can result in limb loss MESHD and even death MESHD. The severity of respiratory infection MESHD and other symptoms of COVID often are not consistent with the severity and level of vascular involvement. Timely recognition and tailored intervention is needed to save limbs in this population.

    Serious adverse events reported from the COVID-19 MESHD vaccines: A descriptive study based on WHO database

    Authors:

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.23.21253433 Date: 2021-03-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background: In the light of the current pandemic, the emergency approval of few COVID-19 MESHD vaccines seems to provide a ray of hope. However, their approval is solely based on limited data available from the clinical trials in a short period of time; thereby imposing a necessity to study the adverse events (AEs) associated with their use. This study therefore aims to assess the Serious Adverse Events ( SAEs MESHD) associated with various COVID 19 vaccines reported in the WHO database (VigiBase). Methods: The data from VigiBase was analyzed to assess the reported SAEs MESHD linked to various COVID 19 vaccines. The duplicates in the data were removed and were analyzed on the basis of age, gender, and seriousness of adverse events at the System Organ Classification (SOC) level and the individual Preferred Term (PT) level. Results: A total 103954 adverse events reported from 32044 subjects were taken for analysis. Of 32044 subjects, majority were females (80%). Also, a total of 28799 (27.7%) SAEs MESHD were reported from the 8007 individuals. Most of the SAEs MESHD were reported from Europe (83%), amongst females (79.4%) and between 18 to 64 years (80.74%) of age. Majority of SAEs MESHD (74%) were reported for BNT162b2 (Pfizer) vaccine. On system wise classification, general disorders (30%) were the commonest followed by nervous system (19.1%) and musculoskeletal (11.2%) disorders. In individual category, headache MESHD (8.1%) was the commonest, followed by pyrexia (7%) and fatigue MESHD (5.1%). The number of SAEs MESHD were reported with various vaccines were comparatively lesser as compared to the non-serious ones and incidence of death MESHD was low with all the vaccines candidates. Elderly (> 65 years) people reported more serious SAEs as compared to other age groups. Conclusion: The reported SAEs MESHD from the COVID 19 vaccines were in line with the data published in clinical trials. To link these SAEs MESHD to vaccines will need causality analysis and review of individual reports.

    The Effect of Famotidine on Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 MESHD: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Authors: Leonard Chiu; Max Shen; Ronald Chow; Chun-Han Lo; Nicholas Chiu; Austin Chen; Hyun Joon Shin; Elizabeth Horn Prsic; Chin Hur; Benjamin Lebwohl

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.14.21253537 Date: 2021-03-24 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: Famotidine is a competitive histamine H2-receptor HGNC antagonist most commonly used for gastric acid suppression but thought to have potential efficacy in treating patients with COVID-19 MESHD. The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis are to summarize the current literature and report clinical outcomes on the use of famotidine for treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 MESHD. Methods: Five databases were searched through February 12, 2021 to identify observational studies that reported on associations of famotidine use with outcomes in COVID-19 MESHD. Meta-analysis was conducted for composite primary clinical outcome (e.g. rate of death, intubation, or intensive care unit admissions) and death MESHD separately, where either aggregate odds ratio (OR) or hazard ratio (HR) was calculated. Results: Four studies, reporting on 46,435 total patients and 3,110 patients treated with famotidine, were included in this meta-analysis. There was no significant association between famotidine use and composite outcomes in patients with COVID-19 MESHD: HR 0.63 (95% CI: 0.35, 1.16). Across the three studies that reported mortality separated from other endpoints, there was no association between famotidine use during hospitalization and risk of death - HR 0.67 (95% CI: 0.26, 1.73) and OR 0.79 (95% CI: 0.19, 3.34). Heterogeneity ranged from 83.69% to 88.07%. Conclusion: Based on the existing observational studies, famotidine use is not associated with a reduced risk of mortality or combined outcome of mortality, intubation, and/or intensive care services in hospitalized individuals with COVID-19 MESHD, though heterogeneity was high, and point estimates suggested a possible protective effect for the composite outcome that may not have been observed due to lack of power. Further RCTs may help determine the efficacy and safety of famotidine as a treatment for COVID-19 MESHD patients in various care settings of the disease

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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