Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins


SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    The Value of a Regional Living COVID-19 MESHD Registry and the Challenges of Keeping It Alive

    Authors: John Hanna; Tara Chen; Carlos Portales-Castillo; Donna Newhart; Katherine Schantz; Kathleen Rozzi; Jonathan Bress; Emil Lesho

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.06.21255019 Date: 2021-04-09 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The need for rapid access to regularly updated patient data for hypothesis testing, surge planning, and epidemiologic investigations underscore the value of updated registries that clinicians, researchers, and policy makers can easily access for local and regional planning. We sought to create an adaptive, living registry containing detailed clinical and epidemiologic and outcome data from SARS-CoV-2-PCR-positive patients in our healthcare system. Methods: From 03/13/202 onward, demographics, comorbidities, outpatient medications, along with 75 laboratory, 2 imaging, 19 therapeutic, and 4 outcome-related parameters were manually extracted from the electronic medical record of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. These parameters were entered on a registry featuring calculation, graphing tools, pivot tables, and a macro programming language. Initially, two internal medicine residents populated the database, then professional data abstractors populated the registry. When the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases MESHD released their COVID-19 MESHD case report form for public access, we adapted it and used it on a browser-based, metadata-driven electronic data capture software platform. Statistics were performed in R and Minitab. Results: At the time of this submission, 200,807 SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests were performed on 107,604 distinct patients. 3699 (3.4%) of those have had positive results. Of those, 399 (11%) have had the more than 75 parameters full entered in the registry. The average follow-up period was 25 days (range 21-34 days). Age, male gender, diabetes MESHD, hypertension MESHD, cardiovascular disease MESHD, kidney disease MESHD, and cancer MESHD were associated with hospital admission (all p values < 0.01), but not ICU admission. Statin, ACEI-ARB, and acid suppressant use were associated with admission (all p values < 0.03). Obesity MESHD and history of autoimmune disease MESHD were not associated with need for admission. Supplemental oxygen, vasopressor requirement, and outpatient statin use were associated with increased mortality (all p values < 0.03). Conclusion: A living COVID-19 MESHD registry represents a mechanism to facilitate optimal sharing of data between providers, consumers, health information networks, and health plans through technology-enabled, secure-access electronic health information. Our approach also involves a diversity of new roles in the field, such as using residents, staff, and the quality department, in addition to professional data extractors and the health informatics team. However, due to the overwhelming number of infections that continues to accelerate, and the labor/time intense nature of the project, only 11% of all patients with COVID-19 MESHD had all parameters entered in the registry. Therefore, this report also offers lessons learned and discusses sustainability issues, should others wish to establish a registry. It also highlights the local and broader public health significance of the registry.

    Risk factors for severity on admission and the disease progression during hospitalization in a large cohort of COVID-19 MESHD patients in Japan

    Authors: Mari Terada; Hiroshi Ohtsu; Sho Saito; Kayoko Hayakawa; Shinya Tsuzuki; Yusuke Asai; Nobuaki Matsunaga; Satoshi Kutsuna; Wataru Sugiura; Norio Ohmagari

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.02.21254809 Date: 2021-04-07 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: To investigate the risk factors contributing to severity on admission. Additionally, risk factors on worst severity and fatality were studied. Moreover, factors were compared based on three points: early severity, worst severity, and fatality. Design: A observational cohort study utilizing data entered in a Japan nationwide COVID-19 MESHD inpatient registry, COVIREGI-JP. Setting: As of August 31, 2020, 7,546 cases from 780 facilities have been registered. Participating facilities cover a wide range of hospitals where COVID-19 MESHD patients are admitted in Japan. Participants: Participants who had a positive test result on any applicable SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic tests, and were admitted to participating healthcare facilities. A total of 3,829 cases were identified from January 16 to May 31, 2020, of which 3,376 cases were included in this study. Primary and secondary outcoe measures: Primary outcome was severe or non-severe on admission, determined by the requirement of mechanical ventilation or oxygen therapy, SpO2, or respiratory rate. Secondary outcome was the worst severity during hospitalization, judged by the requirement of oxygen and/or IMV/ECMO. Results: Risk factors for severity on admission were older age, male, cardiovascular disease MESHD, chronic respiratory disease MESHD, diabetes MESHD, obesity MESHD, and hypertension MESHD. Cerebrovascular disease MESHD, liver disease MESHD, renal disease MESHD or dialysis, solid tumor MESHD, and hyperlipidemia MESHD did not influence severity on admission ; however it influenced worst severity. Fatality rates for obesity MESHD, hypertension MESHD, and hyperlipidemia MESHD were relatively lower. Conclusions: This study segregated the comorbidities driving severity and death MESHD. It is possible that risk factors for severity on admission, worst severity, and fatality are not consistent and may be propelled by different factors. Specifically, while hypertension MESHD, hyperlipidemia MESHD, and obesity MESHD had major effect on worst severity, their impact was mild on fatality in the Japanese population. Some studies contradict our results; therefore, detailed analyses, considering in-hospital treatments, are needed for validation. Trial registration: UMIN000039873.

    Exploring causal relationships between COVID-19 MESHD and cardiometabolic disorders MESHD: A bi-directional Mendelian randomization study

    Authors: Yong XIANG; Carlos Kwan-Long CHAU; Jinghong QIU; Shitao RAO; Hon-Cheong So

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.20.21254008 Date: 2021-03-20 Source: medRxiv

    Background: More than 100 million cases of COVID-19 MESHD have been reported worldwide. A number of risk factors for infection or severe infection have been identified, however observational studies were subject to confounding bias. In addition, there is still limited knowledge about the complications or medical consequences of the disease. Methods: Here we performed bi-directional Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to evaluate causal relationships between liability to COVID-19 MESHD (and severe/ critical infection MESHD) and a wide range of around 30 cardiometabolic disorders MESHD ( CMD MESHD) or traits. Genetic correlation (rg) was assessed by LD score regression(LDSC). The latest GWAS summary statistics from the COVID-19 MESHD Host Genetics Initiative was used, which comprised comparisons of general population controls with critically ill, hospitalized and any infected cases. Results: Overall we observed evidence that liability to COVID-19 MESHD or severe infection may be causally associated with higher risks of type 2 diabetes mellitus MESHD(T2DM), chronic kidney disease MESHD(CKD), ischemic stroke MESHD (especially large artery stroke MESHD[LAS]) and heart failure MESHD(HF) when compared to the general population. On the other hand, our findings suggested that liability to atrial fibrillation MESHD ( AF MESHD), stroke MESHD (especially LAS), obesity MESHD, diabetes MESHD (T1DM and T2DM), low insulin sensitivity MESHD insulin HGNC sensitivity and impaired renal function MESHD (low eGFR HGNC and diabetic kidney disease MESHD) may be causal risk factors for COVID-19 MESHD or severe disease. In genetic correlation analysis, T2DM, CAD, obesity MESHD, fasting insulin HGNC, CKD, gout MESHD, stroke MESHD and urate showed positive rg with critical or hospitalized infection. All above findings passed multiple testing correction at a false discovery rate (FDR)<0.05. Conclusions: In summary, this study provides evidence for tentative bi-directional causal associations between liability to COVID-19 MESHD and severe disease and a number of CM disorders MESHD. Further replications and prospective studies are required to verify the findings.

    Plasma ACE2 HGNC levels predict outcome of COVID-19 MESHD in hospitalized patients

    Authors: Tue W Kragstrup; Helene S Singh; Ida Grundberg; Ane L L Nielsen; Felice Rivellese; Arnav Mehta; Marcia B Goldberg; Michael Filbin; Per Qvist; Bo Martin Bibby

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.08.21252819 Date: 2021-03-10 Source: medRxiv

    Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) binds to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 ( ACE2 HGNC) enabling entrance of the virus into cells and causing the infection termed coronavirus disease of 2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD). COVID-19 MESHD is a disease with a very broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic and subclinical infection to severe hyperinflammatory syndrome MESHD and death MESHD. Methods This study used data from a large longitudinal study of 306 COVID-19 MESHD positive patients and 78 COVID-19 MESHD negative patients (MGH Emergency Department COVID-19 MESHD Cohort with Olink Proteomics). Comprehensive clinical data were collected on this cohort, including 28-day outcomes classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 MESHD outcomes scale. The samples were run on the Olink Explore 1536 platform which includes measurement of the ACE2 HGNC protein. Findings High baseline levels of ACE2 HGNC in plasma from COVID-19 MESHD patients were associated with worse WHOmax category at 28 days with OR=0.56, 95%-CI: 0.44-0.71 (P < 0.0001). This association was significant in regression models with correction for baseline characteristics, pre-existing medical conditions, and laboratory test results. High levels of ACE2 HGNC in plasma from COVID-19 MESHD patients were also significantly associated with worse WHO category at the time of blood sampling at both day 0, day 3, and day 7 (P = 0.0004, P < 0.0001, and P < 0.0001, respectively). The levels of ACE2 HGNC in plasma from COVID-19 MESHD patients with hypertension MESHD were significantly higher compared to patients without hypertension MESHD (P = 0.0045). The plasma ACE2 HGNC levels were also significantly higher in COVID-19 MESHD patients with pre-existing heart conditions and kidney disease MESHD compared with patients without these pre-existing conditions (P = 0.0363 and P = 0.0303, respectively). There was no difference in plasma ACE2 HGNC levels comparing patients with or without pre-existing lung disease MESHD, diabetes MESHD, or immunosuppressive conditions (P = 0.953, P = 0.291, and P = 0.237, respectively). The associations between high plasma levels of ACE2 HGNC and worse WHOmax category during 28 days were more pronounced in COVID-19 MESHD positive patients compared with COVID-19 MESHD negative patients but the difference was not significant in the two-way ANOVA analysis. Interpretation This study suggests that measuring ACE2 HGNC is potentially valuable in predicting COVID-19 MESHD outcomes. Further, ACE2 HGNC levels could be a link between severe COVID-19 MESHD disease and its risk factors, namely hypertension MESHD, pre-existing heart disease MESHD and pre-existing kidney disease MESHD. The design of the data analysis using the Olink platform does not allow assessment of quantitative differences. However, previous studies have described a positive correlation between plasma ACE2 HGNC and ACE1 HGNC activity. This is interesting because ACE1 HGNC (serum ACE HGNC) analysis is a standardized test in most hospital laboratories. Therefore, our study encourages quantitative investigations of both plasma ACE 1 and 2 in COVID-19 MESHD.

    Factors associated with increased mortality in critically ill COVID-19 MESHD patients in a Mexican public hospital: the other faces of health system oversaturation.

    Authors: Mariana Jocelyn Macias Guzman; Alejandro Castillo Gonzalez; Jose Lenin Beltran Gonzalez; Mario Gonzalez Gamez; Emmanuel Antonio Mendoza Enciso; Itzel Ovalle Robles; Andrea Lucia Garcia Diaz; Cesar Mauricio Gutierrez Pena; Lucila Martinez Medina; Victor Antonio Monroy Colin; Jose Manuel Arreola Guerra

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.04.21252084 Date: 2021-03-08 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND The lethality rate of COVID-19 MESHD in Mexico is one of the highest worldwide, but in-hospital factors associated with this increased rate have yet to be explored. This study aims to evaluate those factors that could be associated with mortality at 28 days in critically ill COVID-19 MESHD patients in Mexico. METHODS This is a retrospective post hoc analysis of the clinical trial (NCT04381858) comparing the safety and efficacy of administering convalescent plasma from COVID-19 MESHD patients or human immunoglobulin. The primary outcome, death MESHD at 28 days, was analyzed. Results Between May and October 2020, 196 predominantly male patients (n=122, 62.2%) with an average of 58.1 years (plus-or-minus sign 15.5), were included in the cohort. Mortality at 28 days was 44.3 % (n = 84). Patients included in the second trimester had a greater mortality rate when compared with those recruited in the first trimester (54.1 vs 32.1, p < 0.01). On multivariate analysis, the detected protective factors were the use of fentanyl HR 0.51 (95%CI 0.31 - 0.85, p=0.01), the use of antibiotics HR 0.22 (95% CI 0.13 - 0.36, p < 0.01), and a previously healthy state (no comorbidities other than obesity MESHD) HR 0.58 (95%CI 0.35 - 0.94, p = 0.03); risk factors were severe kidney injury (AKIN3) HR MESHD 1.74 (95%CI 1.04 - 2.9, p=0.035), elevated D-Dimer levels HR 1.02 (95%CI 1.007 - 1.04, p=0.005), shock MESHD OR 5.8 (2.4 - 13.8, p < 0.01), and recruitment in the second trimester OR 2.3 (95%CI 1.1 - 4.8, p=0.02). Conclusion In-hospital mortality in critically ill COVID-19 MESHD patients has increased in our center. The appropriate use of antibiotics, the type of sedation, and AKIN3 are modifiable factors directly related to this increased mortality. The increase in mortality observed in the second trimester is explained by hospital overcrowding that began in August 2020.

    Trajectories of Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics Associated with COVID-19 MESHD in Hemodialysis Patients by Survival

    Authors: Sheetal Chaudhuri; Rachel Lasky; Yue Jiao; John W Larkin; Caitlin Monaghan; Anke Winter; Luca Neri; Peter Kotanko; Jeffrey Hymes; Sangho Lee; Yuedong Wang; Jeroen Kooman; Franklin Maddux; Len Usvyat

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.28.21252383 Date: 2021-03-02 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: The clinical impact of COVID-19 MESHD has not been established in the dialysis population. We evaluated the trajectories of clinical and laboratory parameters in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: We used data from adult HD patients treated at an integrated kidney disease MESHD company who received a RT-PCR test to investigate suspicion of a SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD between 01 May and 01 Sep 2020. Nonparametric smoothing splines were used to fit data for individual trajectories and estimate the mean change over time in patients testing positive or negative for SARS-CoV-2 and those who survived or died within 30 days of first suspicion or positive test date. For each clinical parameter of interest, the difference in average daily changes between COVID-19 MESHD positive versus negative group and COVID-19 MESHD survivor versus non-survivor group was estimated by fitting a linear mixed effects model based on measurements in the 14 days before (i.e., day -14 to day 0) day 0. Results: There were 12,836 HD patients with a suspicion of COVID-19 MESHD who received RT-PCR testing (8,895 SARS-CoV-2 positive). We observed significantly different trends (p<0.05) in pre- HD systolic blood pressure MESHD ( SBP HGNC), pre-HD pulse rate, body temperature, ferritin, lymphocytes, albumin, and interdialytic weight gain MESHD ( IDWG MESHD) between COVID-19 MESHD positive and negative patient. For COVID-19 MESHD positive group, we observed significantly different clinical trends (p<0.05) in pre-HD pulse rate, lymphocytes, albumin and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) between survivors and non-survivors. We also observed that, in the group of survivors, most clinical parameters returned to pre- COVID-19 MESHD levels within 60-90 days. Conclusion: We observed unique temporal trends in various clinical and laboratory parameters among HD patients who tested positive versus negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and those who survived the infection versus those who died. These trends can help to define the physiological disturbances that characterize the onset and course of COVID-19 MESHD in HD patients

    Critical COVID-19 MESHD represents an endothelial disease with high similarity to kidney disease MESHD on the molecular level

    Authors: Justyna Siwy; Ralph Wendt; Amaya Albalat; Tianlin He; Harald Mischak; William Mullen; Agnieszka Latosinska; Christoph Luebbert; Sven Kalbitz; Alexandre Mebazaa; Bjoern Peters; Bernd Stegmayr; Goce Spasovski; Thorsten Wiech; Jan Staessen; Johannes Wolf; Joachim Beige

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.22.21252207 Date: 2021-02-23 Source: medRxiv

    In patients with critical or mild COVID19 MESHD (WHO stages 6-8 [n=53] and stages 1-3 [n=66]), 593 urinary peptides significantly affected by disease severity were identified, reflecting the molecular pathophysiology associated with the course of the infection. The peptide profiles were similar compared with those observed in kidney disease MESHD, a prototype of target organ damage with major microvascular involvement, thereby confirming the observation that endothelial damage is a hallmark of COVID19 MESHD. The clinical corollary is that COVID19 MESHD is an indication for anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive treatment modalities protecting the endothelial lining.

    Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Considering Shared Chairs in Outpatient Dialysis: A Real-World Case-Control Study

    Authors: Ravi Thadhani; Joanna Willetts; Catherine Wang; John W Larkin; Hanjie Zhang; Lemuel Rivera Fuentes; Len Usvyat; Kathleen Belmonte; Yuedong Wang; Robert Kossmann; Jeffrey Hymes; Peter Kotanko; Franklin W Maddux

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.20.21251855 Date: 2021-02-23 Source: medRxiv

    Background: SARS-CoV-2 is primarily transmitted through aerosolized droplets; however, the virus can remain transiently viable on surfaces. Objective: We examined transmission within hemodialysis facilities, with a specific focus on the possibility of indirect patient-to-patient transmission through shared dialysis chairs. Design: We used real-world data from hemodialysis patients treated between February 1st and June 8th, 2020 to perform a case-control study matching each SARS-CoV-2 positive patient (case) to a non-SARS-CoV-2 patient (control) in the same dialysis shift and traced back 14 days to capture possible exposure from chairs sat in by SARS-CoV-2 patients. Cases and controls were matched on age, sex, race, facility, shift date, and treatment count. Setting: 2,600 hemodialysis facilities in the United States. Patients: Adult (age [≥]18 years) hemodialysis patients. Measurements: Conditional logistic regression models tested whether chair exposure after a positive patient conferred a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD to the immediate subsequent patient. Results: Among 170,234 hemodialysis patients, 4,782 (2.8%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (mean age 64 years, 44% female). Most facilities (68.5%) had 0 to 1 positive SARS-CoV-2 patient. We matched 2,379 SARS-CoV-2 positive cases to 2,379 non-SARS-CoV-2 controls; 1.30% (95%CI 0.90%, 1.87%) of cases and 1.39% (95%CI 0.97%, 1.97%) of controls were exposed to a chair previously sat in by a shedding SARS-CoV-2 patient. Transmission risk among cases was not significantly different from controls (OR=0.94; 95%CI 0.57 to 1.54; p=0.80). Results remained consistent in adjusted and sensitivity analyses. Limitation: Analysis used real-world data that could contain errors and only considered vertical transmission associated with shared use of dialysis chairs by symptomatic patients. Conclusions: The risk of indirect patient-to-patient transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD from dialysis chairs appears to be low. Primary Funding Source: Fresenius Medical Care North America; National Institute of Diabetes MESHD and Digestive and Kidney Diseases MESHD (R01DK130067)

    Higher Mortality from Covid19 MESHD in Patients with Renal Dysfunction MESHD in A Multicultural Multi-Ethnic Population

    Authors: Satish Chandrasekhar Nair; Huda Imam Gasmelseed; Asad Afroz Khan; Ibrahim Nageh Khafagy; Hashim Ibrahim Abdrhman; Aqeel Aziz Saleem; Jayadevan Sreedharan; Ahmed Husain Alhosani; Amatur Rahman Siddiqua; Amna Riaz Ahmed; Aya Imad Shubbar; Majd Munir Farajallah; Abdul Rahman Aleissaee; Alan Mohammad Hamadeh; Khlood Mustafa Bashir; Haneen Bassam Choker; Mohamed Nasir Alzaabi; Saif Saeed Alshehhi; Maitha Ali Alblooshi; Fatmah Ali Safdani; Rajish Sanjit Shil; Fuad Wardan Habbal; Abdulrahman Wael Alanqar; Wafa Fayez Douleh

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2021-02-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Despite previous exposure to coronavirus epidemics a few years ago, limited clinical and epidemiological information is available from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The UAE is the second most affected country amongst the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries by Covid19 MESHD. Distinctly, the UAE has a population of almost 9.2 million, with fewer than 12% UAE nationals, and the rest immigrants, mainly unskilled labourers. The disparate socio-economic structure, crowded housing conditions, multi-ethnic, multicultural population offers a unique set of challenges in Covid19 MESHD disease management.Methods In order to assess patient characteristics and survival for patients infected with Covid19 MESHD, electronic patient data was retrospectively abstracted from the medical records of two designated public Covid19 MESHD referral hospitals, and subjected to statistical analysis.Results From, the total of 3072 patients, less than one-fifth were females, the Asian population (71.2%), followed by Middle Eastern Arabs (23.3%) were the most infected by the virus. Mortality was low among the Asian population. Diabetes Mellitus MESHD (26.8%, p < 0.001), hypertension MESHD (25.7%, p < 0.001), and heart disease MESHD (9.6%, p < 0.01) were the most prevalent comorbidities observed and decreased survival by 2–3 fold. Kidney disease escalated mortality MESHD rate by almost eight-fold high (19.4%, p < 0.001), as compared to patients without kidney disease MESHD. Higher age of patients between 51 and 65 years, significantly decreased the odds for survival (Crude OR 14.1, p<,0.001) and (Adjusted OR 12.3, p < 0.001), and patient age beyond 66 years, further significantly decreased the odds for survival (Crude OR 36.1, p < 0.001) and (Adjusted OR 26.6,p < 0.001). Kidney disease MESHD as comorbidity significantly diminished the survival rates (Crude OR 9.6,p < 0.001) and (Adjusted OR 5.7, p < 0.001), as compared to those without kidney dysfunction MESHD.Conclusion Although Asian population was the highest infected by Covd19, their mortality rate was low (2.6%), compared to other nationalities. Older ages above 51 years decreased the odds of survival significantly. Despite other comorbidity risks, kidney dysfunction MESHD contributed to enhanced mortality by over eight-fold and reduced the odds of survival (Adjusted OR 26.6), compared to those patients without kidney dysfunction MESHD. Our findings are important in the management of the Covid19 MESHD disease in the region with similar economic, social, cultural and ethnic background.

    Outcomes of COVID-19 MESHD among Patients with End Stage Renal Disease MESHD on Remdesivir

    Authors: Vijairam Selvaraj; Muhammad Baig; Kwame Dapaah-Afriyie; Arkadiy Finn; Atin Jindal; George Bayliss

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.10.21251527 Date: 2021-02-15 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUNDSince the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD, there has been widespread use of remdesivir in adults and children. There is little known information about its outcomes in patients with severe renal dysfunction MESHD or end-stage renal disease MESHD who are on hemodialysis. METHODSA retrospective, multicenter study was conducted on patients with end-stage renal disease MESHD on hemodialysis that were discharged after treatment for COVID-19 MESHD between April 1st and December 31st, 2020. Primary endpoints were the length of stay, mortality, maximum oxygen requirements along with the escalation of care needing mechanical ventilation. Secondary endpoints included change in C reactive protein HGNC, d dimer levels, and disposition. RESULTSA total of 52 charts were reviewed, of which 28 met the inclusion criteria. 14 patients received remdesivir, and 14 patients did not receive remdesivir. The majority of patients were caucasian, female, with diabetes mellitus MESHD and hypertension MESHD. The mean age was 65.33 +14.14 years. All the patients in the remdesivir group received dexamethasone as compared to only 30% of patients in the non-remdesivir group. There was no significant difference in C reactive protein HGNC, d dimer levels, and disposition between the two groups. Approximately 35% of the patients died, 18% required intensive ventilation, and the mean length of stay was 12.21 days. DISCUSSIONThe study demonstrated no clinically significant difference in length of stay, maximum oxygen requirements, or mortality in COVID-19 MESHD patients with end-stage renal disease MESHD in the remdesivir group as compared to the non-remdesivir group. Further studies are needed to study the effects of remdesivir on the renal function and disease course in patients with chronic kidney disease MESHD stage 4 or 5 that are not on dialysis.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins

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