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    Public Opinion about the UK Government during COVID-19 MESHD and Implications for Public Health: A Topic Modelling Analysis of Open-Ended Survey Response Data

    Authors: Liam Wright; Alexandra Burton; Alison McKinlay; Andrew Steptoe; Daisy Fancourt

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.24.21254094 Date: 2021-03-26 Source: medRxiv

    Confidence in the central UK Government has declined since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD, and while this may be linked to specific government actions to curb the spread of the virus, understanding is still incomplete. Examining public opinion is important, as research suggests that low confidence in government increases the extent of non-compliance with infection-dampening rules (for instance, social distancing); however, the detailed reasons for this association are still unclear. To understand public opinion on the central UK government during COVID-19 MESHD, we used structural topic modelling, a text mining technique, to extract themes from over 4000 free-text survey responses, collected between 14 October and 26 November 2020. We identified eleven topics, among which were topics related to perceived government corruption and cronyism, complaints about inconsistency in rules and messaging, lack of clear planning, and lack of openness MESHD and transparency. Participants reported that elements of the government's approach had made it difficult to comply with guidelines (e.g., changing rules) or were having impacts on mental wellbeing (e.g., inability to plan for the future). Results suggested that consistent, transparent communication and messaging from the government is critical to improving compliance with measures to contain the virus, as well as protecting mental health during health emergencies.

    Contribution of SARS-CoV-2 accessory proteins to viral pathogenicity in K18 hACE2 HGNC transgenic mice


    doi:10.1101/2021.03.09.434696 Date: 2021-03-12 Source: bioRxiv

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) is the viral pathogen responsible for the current coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) pandemic. To date, it is estimated that over 113 million individuals have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 and over 2.5 million human deaths have been recorded worldwide. Currently, three vaccines have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for emergency use only. However much of the pathogenesis observed during SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD remains elusive. To gain insight into the contribution of individual accessory open reading frame (ORF) proteins in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, we used our recently described reverse genetics system approach to successfully engineer recombinant (r)SARS-CoV-2, where we individually removed viral 3a, 6, 7a, 7b, and 8 ORF proteins, and characterized these recombinant viruses in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate differences in plaque morphology, with ORF deficient MESHD (DORF) viruses producing smaller plaques than those of the wild-type (rSARS-CoV-2/WT). However, growth kinetics of DORF viruses were like those of rSARS-CoV-2/WT. Interestingly, infection of K18 HGNC human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( hACE2 HGNC) transgenic mice with the DORF rSARS-CoV-2 identified ORF3a PROTEIN and ORF6 PROTEIN as the major contributors of viral pathogenesis, while DORF7a, DORF7b and DORF8 rSARS-CoV-2 induced comparable pathology to rSARS-CoV-2/WT. This study demonstrates the robustness of our reverse genetics system to generate rSARS-CoV-2 and the major role for ORF3a PROTEIN and ORF6 PROTEIN in viral pathogenesis, providing important information for the generation of attenuated forms of SARS-CoV-2 for their implementation as live-attenuated vaccines for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and associated COVID-19 MESHD.

    The effect on lower limbs of wearing ankle weights in people under/over 70 years old: single comparison after intervention

    Authors: Hiroyasu Akatsu; Toshie Manabe; Yoshihiro Kawade; Yoshiyuki Masaki; Shigeru Hoshino; Takashi Jo; Shinya Kobayashi; Tomihiro Hayakawa; Hirotaka Ohara

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-273082/v1 Date: 2021-02-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundSince the emergence of Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD), safety management in gymnastics classrooms has been difficult. As a result, healthy older adults are more likely to voluntarily refrain from attending because of fear of contracting COVID-19 MESHD, and thus engage in less exercise. In this context, it is important to develop methods for self-prevention of frailty that can be conducted safely and easily at home. We examined the effectiveness of providing ankle weights to older adults as a frailty prevention device.MethodsAll participants were 50–90 years old and were screened for falls using the Motor Fitness Scale (MFS). Participants were divided into two groups (≤ 70 and ≥ 71 years old) and analyzed. We rented ankle weights for 3 months to older adults in the community and evaluated changes in physical and motor function before and after wearing them. A total of 75 people who responded to the call for participants used ankle weights for 3 months, and underwent various measures of physical condition, cognitive condition, and performance (body composition, grip strength, standing on one leg with eyes open MESHD, 30-second chair stand test [CS-30], timed up-and-go test [TUG], walking speed, body sway measurement, and the Japanese version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MOCA-J]) before and 3 months after wearing ankle weights.ResultsCS-30 performance improved in both younger and older participants.ConclusionsCS-30 reflects lower limb/trunk muscle strength and can be used as an index of fall risk. Our results suggest that wearing ankle weights can be recommended as a fall-prevention measure.Trial registration:University hospital Medical Information Network ID 000038073) and registration date at April 14th 2020

    When character forges the crisis: Personality traits of world leaders and differential policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD

    Authors: Mike Medeiros; Alessandro Nai; Ayşegül Erman; Elizabeth Young

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-211261/v2 Date: 2021-02-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    The rapidly growing scholarship on the COVID-19 MESHD crisis has focused on a variety of macro-level factors to understand government policy responses. The current study addresses an important gap in this line of research by evaluating the extent to which government leaders’ personality traits have led to divergent policy responses during the pandemic. To do so, we use data from the Oxford COVID-19 MESHD Government Response Tracker initiative (OxCGRT) to measure differences in both the speed and magnitude of these responses across countries and NEGex, a dataset that maps the personality traits of current heads of government (presidents or prime ministers) in 61 countries. Our results show that personality matters. We find that world leaders scoring high on “plasticity” (extraversion, openness MESHD) provide a stronger overall response, as well as a more rapid response in terms of financial relief. Whereas, leaders scoring high on “stability” (conscientiousness, agreeableness, emotional stability) offer both a quicker and stronger financial relief response. Our findings underscore the need to account for the personality of decision-makers when exploring policy decisions taken during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD, as well as during other crisis situations. 

    Understanding the uneven spread of COVID-19 MESHD in the context of the global interconnected economy

    Authors: Dimitrios Tsiotas; Vassilis Tselios

    id:2101.11036v1 Date: 2021-01-26 Source: arXiv

    Using network analysis, this paper develops a multidimensional methodological framework for understanding the uneven (cross-country) spread of COVID-19 MESHD in the context of the global interconnected economy. The globally interconnected system of tourism mobility is modeled as a complex network, where two main stages in the temporal spread of COVID-19 MESHD are revealed and defined by the cutting-point of the 44th day from Wuhan. The first stage describes the outbreak in Asia and North America, the second one in Europe, South America, and Africa, while the outbreak in Oceania is spread along both stages. The analysis shows that highly connected nodes in the global tourism network (GTN) are infected early by the pandemic, while nodes of lower connectivity are late infected. Moreover, countries with the same network centrality as China were early infected on average by COVID-19 MESHD. The paper also finds that network interconnectedness, economic openness MESHD, and transport integration are key determinants in the early global spread of the pandemic, and it reveals that the spatio-temporal patterns of the worldwide spread of COVID-19 MESHD are more a matter of network interconnectivity than of spatial proximity.

    The Impact of the Coronavirus Pandemic on Patients With Acute Proximal Femoral Fracture MESHD: a Retrospective, Observational, Cohort Study

    Authors: Anna Tong; Amit Singh; Charlotte Pinder; Oluwatobi Onafowokan; Wei Hann Toh; Ramesh Asthwanth; Sophie Rogers; Srikanth Gandavaram; Victoria Sinclair

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-154473/v1 Date: 2021-01-25 Source: ResearchSquare

    • Background – During the initial peak of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD in the United Kingdom (UK) admissions related to acute proximal femoral fracture MESHD (APFF) remained consistent.• Aims – This aim of this research is to demonstrate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD on this cohort of high-risk patients and provide revenues for improvement in their care as we globally progress through further peaks of viral transmission and illness.• Methods– Retrospective, observational, cohort study of 112 patients with APFF MESHD; sustained during the first peak of the pandemic (1st March – 15th May, 2020). Following ethical approval, data was collected from electronic records. Included patients were those who had been admitted to one of two district general hospitals in Northwest England. Only patients with APFF MESHD were included – chronic, peri-prosthetic, femoral shaft and open fractures MESHD were excluded. Patients were split into two groups: COVID-positive (N = 17) and COVID-negative (N = 95) with the primary outcome measure being 30-day mortality.• Results – 17.9% overall mortality (29.4% for COVID-positive and 15.7% for COVID-negative). The odds ratio for mortality was 2.2 in the COVID-positive group compared to the COVID-negative group (95% confidence level; 0.68–7.23).• Conclusions – Patients with APFF MESHD suffered increased mortality during the initial peak of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD. However, increased mortality in COVID-positive patients, compared to the COVID-negative patients, was not statistically significant. Increased mortality in COVID-negative patients may have been due to other pandemic related factors including: undiagnosed COVID-19 MESHD; patient demographics and the effects of changes to the service provision structure of the orthopaedic department during this time. Moving forward, as the global fight against COVID-19 MESHD continues, we provide the below recommendations as suggested revenues to improve 30-day mortality for these patients during pandemic times:• repeated COVID-19 MESHD testing for all APFF MESHD patients;• strict separation of COVID-suspected, COVID-positive, and COVID-negative patients;• preservation of acute trauma MESHD services, including protected theatre time; and• maintenance of experienced orthopaedic teams on wards throughout periods of re-deployment.Further research with larger sample sizes is needed to assess the national and international applicability of these recommendations.

    Publication practices during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD: Biomedical preprints and peer-reviewed literature

    Authors: Yulia Sevryugina; Andrew J Dicks; Darren K Griffin; Tommy Duong; Nathalie Bolduc; Andrew Farmer; Vidur Garg; Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis; Frank L Barnes; Christo G Zouves; Warner C Greene; Manuel Viotti; Sydney Huff; Tu-Trinh Nguyen; Brett L Hurst; Sara Cherry; Lynn K Barrett; Wesley C Van Voorhis

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.21.427563 Date: 2021-01-21 Source: bioRxiv

    The coronavirus pandemic introduced many changes to our society, and deeply affected the established in biomedical sciences publication practices. In this article, we present a comprehensive study of the changes in scholarly publication landscape for biomedical sciences during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD, with special emphasis on preprints posted on bioRxiv and medRxiv servers. We observe the emergence of a new category of preprint authors working in the fields of immunology, microbiology, infectious diseases MESHD, and epidemiology, who extensively used preprint platforms during the pandemic for sharing their immediate findings. The majority of these findings were works-in-progress unfitting for a prompt acceptance by refereed journals. The COVID-19 MESHD preprints that became peer-reviewed journal articles were often submitted to journals concurrently with the posting on a preprint server, and the entire publication cycle, from preprint to the online journal article, took on average 63 days. This included an expedited peer-review process of 43 days and journals production stage of 15 days, however there was a wide variation in publication delays between journals. Only one third of COVID-19 MESHD preprints posted during the first nine months of the pandemic appeared as peer-reviewed journal articles. These journal articles display high Altmetric Attention Scores further emphasizing a significance of COVID-19 MESHD research during 2020. This article will be relevant to editors, publishers, open science enthusiasts MESHD, and anyone interested in changes that the 2020 crisis transpired to publication practices and a culture of preprints in life sciences.

    Mental health, personality and lifetime psychedelic use during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD

    Authors: Federico Cavanna; Carla Pallavicini; Virginia Milano; Juan Cuiule; Rocco Di Tella; Pablo González; Enzo Tagliazucchi

    doi:10.1101/2020.12.24.20248519 Date: 2020-12-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic MESHD COVID-19 pandemic MESHD and its consequences represent a major challenge to the well-being of the general population. Some groups of individuals may be more vulnerable than others, depending on factors such as preexisting conditions, personality, and past life experiences. Building on previous work on the potential long-term benefits of psychedelics, we hypothesized that lifetime use of these drugs could be linked to better mental health indicators in the context of the ongoing pandemic. Methods: Two anonymous online surveys were conducted between April 2020 and June 2020, including questions about lifetime experience with psychedelics and other psychoactive drugs, and psychometric scales designed to measure personality traits, anxiety MESHD, negative and positive affect, well-being and resilience. Principal component analysis was applied to divide the sample into groups of subjects based on their drug use reports. Results: 5618 participants (29.15 {+/-} 0.12 years, 71.97% female) completed both surveys and met the inclusion criteria, with 32.43% of the final sample reporting at least one use of a psychedelic drug. Lifetime psychedelic use was linked to increased openness MESHD and decreased conscientiousness, and with higher scores of positive affect. The reported number of past psychedelic experiences predicted higher scores of the secondary personality trait beta factor, which has been interpreted as a measure of plasticity. No significant associations between lifetime use of psychedelics and indicators of impaired mental health were observed. Conclusion: We did not find evidence of an association between lifetime use of psychedelics and poor mental health indicators. Conversely, experience with psychedelic drugs was linked to increased positive affect and to personality traits that favor resilience and stability in the light of the ongoing crisis. Future studies should be conducted to investigate these results from a causal perspective. Keywords: psychedelics; mental health; resilience, well-being, personality traits, COVID-19 MESHD

    LL-37 HGNC fights SARS-CoV-2: The Vitamin D-Inducible Peptide LL-37 HGNC Inhibits Binding of SARS-CoV-2 Spike PROTEIN Protein to its Cellular Receptor Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 HGNC In Vitro

    Authors: Annika Roth; Steffen Luetke; Denise Meinberger; Gabriele Hermes; Gerhard Sengle; Manuel Koch; Thomas Streichert; Andreas R. Klatt; Maarja Andaloussi Mae; Lars Muhl; Nicky M. Craig; Samantha J. Griffiths; Jurgen G. Haas; Christine Tait Burkard; Urban Lendahl; Graeme M. Birdsey; Christer Betsholtz; Michela Noseda; Andrew Baker; Anna M Randi; Sofia Palma; Carolina Escobar; Josefina bascunan; Rodrigo Munoz; Monica Pinto; Daniela Cardemil; Marcelo Navarrete; Soledad Reyes; Victoria Espinoza; Nicolas Yanez; Christian Caglevic

    doi:10.1101/2020.12.02.408153 Date: 2020-12-02 Source: bioRxiv

    Objective: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen accountable for the coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) pandemic. Viral entry via binding of the receptor binding domain (RBD) located within the S1 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike MESHD SARS-CoV-2 Spike PROTEIN ( S) protein PROTEIN to its target receptor angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 2 HGNC is a key step in cell infection. The efficient transition of the virus is linked to a unique protein called open reading frame ( ORF MESHD) 8. As SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHDs can develop into life threatening lower respiratory syndromes, effective therapy options are urgently needed. Several publications propose vitamin D treatment, although its mode of action against COVID-19 MESHD is not fully elucidated. It is speculated that vitamin D's beneficial effects are mediated by up regulating LL-37 HGNC, a well known antimicrobial peptide with antiviral effects. Methods: Recombinantly expressed SARS-CoV-2 S protein PROTEIN, the extended S1 subunit (S1e), the S2 subunit (S2), the receptor binding domain (RBD), and ORF8 PROTEIN were used for surface plasmon resonance ( SPR HGNC) studies to investigate LL-37 HGNC's ability to bind to SARS-CoV-2 proteins MESHD and to localize its binding site within the S protein PROTEIN. Binding competition studies were conducted to confirm an inhibitory action of LL-37 HGNC on the attachment of SARS-CoV-2 S MESHD S protein PROTEIN to its entry receptor ACE2 HGNC. Results: We could show that LL-37 HGNC binds to SARS-CoV-2 S MESHD S protein PROTEIN ( LL-37 HGNC/S-Strep KD = 407 nM, LL-37 HGNC/S-His KD = 414 nM) with the same affinity, as SARS-CoV-2 binds to hACE2 HGNC ( hACE2 HGNC/S-Strep KD = 374 nM, hACE2 HGNC/S-His KD = 368 nM). The binding is not restricted to the RBD of the S protein PROTEIN, but rather distributed along the entire length of the protein. Interaction between LL-37 HGNC and ORF8 PROTEIN was detected with a KD of 294 nM. Further, inhibition of the binding of S-Strep (IC50 = 735 nM), S1e (IC50 = 168 nM), and RBD (IC50 = 126 nM) to hACE2 HGNC by LL-37 HGNC was demonstrated. Conclusions: We have revealed a biochemical link between vitamin D, LL-37 HGNC, and COVID-19 MESHD severity. SPR HGNC analysis demonstrated that LL-37 HGNC binds to SARS-CoV-2 S MESHD S protein PROTEIN and inhibits binding to its receptor hACE2 HGNC, and most likely viral entry into the cell. This study supports the prophylactic use of vitamin D to induce LL-37 HGNC that protects from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, and the therapeutic administration of vitamin D for the treatment of COVID-19 MESHD patients. Further, our results provide evidence that the direct use of LL-37 HGNC by inhalation and systemic application may reduce the severity of COVID-19 MESHD.

    A cross-sectional study on the impact of the prevention and control response of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD on children's orthopedic trauma MESHD in Shanghai

    Authors: Chuang Qian; Yiming Zheng; Junrong Meng; Hao Li; Dahui Wang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-118305/v2 Date: 2020-11-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The Chinese government has taken strong prevention and control measures against the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD, and has achieved phased victory in the fight against it. The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic MESHD provides an opportunity to study the influence of governmental prevention and control response on orthopedic trauma MESHD in children.Methods: We collected and reviewed data on orthopedic trauma MESHD from the first half of 2018, 2019, and 2020. The data were divided according to the time of prevention and control response level in 2020. By comparing the relevant data from orthopedic emergency and operating rooms from the past three years, the influence of governmental pandemic prevention measures on orthopedic trauma MESHD in children was analyzed. Results: A total of 36301 children were included in the study cohort. Before the prevention and control response, the data of the orthopedic emergency department in 2020 was the same as the previous two years. Under the first-level response, the number of fractures MESHD, open injuries MESHD, radial head subluxation, and surgery were significantly reduced, and the severity of patients with surgery was also significantly reduced. Under the second-level response, the number of operations began to increase, and the severity of the disease also began to rise. Under the third-level response control, the number of fractures MESHD, open injuries MESHD, and operations have returned to the levels of the previous two years. The severity of the operation has also returned to its previous level. The number of subluxations of the radial head is still different from before.Conclusion: The pandemic of COVID-19 MESHD has affected the social activities of Shanghai residents and reduced the incidence of orthopedic trauma MESHD in children. With the control of the pandemic, the living conditions of Shanghai residents have basically recovered.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins

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