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SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    COVID-19 MESHD Outcomes in Patients Undergoing B Cell Depletion Therapy and Those With Humoral Immunodeficiency MESHD States: A Scoping Review

    Authors: Jessica M Jones; Aiman J Faruqi; James K Sullivan; Cassandra Calabrese; Leonard H Calabrese

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-224753/v1 Date: 2021-02-08 Source: ResearchSquare

    The role of humoral immunity has been well established in reducing infection risk and facilitating viral clearance in patients with COVID-19 MESHD. However, the relationship between specific antibody responses and severity of COVID-19 MESHD is less well understood. To address this question and identify gaps in knowledge, we utilized the methodology of a scoping review to interrogate risk of infection and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 MESHD in patients with iatrogenic MESHD and inborn humoral immunodeficiency MESHD states based on existing literature. Among patients with iatrogenic B cell depletion, particularly with agents targeting CD20 HGNC, our analysis found increased risk of severe COVID-19 MESHD and death MESHD across a range of underlying disease states.  Among patients with humoral inborn errors MESHD of immunity with COVID-19 MESHD, our synthesis found that patients with dysregulated humoral immunity MESHD, predominantly common variable immunodeficiency MESHD (CVID), may be more susceptible to severe COVID-19 MESHD than patients with humoral immunodeficiency MESHD states due to X-linked agammaglobulinemia MESHD and other miscellaneous form of humoral immunodeficiency MESHD. There were insufficient data to appraise the risk of COVID-19 MESHD infection in both populations of patients. Our work identifies potentially significant predictors of COVID-19 MESHD severity in patients with humoral immunodeficiency MESHD states and highlights the need for larger studies to identify clinical and biologic confounders of disease severity.

    The iatrogenic elevation of neutrophils possibly aggravates lung injury after COVID-19 MESHD infection: A case report

    Authors: Jian Tang; Bao Sun; Jinsong Cao; Xia Xie; Xuyu Zu; Bin Huang; Hui Fu; Jiecan Zhou; Qiaosheng Wang; Xiaoqing Tang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-31217/v1 Date: 2020-05-25 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is a rapidly escalating epidemic in most of countries. Symptom of COVID-19 MESHD usually present as the normal or decrease of leucocytes and the decrease of lymphocytes, which may be the body’s response for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. However, it is unknown that whether rising leukocytes, especially neutrophils, will aggravate lung injury MESHD in COVID-19 MESHD. Here we report a case of aggravated lung injury MESHD induced by rising neutrophils with the usage of recombinant human granulocyte stimulating factor (GSF) HGNC for the first time.Case presentation: A patient aged 46 years old was infected with SARS-CoV-2 without hypoxemia MESHD on admission, but his leucocytes decreased gradually after admission. After following injected with recombinant human granulocyte stimulating factor(GSF) 150 μg , the absolute value of leucocytes reached to 32.81×109 /L, and neutrophils were 31.57×109/L. Then, the patient’s condition deteriorated rapidly and he appeared a series of symptoms, such as short breath MESHD, hemoptysis, hypoxemia MESHD, increased range of lung lesions MESHD and secondary acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD ( ARDS MESHD). However, those symptoms were alleviated and leucocytes recover to normal level gradually after stopping recombinant human GSF HGNC treatment. Eventually, Re-examination of CT showed that lung lesions MESHD were absorbed significantly and he was cured and discharged from hospital.Conclusion: This case report showed that  iatrogenic increase of leucocytes (especially neutrophils) may worsen lung injury and leucocyte MESHD increasing agents were used with caution  in the early stage of COVID-19 MESHD patients. At the same time, the phenomenon remains to be further confirmed in the future study.

    Concentration-dependent mortality of chloroquine in overdose

    Authors: James A Watson; Joel Tarning; Richard M Hoglund; Frederic J Baud; Bruno Megarbane; Jean-Luc Clemessy; Nicholas J White

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.24.20078303 Date: 2020-04-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have been used extensively in malaria MESHD and rheumatological conditions. Although generally safe and well tolerated they are potentially lethal in overdose MESHD. These two drugs are now candidates for the prevention and treatment of COVID19 MESHD. In vitro data suggest that high concentrations and thus high doses will be needed if they are to be of benefit, but as yet there is no convincing evidence they are clinically effective. Nevertheless they are already being used very widely and fatal accidental overdoses MESHD have been reported. Methods: Individual data from prospectively studied French patients who had taken intentional chloroquine overdoses MESHD and were managed in the national toxicology intensive care unit in Paris were pooled. Bayesian logistic regression was used to estimate a concentration-fatality curve. The probabilities of fatal iatrogenic toxicity MESHD with the chloroquine regimens currently being trialled for the treatment of COVID19 MESHD were estimated from a combined pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model. Findings: In total, 258 patients were studied of whom 26 died (10%). There was a steep sigmoid relationship between admission whole blood chloroquine concentrations and death MESHD. Concentrations above 13umol/L (95% credible interval (C.I.), 10 to 16) were associated with greater than 1% mortality. Based on peak concentrations, absolute fatality ratios in the high dose arm (chloroquine base equivalent adult dose of 600mg given twice daily for ten days) of a recently terminated trial were estimated between 0.06% (90kg adult, 95%C.I. 0 to 0.3%) and 4.8% (40kg adult, 95% C.I. 1.9 to 9.7%). This regimen results in peak concentrations above 10umol/L in more than 60% of adults weighing 70kg. The other high dose regimens trialled currently for COVID19 MESHD result in peak concentrations above 10umol/L in only 0.2% of adults weighting 70kg. Interpretation:} High-dose chloroquine treatment regimens which result in whole blood chloroquine concentrations below 10umol/L for the majority of patients should not result in life-threatening cardiovascular toxicity MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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