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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (5)

NSP3 (1)

ComplexRdRp (1)

ORF7a (1)


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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    The Impact of Intervention to Routine Surveillance of Natural Focal Diseases During the Outbreak of COVID-19 MESHD in Jiangsu Province, China

    Authors: Jianli Hu; Xiaoqing Cheng; Li Luo; Zeyu Zhao; Nan Zhang; Mikah Ngwanguong Hannah; Jia Rui; Shengnan Lin; Xingchun Liu; Yuanzhao Zhu; Yao Wang; Meng Yang; Jingwen Xu; Tianlong Yang; Weikang Liu; Peihua Li; Bin Deng; Zhuoyang Li; Chan Liu; Jiefeng Huang; Cangjun Bao; Tianmu Chen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-135563/v1 Date: 2020-12-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: With the strength intervention of China, the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus MESHD 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had a great control effect. The measures may influence the development and progression of others infectious diseases MESHD.Method: The data of daily coronavirus virus disease MESHD 2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD) confirmed cases from January 3, 2020 to April 30, 2020 and natural focal disease cases from January, 2005 to April, 2020 were collected from Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Jiangsu Provincial CDC). We describe and compare the data of natural focal diseases from January to April, 2020 with the same months from 2015 to 2019 in the four aspects: trend of incidence, regional, age and sex distribution. Nonparametric tests were used to analyzed to the difference between the duration from onset of illness to date of diagnosis of natural focal diseases and the same period of the previous year. Results: The incidence of malaria MESHD in February (0.9 per 10,000,000 people), March (0.3 per 10,000,000 people) and April (0.1 per 10,000,000 people) 2020 less than the lower limit for range of February (1.6-4.5 per 10,000,000 people), March (0.8-3.3 per 10,000,000 people) and April (1.0-2.9 per 10,000,000 people) from 2015 to 2019 respectively. The incidence of brucellosis MESHD in February was 0.9 (per 10,000,000 people), less than the lower limit for the range from 2015 to 2019 (1.6-4.5 per 10,000,000 people). The incidence of hemorrhagic fever MESHD ( HF MESHD) in March was 1.0 (per 10,000,000 people), less than the lower limit for the range from 2015 to 2019 (1.4-2.6 per 10,000,000 people). However, the incidence of Severe Fever MESHD with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome MESHD ( SEFT MESHD) in March was 0.3 (per 10,000,000 people), higher than the upper limit for the range from 2015 to 2019 (0.0-0.1 per 10,000,000 people). Furthermore, we respectively observed the incidence with various degree of reduction in male, 20-60 years old and both rural and urban areas. Conclusions: In Jiangsu province, the incidence of natural focal diseases decreased during the outbreak of COVID-19 MESHD in 2020, especially malaria MESHD, HF MESHD and SEFT. The impact of interventions were felt most by male individuals within the age group of 20-50 years. The interventions for COVID-19 MESHD may control the epidemics of natural focal diseases.

    Methylene Blue has a potent antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 and H1N1 influenza virus in the absence of UV-activation in vitro

    Authors: Valeria Cagno1; Chiara Medaglia; Andreas Cerny; Thomas Cerny; Arnaud Zwygart; Erich Cerny; Caroline Tapparel

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-134789/v1 Date: 2020-12-23 Source: ResearchSquare

    Methylene blue is an FDA (food and drug administration) and EMA (european medicines agency) approved drug with an excellent safety profile. It displays broad-spectrum virucidal activity in the presence of UV light and has been shown to be effective in inactivating various viruses in blood products prior to transfusions. In addition, its use has been validated for methemoglobinemia MESHD and malaria MESHD treatment. In this study, we first evaluated the virucidal activity of methylene blue against Influenza Virus H1N1 upon different incubation times and in the presence or absence of light activation, and then against SARS-CoV-2. We further assessed the therapeutic activity of methylene blue by administering it to cells previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. Finally, we examined the effect of co-administration of the drug together with immune serum.  Our findings reveal that methylene blue displays virucidal preventive or therapeutic activity against Influenza Virus H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 at low micromolar concentrations and in the absence of UV activation. We also confirm that MB antiviral activity is based on several mechanisms of action as the degradation of genomic RNA is only observed in the presence of light and after long exposure. Our work supports the interest of testing methylene blue in clinical studies to confirm a preventive or therapeutic efficacy against both Influenza Virus H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD.

    A comparative analysis of COVID-19 MESHD mortality rate across the globe: An extensive analysis of the associated factors

    Authors: Vineet Jain; , Nusrat Nabi; Kailash Chandra; Sana Irshad; Varun kashyap; Sunil Kohli; Arun Gupta

    doi:10.1101/2020.12.22.20248696 Date: 2020-12-22 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundThe vast variation in COVID 19 mortality across the globe draws attention to potential risk factors other than the patient characteristics that determine COVID-19 MESHD mortality. Subjects and MethodsWe have quantified and analyzed one of the broadest set of clinical factors associated with COVID-19 MESHD-related death, ranging from disease related co-morbities, socioeconomic factors, healthcare capacity and government policy and interventions. Data for population, total cases, total COVID mortality, tests done, and GDP per capita were extracted from the worldometers database. Datasets for health expenditure by government, hospital beds, rural population, prevalence of smoking, prevalence of overweight population, deaths due to communicable disease and incidence of malaria MESHD were extracted from the World Bank website. Prevalence of diabetes MESHD was retrieved from the indexmundi rankings. The average population age, 60+ population, delay in lockdown, population density and BCG data were also included for analysis. The COVID-19 MESHD mortality per million and its associated factors were retrieved for 56 countries across the globe. Quantitative analysis was done at the global as well as continent level. All the countries included in the study were categorized continent and region wise for comparative analysis determining the correlation between COVID 19 mortality and the aforementioned factors. ResultsThere was significant association found between mortality per million and 60+ population of country, average age, prevalence of diabetes mellitus MESHD, and case fatality rate with correlation and p value (p) of 0.422 (p 0.009), 0.386 (p 0.0186), -0.384 (p 0.019) and 0.753 (p 0.000) respectively at 95% CI. ConclusionThe study observations will serve as a evidence based management strategy for generating predictive model for COVID-19 MESHD infection and mortality rate.

    The Dynamic Landscape of Parasitaemia Dependent Intestinal Microbiota MESHD Shifting at Species Level and the Correlated Gut Transcriptome During Plasmodium Yoelii Infection

    Authors: Yawen Zong; Lei Cheng; Xiangyun Cheng; Binyou Liao; Xingchen Ye; Taiping Liu; Jiyao Li; Xuedong Zhou; Wenyue Xu; Biao Ren

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-122131/v1 Date: 2020-12-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundMalaria, caused by Plasmodium infection, is a global life-threatening infection disease MESHD especially during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD. However, it is still unclear about the dynamic change and the interactions of the intestinal microbiota and immunity during the whole parasite infection. Here, we investigated the change of intestinal microbiome and transcriptome during the whole Plasmodium infection process MESHD in mice to analyze the dynamic landscape of parasitaemia dependent intestinal MESHD microbiota shifting and related to host immunity.ResultsThere were significant parasitaemia dependent changes of intestinal microbiota and transcriptome, and the microbiota was significantly correlated to the intestinal immunity. We found that (i) the diversity and composition of the intestinal microbiota represented a significant correlation along with the Plasmodium infection in family, genus and species level; (ii) particularly, Erysipelotrichaceae bacterium canine oral taxon 255, Sutterella*, Ruminococcus 1* and Eubacterium plexicaudatum ASF492 were specific during the parasitaemia rising state, while Eubacterium nodatum group* was specific in the recovering phase at species level; (iii) the up-regulated genes from the intestinal transcriptome were mainly enriched in immune cell differentiation pathways along with the malaria MESHD development, particularly, naive CD4+ T cells differentiated into Th1, Th2 and Tfh cells in the early immune response and into Th17 cells in the later response, while B cells were activated during the whole Plasmodium infection process; (iv) the abundance of the parasitaemia phase-specific microbiota represented a high correlation with the phase-specific immune cells development, particularly, Th1 cell with family Bacteroidales BS11 gut group, genera Prevotella 9, Ruminococcaceae UCG 008, Moryella and specie Sutterella* , Th2 cell with specie Sutterella*, Th17 cell with family Peptococcaceae , genus Lachnospiraceae FCS020 group and spices Ruminococcus 1*, Ruminococcus UGG 014* and Eubacterium plexicaudatum ASF492, Tfh and B cell with genera Moryella and species Erysipelotrichaceae bacterium canine oral taxon 255.ConclusionThere were a remarkable dynamic landscape of the parasitaemia dependent shifting of intestinal microbiota and immunity, and a notable correlation between the abundance of intestinal microbiota, especially at species level, and immune cells.

    Repurposing the Ebola and Marburg Virus Inhibitors Tilorone, Quinacrine and Pyronaridine: In vitro Activity Against SARS-CoV-2 and Potential Mechanisms

    Authors: Ana C Puhl; Ethan J Fritch; Thomas R Lane; Longping V Tse; Boyd Yount; Carol Q Sacramento; Tatyana A Tavella; Fabio T. M. Costa; Stuart Weston; James Logue; Matthew Frieman; Lakshmanane Premkumar; Kenneth H Pearce; Brett L Hurst; Carolina H Andrade; James A Levi; Nicole J Johnson; Samantha C Kisthardt; Frank Scholle; Thiago ML Souza; Nathanial J Moorman; Ralph S. Baric; Peter Madrid; Sean Ekins; Monica Pinto; Daniela Cardemil; Marcelo Navarrete; Soledad Reyes; Victoria Espinoza; Nicolas Yanez; Christian Caglevic

    doi:10.1101/2020.12.01.407361 Date: 2020-12-02 Source: bioRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 is a newly identified virus that has resulted in over 1.3 M deaths globally and over 59 M cases globally to date. Small molecule inhibitors that reverse disease severity have proven difficult to discover. One of the key approaches that has been widely applied in an effort to speed up the translation of drugs is drug repurposing. A few drugs have shown in vitro activity against Ebola virus and demonstrated activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vivo. Most notably the RNA polymerase targeting remdesivir demonstrated activity in vitro and efficacy in the early stage of the disease in humans. Testing other small molecule drugs that are active against Ebola virus would seem a reasonable strategy to evaluate their potential for SARS-CoV-2. We have previously repurposed pyronaridine, tilorone and quinacrine (from malaria MESHD, influenza, and antiprotozoal uses, respectively) as inhibitors of Ebola and Marburg virus in vitro in HeLa cells and of mouse adapted Ebola virus in mouse in vivo. We have now tested these three drugs in various cell lines (VeroE6, Vero76, Caco-2, Calu-3, A549-ACE2, HUH-7 and monocytes) infected with SARS-CoV-2 as well as other viruses (including MHV and HCoV 229E). The compilation of these results indicated considerable variability in antiviral activity observed across cell lines. We found that tilorone and pyronaridine inhibited the virus replication in A549-ACE2 cells with IC50 values of 180 nM and IC50 198 nM, respectively. We have also tested them in a pseudovirus assay and used microscale thermophoresis to test the binding of these molecules to the spike protein PROTEIN. They bind to spike RBD protein with Kd values of 339 nM and 647 nM, respectively. Human Cmax for pyronaridine and quinacrine is greater than the IC50 hence justifying in vivo evaluation. We also provide novel insights into their mechanism which is likely lysosomotropic.

    Management of malaria in children under 5-years-old during COVID-19 pandemic MESHD COVID-19 pandemic MESHD in Sierra Leone: a lesson learned?

    Authors: danilo buonsenso; Francesco Iodice; Bianca Cinicola; Francesca Raffaelli; Solia Sowa; Walter Ricciardi

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.04.20225714 Date: 2020-11-05 Source: medRxiv

    Growing evidences are showing the potential indirect effects of COVID-19 MESHD on the health systems of low-resource settings, where diseases such as Tuberculosis, HIV and Malaria MESHD represent major killers. Therefore, we performed a retrospective study aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 MESHD on Malaria MESHD programs in a peripheral region of Sierra Leone, previously involved by the Ebola outbreak in 2015, when malaria MESHD care have been impaired since local health systems were overwhelmed by Ebola cases. During COVID-19 MESHD in Sierra Leone, we did not notice a drop in malaria MESHD diagnosis in children, suggesting that a proactive approach in the management of malaria MESHD in endemic countries during COVID-19 MESHD may have had a positive impact. A comprehensive approach that include also educational activities to sensitize the local population, was useful to guarantee successful malaria MESHD diagnosis and treatment, and prevents excess of malaria deaths MESHD due to potential disruption of the local health systems related to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

    The potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD on HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria control in Africa: a systematic review of modelling studies and population surveys

    Authors: Floriano Amimo; Ben Lambert; Anthony Magit; Masahiro Hashizume

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-103235/v1 Date: 2020-11-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background We reviewed current evidence on the impact of COVID-19 MESHD on HIV, tuberculosis MESHD, and malaria MESHD across Africa.Methods We searched medical databases up to 15 September 2020 for epidemiological studies that investigated the impact of COVID-19 MESHD on HIV, tuberculosis MESHD, and malaria MESHD in terms of morbidity, mortality, or healthcare accessibility, covering African countries. We consulted global health and government sources for population surveys providing relevant primary data. We employed meta-study to assess evidence. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42020209265.Results Of the 128 records screened, 14 epidemiological studies were included in the analysis. We identified 5 population surveys. The largest effect of COVID-19 MESHD related disruption of HIV, TB, and malaria MESHD services is projected to result from interruption of ART, decline in TB case detection, and interruption of insecticide treated bed nets distribution campaigns, respectively. However, most modelling studies substantially underestimated the potential implications of COVID-19 MESHD on HIV, TB, and malaria MESHD in Africa and focused on the disruption of healthcare resulting from reduction in the capacity of healthcare provider. Reduced capacity of patients to use health services and adhere to treatment may also contribute to poor outcomes even when health systems capabilities are restored or unaffected. Moreover, these models do not account for any potential interaction of HIV MESHD, TB, and malaria MESHD with COVID-19 MESHD, although empirical evidence shows that coinfection between HIV and TB with COVID-19 MESHD is significantly associated with increased mortality risk in Africa.Conclusions Current evidence is largely speculative. Innovative COVID-19 MESHD resilient solutions calibrated to local vulnerabilities are vital to ensure continuity of care and prevent the emergence of further potentially larger crises.

    Myanmar Continues to Curb Malaria amid Coronavirus Disease-2019 Crisis

    Authors: Badri Thapa; Aung Thi; Wint Phyo Than; Kyawt Mon Win; San Kyaw Khine

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-101547/v1 Date: 2020-11-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Myanmar has targeted Plasmodium falciparum malaria MESHD elimination by 2025 and all human malaria MESHD elimination by 2030. Coronavirus Disease-2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD) pandemic could jeopardize the current gains. The objective of the study is to assess the impact of COVID-19 MESHD on epidemiology and malaria MESHD services in Myanmar. Methods: This is cross sectional study using retrospective routine programme data reported by Ministry of Health and Sports (for COVID-19 MESHD) and National Malaria MESHD Control Programme (NMCP) (for malaria MESHD) during January – September 2019 and 2020. Results: Myanmar implemented whole of society COVID-19 MESHD response since its first 2 cases were detected on 23 March 2020. NMCP mobilized US$ 7 mil to support, protect and mitigate COVID-19 MESHD impact on malaria MESHD through implementation of tailored guidelines, job aids and risk communication materials starting April 2020. Front line health workers were protected through supplies of surgical masks, hand sanitizer, aprons, gloves, non-contact digital thermometers among others. During January-September 2020, reported malaria MESHD cases, severe cases and deaths declined MESHD by 11%, 34% and 27%, respectively in the same period in 2019. Total P. falciparum cases declined by 55% with minimal increase in tests (0.14%). 80% of cases and 98% of foci were investigated in 2020 in comparison to 68% and 54% in 2019, respectively (p<0.05). In 2020, NMCP distributed 72% of the targeted long-lasting insecticidal nets (vs 49% in 2019) (p<0.05). Integrated Community Malaria Volunteers MESHD (ICMVs) trained in 2020 was 49% in comparison to 94% in 2019 (P<0.05), while number of functional ICMVs remained at 91% (vs 94% in 2019). Overall monthly reports from all reporting units received slightly dropped by 5%. In 2020, NMCP was able to conduct 59% supervision visits at various levels, which was higher than 2019 (56%). Conclusions: Malaria MESHD cases, severe cases and deaths MESHD continued to decline amid COVID-19 MESHD in Myanmar with 55% decline in P. falciparum . Programme need to continue essential malaria MESHD services during the upsurge of COVID-19 MESHD and simultaneously plan proactively to ensure uninterrupted supply of essential malaria MESHD commodities for 2021 to ensure P. falciparum elimination by 2025.

    Searching nature-based solutions to emerging diseases: a preliminary review of Cameroonian medicinal plants with potentials for the management of COVID-19 pandemic MESHD

    Authors: Evariste FONGNZOSSIE FEDOUNG; Achille BIWOLE; Christine Fernande NYANGONO BIYEGUE; Marlene NGANSOP; Patrick AKONO NTONGA; Damien Marie ESSONO; Forbi Preascious FUNWI; Calvin TONGA; Guy Merlin NGUENANG; Victor Aimé KEMEUZE; Denis Jean SONWA; Nole TSABANG; ISabelle Sandrine BOUELET; Zra TIZE; Alexandre Teplaira BOUM; Marie Caroline MOMO SOLEFACK; Jean Kagarde BETTI; Achille NOUGA BISSOUE; Leopold Gustave LEHMAN; Pierre Marie MAPONGMETSEM; Annie NGONO NGANE; Jeanne NGOGANG YONKEU

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-100548/v1 Date: 2020-10-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    Since the outbreak in December 2019 in Wuhan (China) of COVID-19 MESHD, approved drugs are still lacking and the world is seeking effective treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the medicinal plants with potential to be used as complementary therapies against COVID-19 MESHD. Bibliographic information was searched in several databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, PROTA), to retrieve relevant papers on (1) plants used to manage common symptoms of COVI-19, (2) plant secondary metabolites with confirmed inhibitory effects on COVI-19 and (3) plants exhibiting pharmacological activities of relevance for COVID-19 MESHD management. A total of 230 species was recorded as potential source of ingredients for the fight against the 2019 novel corona virus. Of these species, 30 contain confirmed anti COVID-19 MESHD secondary metabolites, 90 are used traditionally to manage at least 3 common symptoms of COVID-19 MESHD, 10 have immunostimulant activity, 52 have anti-inflamatory activity, 14 have antiviral properties and 78 species are documented as used to treat malaria MESHD. A PCA analysis showing cluster formatting among the recorded species recorded indicates 4 groups of species and an array of possibility of using individual species or combination of species for their complementary effects. The authors argue that Cameroonian medicinal plants can be of potential contribution to the fight against COVID-19 MESHD. Further applied research is needed to provide more scientific evidence for their efficacy, to establish standard formulations and clinical studies as part of efforts to develop therapies for COVID-19 MESHD.

    The importance of building community trust for sustained health interventions during disruptive events such as COVID-19 MESHD: A Cambodia case study

    Authors: Mitra Feldman; Lieven Vernaeve; James Tibenderana; Mark Debackere; Leo Braack; Htin Kyaw Thu; Prudence Hamade; Koung Lo

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-94629/v1 Date: 2020-10-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Cambodia has made impressive progress in reducing malaria MESHD trends and, in 2018, reported no malaria MESHD related deaths for the first time. However, the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 ( COVID-19 MESHD) pandemic presents a potential challenge to the country’s goal for malaria MESHD elimination by 2025. The path towards malaria MESHD elimination is dependent on sustained interventions to prevent rapid resurgence, which can quickly set back any gains achieved. Malaria MESHD Consortium supported Mobile Malaria MESHD Workers (MMWs) engage with target communities to promote acceptance, trust, and resilience. During the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD pandemic Malaria MESHD Consortium’s policy has been to follow national guidelines while continuing to support community-based malaria MESHD services via the MMWs / mobile malaria MESHD posts (MPs) with as minimal disruption as possible. A COVID-19 MESHD risk assessment was carried out by Malaria MESHD Consortium, with a mitigation plan quickly developed and implemented, to ensure MMWs were able to continue providing services without putting themselves or their patients at risk.In general, Health Centres and village malaria MESHD workers at District level saw an overall decline in malaria MESHD testing in March and April; however, Malaria MESHD Consortium-supported MMWs did not report any such decline in the utilization of their services. They attribute this to the trust they have among the communities especially regarding Covid-19 MESHD mitigation measures that were implemented, and their consequent ability to continue working safely thanks to Malaria MESHD Consortium’s rapid response and continued support.By effectively demonstrating care and solidarity with and among the MMWs and communities being served, the rapid and effective Covid-19 MESHD mitigation measures and community messaging have ensured a high level of trust, and therefore willingness to continue providing and utilising malaria MESHD services as usual, despite the fear of COVID-19 MESHD. By building trust among rural communities, resilience was strengthened, and effective malaria MESHD elimination activities were able to continue uninterrupted, even during an extraneous disruptive force such as the Covid-19 pandemic MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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