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HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    Vitamin D-related polymorphisms and vitamin D levels as risk biomarkers of COVID-19 MESHD infection severity

    Authors: Ana Teresa FREITAS; Conceicao Calhau; Goncalo Antunes; Beatriz Araujo; Matilde Bandeira; Sofia Barreira; Filipa Bazenga; Sandra Braz; Daniel Caldeira; Susana Constantino Rosa Santos; Ana Faria; Daniel Faria; Marta Fraga; Beatriz Nogueira-Garcia; Lucia Goncalves; Pavlo Kovalchuk; Luisa Lacerda; Hugo Lopes; Daniel Luis; Fabio Medeiros; Ana MP Melo; Jose Melo-Cristino; Ana Miranda; Clara Pereira; Ana Teresa Pinto; Joao Pinto; Helena Proenca; Angelica Ramos; Joao PR Rato; Filipe Rocha; Julio Cesar Rocha; Andre Moreira-Rosario; Helena Vazao; Yuliya Volovetska; Joao-Tiago Guimaraes; Fausto Pinto

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.22.21254032 Date: 2021-03-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Vitamin D is a fundamental regulator of host defences by activating genes related to innate and adaptive immunity. Previous research shows a correlation between the levels of vitamin D in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and the degree of disease severity. This work investigates the impact of the genetic background related to vitamin D pathways on COVID-19 MESHD severity. For the first time, the Portuguese population was characterized regarding the prevalence of high impact variants in genes associated with the vitamin D pathways. Methods: This study enrolled 517 patients admitted to two tertiary Portuguese hospitals. The serum concentration of 25 (OH)D, was measured in the hospital at the time of patient admission. Genetic variants, 18 variants, in the genes AMDHD1 HGNC, CYP2R1 HGNC, CYP24A1 HGNC, DHCR7 HGNC, GC, SEC23A HGNC, and VDR HGNC were analysed. Results: The results show that polymorphisms in the vitamin D binding protein HGNC encoded by the GC gene are related to the infection severity (p = 0.005). There is an association between vitamin D polygenic risk score and the serum concentration of 25 (OH)D (p = 0.042). There is an association between 25 (OH)D levels and the survival and fatal outcomes (p = 1.5e-4). The Portuguese population has a higher prevalence of the DHCR7 HGNC RS12785878 variant when compared with its prevalence in the European population (19% versus 10%). Conclusion: This study shows a genetic susceptibility for vitamin D deficiency MESHD that might explain higher severity degrees in COVID-19 MESHD patients. These results reinforce the relevance of personalized strategies in the context of viral diseases.

    Serum Vitamin D levels are associated with increased COVID-19 MESHD severity markers and mortality independent of visceral adiposity MESHD

    Authors: Pablo Esteban Vanegas-Cedillo; Omar Yaxmehen Bello-Chavolla; Natalia Ramírez-Pedraza; Bethsabel Rodríguez-Encinas; Carolina Isabel Pérez-Carrión; María Isabel Jasso-Ávila; Jorge Valladares-Garcia; Diana Hernández-Juárez; Arsenio Vargas-Vázquez; Neftali Eduardo Antonio-Villa; Monica Chapa-Ibarguengoitia; Alfredo Ponce de Leon; Jose Sifuentes-Osornio; Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas; Roopa Mehta

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.12.21253490 Date: 2021-03-13 Source: medRxiv

    INTRODUCTIONCoronavirus disease ( COVID-19 MESHD) is a global pandemic. Vitamin D ( 25-OHD) deficiency MESHD has been associated with susceptibility to infectious disease MESHD. In this study, the association between COVID-19 MESHD outcomes and 25-OHD levels in patients attending a COVID-19 MESHD reference center in Mexico City are examined. METHODSConsecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 MESHD were evaluated. All patients underwent clinical evaluation (including outcomes), laboratory measurements (including 25- OHD MESHD) and a thoracic computerized tomography (including the measurement of epicardial fat thickness). Low vitamin D was defined as levels <20ng/mL (<50nmol/L) and severely low (or deficient) 25- OHD MESHD as a level [≤]12ng/mL (<30nmol/L) RESULTSOf the 551 patients included, low 25-OHD levels were present in 45.6% and severely low levels in 10.9%. Severely low 25-OHD levels were associated with mortality (HR 2.11, 95%CI 1.24-3.58, p=0.006) but not with critical COVID-19 MESHD (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.94-0.99, p=0.042), adjusted for age, sex, body-mass index and epicardial fat. Using model-based causal mediation analyses the increased risk of COVID-19 MESHD mortality conferred by 25-OHD levels was partly mediated by its effect on D-dimer and cardiac ultrasensitive troponins. Notably, increased risk of COVID-19 MESHD mortality conferred by low vitamin D levels was independent of BMI and epicardial fat. CONCLUSIONVitamin D deficiency MESHD ([≤]12ng/mL or <30nmol/L), is independently associated with COVID-19 MESHD mortality after adjustment for visceral fat (epicardial fat thickness). Low 25-OHD may contribute to a pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic state, increasing the risk for adverse COVID-19 MESHD outcomes.

    SARS-CoV-2 infects blood MESHD monocytes to activate NLRP3 HGNC and AIM2 HGNC inflammasomes, pyroptosis and cytokine release

    Authors: Caroline Junqueira; Angela Crespo; Shahin Ranjbar; Jacob Ingber; Blair Parry; Sagi David; Luna B de Lacerda; Mercedes Lewandrowski; Sarah Alden Clark; Felicia Ho; Setu Vora; Valerie Leger; Caroline Beackes; Justin Margolin; Nicole Russell; Lee Gehrke; Upasana Das Adhikari; Lauren Henderson; Erin Janssen; Douglas Kwon; Chris Sander; Jonathan Abraham; Michael Filbin; Marcia B. Goldberg; Hao Wu; Mehta Gautam; Steven Bell; Anne Goldfeld; Judy Lieberman

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.06.21252796 Date: 2021-03-08 Source: medRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 causes acute respiratory distress that can progress to multiorgan failure MESHD and death MESHD in some patients. Although severe COVID-19 MESHD disease is linked to exuberant inflammation MESHD, how SARS-CoV-2 triggers inflammation MESHD is not understood. Monocytes are sentinel blood cells that sense invasive infection MESHD to form inflammasomes that activate caspase-1 HGNC and gasdermin D HGNC ( GSDMD HGNC GSDMD MESHD) pores, leading to inflammatory death MESHD (pyroptosis) and processing and release of IL-1 family cytokines, potent inflammatory mediators. Here we show that ~10% of blood monocytes in COVID-19 MESHD patients are dying and infected with SARS-CoV-2. Monocyte infection, which depends on antiviral antibodies, activates NLRP3 HGNC and AIM2 HGNC inflammasomes, caspase-1 HGNC and GSDMD HGNC cleavage and relocalization. Signs of pyroptosis (IL-1 family cytokines, LDH) in the plasma correlate with development of severe disease. Moreover, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) linked to higher GSDMD HGNC expression increase the risk of severe COVID-19 MESHD disease (odds ratio, 1.3, p<0.005). These findings taken together suggest that antibody-mediated SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD of monocytes triggers inflammation MESHD that contributes to severe COVID-19 MESHD disease pathogenesis.

    Prevalence of vitamin D is not associated with the COVID-19 MESHD epidemic in Europe. A judicial update of the existing evidence.

    Authors: Dimitra Rafailia Bakaloudi; Michail Chourdakis

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.04.21252885 Date: 2021-03-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background COVID-19 MESHD has emerged as a global pandemic, affecting nearly 104 million people worldwide as of February 4th 2021. In previous published studies, the association between the mean Vit HGNC D status of each country and COVID-19 MESHD infection rate, and mortality among the adult population in European countries was examined. The aim of this study was to re-examine the relationship between the Vit HGNC D status of each country and COVID-19 MESHD infection, recovery, and mortality using updated data and a different methodological approach. MethodsInformation only form the last decade on Vit HGNC D concentration/deficiency for each country was retrieved through literature search on PubMed(R) database. As of February, 4th 2021, COVID-19 MESHD infections and mortalities per one million population as well as total recoveries were extracted from the Worldometer website. The association between vitamin D deficiency MESHD and COVID-19 infection MESHD, recovery, and mortality were explored using correlation coefficients and scatterplots. FindingsThe prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among European countries ranged from 6.0 (Finland) to 75.5% (Turkey), with several countries facing more than 50% of vitamin D deficiency among their population. Non-significant correlations were observed between the number of COVID-19 MESHD infections (r=0.190; p=0.374), recoveries (rs=0.317, p=0.131), and mortalities (r=0.129; p=0.549) per one million population, with the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency MESHD. InterpretationPrevalence of vitamin D deficiency MESHD was not significantly associated with either number of infections, recoveries or mortality rate of COVID-19 MESHD among European countries. Thus, it is an important parameter to be considered when implementing preventive measures to face COVID-19 MESHD. FundingNone

    Oral and Topical Vitamin D, Sunshine, and UVB Phototherapy Safely Control Psoriasis MESHD in Patients with Normal Pretreatment Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations: A Literature Review and Discussion of Health Implications

    Authors: Patrick J McCullough; William McCullough; Douglas Lehrer MD; Jeffrey Travers MD; Steven Repas

    id:10.20944/preprints202103.0061.v1 Date: 2021-03-02 Source: Preprints.org

    Vitamin D, sunshine and UVB phototherapy were first reported in the early 1900s to control psoriasis MESHD, cure rickets and cure tuberculosis MESHD ( TB MESHD). Vitamin D also controlled asthma MESHD and rheumatoid arthritis MESHD with intakes ranging from 60,000 to 600,000 International Units (IU)/day. In the 1980s interest in treating psoriasis MESHD with vitamin D rekindled. Since 1985 four different oral forms of vitamin D (D2, D3, 1-hydroxyvitaminD3 (1(OH)D3) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitaminD3 (calcitriol)) and several topical formulations have been reported safe and effective treatments for psoriasis MESHD—as has UVB phototherapy and sunshine. In this review we show that many pre-treatment serum 25(OH)D concentrations fall within the current range of normal, while many post-treatment concentrations fall outside the upper limit of this normal (100 ng/ml). Yet, psoriasis MESHD patients showed significant clinical improvement without complications using these treatments. Current estimates of vitamin D sufficiency appear to underestimate serum 25(OH)D concentrations required for optimal health in psoriasis MESHD patients, while concentrations associated with adverse events appear to be much higher than current estimates of safe serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Based on these observations, the therapeutic index for vitamin D needs to be reexamined in the treatment of psoriasis MESHD and other diseases strongly linked to vitamin D deficiency MESHD, including COVID-19 MESHD infections, which may also improve safely with sufficient vitamin D intake or UVB exposure.

    Dietary Supplements and Nutraceuticals Under Investigation for COVID-19 MESHD Prevention and Treatment

    Authors: Ronan Lordan; Halie M. Rando; COVID-19 Review Consortium; Casey S. Greene

    id:2102.02250v1 Date: 2021-02-03 Source: arXiv

    Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) has caused global disruption and a significant loss of life. Existing treatments that can be repurposed as prophylactic and therapeutic agents could reduce the pandemic's devastation. Emerging evidence of potential applications in other therapeutic contexts has led to the investigation of dietary supplements and nutraceuticals for COVID-19 MESHD. Such products include vitamin C, vitamin D, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, probiotics, and zinc, all of which are currently under clinical investigation. In this review, we critically appraise the evidence surrounding dietary supplements and nutraceuticals for the prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19 MESHD. Overall, further study is required before evidence-based recommendations can be formulated, but nutritional status plays a significant role in patient outcomes, and these products could help alleviate deficiencies. For example, evidence indicates that vitamin D deficiency MESHD may be associated with greater incidence of infection and severity of COVID-19 MESHD, suggesting that vitamin D supplementation may hold prophylactic or therapeutic value. A growing number of scientific organizations are now considering recommending vitamin D supplementation to those at high risk of COVID-19 MESHD. Because research in vitamin D and other nutraceuticals and supplements is preliminary, here we evaluate the extent to which these nutraceutical and dietary supplements hold potential in the COVID-19 MESHD crisis.

    Is vitamin D deficiency MESHD associated with the COVID-19 MESHD epidemic in Europe?

    Authors: Dimitra Rafailia Bakaloudi; Michail Chourdakis

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.28.21250673 Date: 2021-01-29 Source: medRxiv

    Objective COVID-19 MESHD has emerged as a global pandemic, affecting nearly 80 million people from 218 countries as of December 2020. At the same time, vitamin D deficiency MESHD seems to be prevalent among COVID-19 MESHD patients. Hence, the association between the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency MESHD and COVID-19 infection MESHD and mortality among European countries was examined. DesignA case series and recent literature review study SettingsInformation on prevalence of vitamin D deficiency MESHD in each country was retrieved through literature searching on PubMed(R) database. As of December, 23rd 2020, COVID-19 MESHD infections and mortalities per million population were extracted from the Worldometer website, whereas the latitude of each country was taken from the CSGNetwork website. The association between both vitamin D deficiency MESHD and COVID-19 infection MESHD and mortality were explored using correlation coefficients and scatterplots. ParticipantsEuropean Countries-Populations ResultsThe range of prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among European countries was 6.9-75.1%, with most countries facing more than 50% of vitamin D deficiency among their population. Significant positive correlations were observed between COVID-19 MESHD infections (r=0.82; p<0.001) and mortalities (r=0.53; p=0.05) per million population with the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency MESHD. Most of the high latitude countries showed lower rates of COVID-19 MESHD infections and mortalities compared to middle latitude countries. ConclusionPrevalence of vitamin D deficiency MESHD was significantly associated with both infection and mortality rate of COVID-19 MESHD among European countries. Thus, it is an important parameter to be considered when implementing preventive measures to mitigate the mortality rate of COVID-19 MESHD.

    The Predictive Power of Serum Vitamin D for Poor Outcomes in COVID-19 MESHD Patients

    Authors: Hoda Derakhshanian; Hadith Rastad; Sanjoy Ghosh; Marjan Zeinali; Tara Khoeini; Mohsen Farrokhpour; Mostafa Qorbani; Mona Ramezani Ghamsari; Hossein Hasani; Zahra Mirzaasgari

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-140417/v1 Date: 2021-01-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Considering the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency worldwide and its relationship with immune response to viral infections, this study attempted to identify the predictive power of serum vitamin D for poor outcomes among the COVID-19 MESHD patients.Methods: This retrospective cohort study included all patients with confirmed COVID-19 MESHD hospitalized between 20 February 2020 and 20 April 2020 at a designated COVID-19 MESHD hospital, located in Tehran province, Iran. General characteristics, medical history, and clinical symptoms were recorded by trained physicians. Blood parameters including complete blood count, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein HGNC, and vitamin D were tested.  Results: This study included 290 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 MESHD (the mean age (SD): 61.6 (16.9), 56.6% males), of whom 142 had vitamin D concentrations less than 20 ng/ml, defined as vitamin D deficiency. COVID-19 MESHD patients with vitamin D deficiency MESHD were more likely to die (Crude OR (95% CI): 2.30 (1.25-4.26)), require ICU care (2.06 (1.22-3.46)) and invasive mechanical ventilation (2.03 (1.04-3.93)) based on univariate logistic regression results. However, after adjusting for potentials confounders such as gender and age, the association between vitamin D and need to invasive mechanical ventilation lost its significance.Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency can be considered as a predictor of poor outcomes and mortality in COVID-19 MESHD patients. Therefore, checking serum 25 (OH) D on admission and taking vitamin D supplements according to the prophylactic or treatment protocols is recommended for all COVID-19 MESHD patients.

    Lack of Association of Baseline 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Cholecalciferol Treatment With Disease Severity and Mortality in Indian Patients Hospitalized for Covid-19 MESHD

    Authors: Ganesh Jevalikar; Ambrish Mithal; Anshu Singh; Rutuja Sharma; Khalid Farooqui; Shama Mahendru; Arun Dewan; Sandeep Budhiraja

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-129238/v1 Date: 2020-12-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Vitamin D deficiency MESHD ( VDD MESHD) owing to its immunomodulatory effects is believed to influence outcomes in COVID-19 MESHD. We conducted a prospective, observational study of patients, hospitalized with COVID-19 MESHD. Serum 25-OHD level < 20 ng/mL was considered VDD MESHD. Patients were classified as having mild and severe disease on basis of the WHO ordinal scale for clinical improvement (OSCI). Of the 410 patients recruited, patients with VDD MESHD (197,48∙2%) were significantly younger and had lesser comorbidities. The proportion of severe cases (13∙2% vs.14∙6%), mortality (2% vs. 5∙2%), oxygen requirement (34∙5% vs.43∙4%), ICU admission (14∙7% vs.19∙8%) was not significantly different between patients with or without VDD MESHD. There was no significant correlation between serum 25-OHD levels and inflammatory markers studied. Serum parathormone levels correlated with D-dimer (r 0∙117, p- 0∙019), ferritin (r 0∙132, p-0∙010), and LDH (r 0∙124, p-0∙018). Amongst VDD MESHD patients, 128(64.9%) were treated with oral cholecalciferol (median dose of 60000 IU). The proportion of severe cases, oxygen, or ICU admission was not significantly different in the treated vs. untreated group. In conclusion, serum 25-OHD levels at admission did not correlate with inflammatory markers, clinical outcomes, or mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD patients. Treatment of VDD MESHD with cholecalciferol did not make any difference to the outcomes.

    Effect of Vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19 MESHD status: A systematic review

    Authors: Pranta Das; Nandeeta Samad; Bright Opoku Ahinkorah; Prince Peprah; Aliu Mohammed; Abdul-Aziz Seidu

    doi:10.1101/2020.12.01.20242313 Date: 2020-12-03 Source: medRxiv

    Background: One major micronutrient known to have a possible protective effect against COVID-19 MESHD disease is vitamin D. This systematic review sought to identify and synthesis available evidence to aid the understanding of the possible effect of vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19 MESHD status and health outcomes in COVID-19 MESHD patients. Methods: Three databases PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were searched systematically to obtain English language journal article published within 1/12/2019 and 3/11/2020. The search consisted of the terms ("Vitamin D," OR "25-Hydroxyvitamin D," OR "Low Vitamin D.") AND (" COVID-19 MESHD" OR "2019-nCoV" OR "Coronavirus" OR "SARS-CoV-2") AND ("disease severity" OR "IMV" OR "ICU admission" OR "mortality" OR "hospitalization" OR "infection MESHD"). We followed the recommended PRISMA guidelines in executing this study. After going through the screening of the articles, eleven articles were included in the review. Findings: Almost all the included studies reported a positive association between Vitamin D sufficiency and COVID-19 MESHD status and health outcomes. Vitamin D deficient patients (< 25 ng/mL) are 5.84 times [aOR=6.84, p=0.01] more likely to die from COVID-19 MESHD compared to the vitamin D sufficient people. Another study also found that Vitamin D deficiency MESHD is associated with higher risk of death MESHD with Hazard ratio (HR) 14.73, p<0.001. Vitamin D deficient (<12 ng/mL) people were 2.2 times [aOR=3.2, p=0.07] more likely to develop severe COVID-19 MESHD after adjusting for age, gender, obesity MESHD, cardiac disease MESHD, and kidney disease MESHD compared to the vitamin D sufficient people. One study found that after controlling for confounders, patients with low 25(OH)D (<30 ng/mL) level are more likely [aOR=1.45, p=<0.001] to be COVID-19 MESHD infected compared to the patients with 25(OH)D level >=30 ng/mL. Conclusion: Findings from the study included suggest Vitamin D may serve as a mitigating effect for covid-19 MESHD infection, severity and mortality. We recommend the need to encourage people to eat foods rich in vitamin D such as fish, red meat, liver and egg yolks whiles at the same time providing vitamin D supplements for individuals with COVID-19 MESHD in order to boost their immune systems.

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MeSH Disease
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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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