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Overview

MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (6)

NSP3 (1)

ComplexRdRp (1)

ORF7a (1)


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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    The importance of building community trust for sustained health interventions during disruptive events such as COVID-19 MESHD: A Cambodia case study

    Authors: Mitra Feldman; Lieven Vernaeve; James Tibenderana; Mark Debackere; Leo Braack; Htin Kyaw Thu; Prudence Hamade; Koung Lo

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-94629/v1 Date: 2020-10-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Cambodia has made impressive progress in reducing malaria MESHD trends and, in 2018, reported no malaria MESHD related deaths for the first time. However, the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 ( COVID-19 MESHD) pandemic presents a potential challenge to the country’s goal for malaria MESHD elimination by 2025. The path towards malaria MESHD elimination is dependent on sustained interventions to prevent rapid resurgence, which can quickly set back any gains achieved. Malaria MESHD Consortium supported Mobile Malaria MESHD Workers (MMWs) engage with target communities to promote acceptance, trust, and resilience. During the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD pandemic Malaria MESHD Consortium’s policy has been to follow national guidelines while continuing to support community-based malaria MESHD services via the MMWs / mobile malaria MESHD posts (MPs) with as minimal disruption as possible. A COVID-19 MESHD risk assessment was carried out by Malaria MESHD Consortium, with a mitigation plan quickly developed and implemented, to ensure MMWs were able to continue providing services without putting themselves or their patients at risk.In general, Health Centres and village malaria MESHD workers at District level saw an overall decline in malaria MESHD testing in March and April; however, Malaria MESHD Consortium-supported MMWs did not report any such decline in the utilization of their services. They attribute this to the trust they have among the communities especially regarding Covid-19 MESHD mitigation measures that were implemented, and their consequent ability to continue working safely thanks to Malaria MESHD Consortium’s rapid response and continued support.By effectively demonstrating care and solidarity with and among the MMWs and communities being served, the rapid and effective Covid-19 MESHD mitigation measures and community messaging have ensured a high level of trust, and therefore willingness to continue providing and utilising malaria MESHD services as usual, despite the fear of COVID-19 MESHD. By building trust among rural communities, resilience was strengthened, and effective malaria MESHD elimination activities were able to continue uninterrupted, even during an extraneous disruptive force such as the Covid-19 pandemic MESHD.

    Psychiatric side effects induced by chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine: a systematic review of case reports and population studies

    Authors: Fernanda Talarico; Sucheta Chakravarty; Yang Liu; Angrew Greenshaw; Ives Passos; Bo Cao

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.05.20207423 Date: 2020-10-07 Source: medRxiv

    Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are commonly used drugs in the treatment of malaria MESHD as well as chronic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis MESHD, and systemic lupus erythematosus MESHD. Although various reports on possible psychiatric MESHD side effects of these drugs exist, the nature and extent of these effects remain poorly understood. Moreover, the relevance of these drugs in the treatment of early stages of COVID-19 MESHD necessitates a careful estimation of their side effects. Here, we provide a systematic review of the psychiatric MESHD side effects associated with chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. We used PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science platforms to identify relevant literature published between 1962 and 2020. Search terms included chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, psychiatry, psychosis MESHD, depression MESHD, anxiety MESHD, bipolar disorder MESHD, delirium MESHD, and psychotic disorders MESHD. Only case reports and clinical trials were included. All studies included records of psychiatric MESHD side effects induced by either chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine or both. Both retrospective and prospective, randomized as well as non-randomized population studies were included. Overall, the psychiatric MESHD side effects are dose- and sex-independent. The most common psychiatric MESHD side effects reported are increased speech output/ excessive talking, increased psychomotor activity, irritable mood MESHD, auditory hallucinations MESHD, delusion of grandiosity, and suicide attempts, likely due to brain intoxicationbe of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine. The symptoms can develop in a few hours to 11 weeks after drug intake and are normally reversed within a week after the drug withdrawal. We conclude that CQ and HCQ have the potential to induce psychiatric MESHD side effects. This study calls for further investigation of psychiatric symptoms MESHD induced by these drugs in the short and long term.

    Impact of environmental temperature and relative humidity on spread of COVID-19 MESHD infection in India: A cross-sectional time-series analysis

    Authors: Ansuman Panigrahi; Ipsa Mohapatra; S. Suneeti Kanyari; Sabita Maharana; Madhulita Panigrahi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-84876/v1 Date: 2020-09-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose: Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) has become a serious public health problem worldwide. This study sought to examine the associations of daily average temperature ( AT MESHD) and relative humidity ( ARH HGNC) with the percent increase in COVID-19 MESHD cases. Methods: Daily confirmed cases and meteorological factors in 38 districts of India were collected between 1st April 2020 to 30th April 2020. Taking a 5-day time lag of average values of the variables and multiple days-samples, we ran multiple models and performed appropriate hypothesis tests to decide the single preferred model for each sample data. Suitable fixed effects (FE) and random effects (RE) models with cluster-robust standard errors were applied to quantify the district-specific associations between meteorological variables and COVID-19 MESHD cases. Results: All FE models revealed that every one-degree rise in AT MESHD led to a decrease in 3.909 points (on average) in percent increase in COVID-19 MESHD cases. All RE models showed that with one unit increase in the malaria MESHD annual parasite index, there was a significant increase in 10.835 points (on average) in percent increase in COVID-19 MESHD cases. In both FE and RE models, ARH HGNC was found to be negatively associated with percent increase in COVID-19 MESHD cases, although in half of these models the association was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Our results indicate that mean temperature, mean relative humidity, and malaria endemicity MESHD might have an essential role in the stability and transmissibility of the 2019 novel coronavirus.

    Malaria Endemicity Influence on COVID -19 Mortality: New Evidence Added to BCG and TB Prevalence

    Authors: Tareef Fadhil Raham

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.09.20191684 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Regarding SARS-CoV-2 it is well known that a substantial percentage of adult population cannot get infected if exposed to this novel coronavirus. Several studies give primary indication of the possible role of preexisting immunity whether cross immunity or not. Possible role of latent TB and BCG have been already suggested to create innate cross heterogeneous immunity. Possible role of malaria MESHD is suggested in this paper possibly by same mechanism of protection. Material and methods:80 malarious countries MESHD are enrolled in this study. Hierarchical multiple regression type of analyses is used for data analyses. TB prevalence/ 100,000 population standardized to BCG coverage rates is taken as direct factor in the test. Malaria MESHD incidence /1000 population is considered as intermediate factor and the outcome is COVID-19 MESHD mortality/ 1 million (M) population. Results: The results show with robust statistical support that standerized TB prevalence to BCG coverage is significantly associated with reduced COVID-19 MESHD mortality and malaria MESHD incidence have an additional highly significant effect in reducing COVID-19 MESHD mortality. Conclusions: Malaria MESHD and standardized TB prevalence are statistical significant factors predicting COVID-19 MESHD mortality in negative associations.

    Evaluating ten commercially-available SARS-CoV-2 rapid serological tests using the STARD (Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) method.

    Authors: Laurent Dortet; Jean-Baptiste Ronat; Christelle Vauloup-Fellous; Céline Langendorf; David-Alexis Mendels; Cécile Emeraud; Saoussen Oueslati; Delphine Girlich; Anthony Chauvin; Ali Afdjei; Sandrine Bernabeu; Samuel Le Pape; Rim Kallala; Alice Rochard; Celine Verstuyft; Nicolas Fortineau; Anne-Marie Roque-Afonso; Thierry Naas

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.10.20192260 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: medRxiv

    Numerous SARS-CoV-2 rapid serological tests have been developed, but their accuracy has usually been assessed using very few samples, and rigorous comparisons between these tests are scarce. In this study, we evaluated and compared 10 commercially-available SARS-CoV-2 rapid serological tests using the STARD methodology (Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies). 250 sera from 159 PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 patients (collected from 0 to 32 days after onset of symptoms) were tested with rapid serological tests. Control sera (N=254) were retrieved from pre-COVID periods from patients with other coronavirus infections MESHD (N=11), positive rheumatoid MESHD factors (N=3), IgG/ IgM hyperglobulinemia MESHD (N=9), malaria MESHD (n=5), or no documented viral infection MESHD (N=226). All samples were tested using rapid lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) from ten manufacturers. Only four tests achieved [≥]98% specificity, with other tests ranging from 75.7%-99.2%. Sensitivities varied by the day of sample collection, from 31.7%-55.4% (Days 0-9), 65.9%-92.9% (Days 10-14), and 81.0%-95.2% (>14 days) after the onset of symptoms, respectively. Only three tests evaluated met French Health Authorities' thresholds for SARS-CoV-2 serological tests ([≥]90% sensitivity + [≥]98% specificity). Overall, the performances between tests varied greatly, with only a third meeting acceptable specificity and sensitivity thresholds. Knowing the analytical performance of these tests will allow clinicians to use them with more confidence, could help determine the general population's immunological status, and may diagnose some patients with false-negative RT-PCR results.

    Digitalized mass distribution campaign of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in the particular context of Covid-19 pandemic MESHD in Benin: challenges and lessons learned

    Authors: ROCK AIKPON; Cyriaque Affoukou; Benjamin Hounkpatin; Dieu-Donné Eclou; Yves Cyaka; Elijah Egwu; Narcisse Agbessi; Filémon Tokponon; Sahidou Salifou; Lamidhi Salami; Aurore Ogouyemi Hounto

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-61810/v3 Date: 2020-08-18 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In 2020, Benin has implemented a digitalized mass distribution campaign of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in the particular context of COVID-19 pandemic MESHD. This paper describes the implementation process as well as the challenges and lessons learned from this campaign. Methods: A descriptive design was used for reporting the planning and implementation process of ITNs campaign. Moreover, the changes and adaptations related to COVID-19 pandemic MESHD are described. Results: A total of 3,175,773 households were registered corresponding to a total of 14,423,998 persons (13.55% more from projection). Moreover, 94.16 % (13,581,637 people) of enumerated population were protected. A total of 7,652,166 ITNs were distributed countrywide. Conclusions: High political commitment, engagement and support add to the financial and technical supports from partners were the essential factors that make 2020 ITNs mass campaign success in Benin despite the particular context of COVID-19 pandemic MESHD. It is essential to maintain the prevention activities for malaria MESHD and this could substantially reduce the overall impact of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD for the populations at malaria MESHD risk.

    Comprehensive analysis of the key epidemiological parameters to evaluate the impact of BCG vaccination on COVID-19 MESHD COVID-19 MESHD pandemic

    Authors: Niloy R Datta; Sneha Datta

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.12.20173617 Date: 2020-08-14 Source: medRxiv

    Globally, the heterogenous coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) case fatality rate (CFR) could be influenced by various epidemiological parameters. Identifying these could help formulate effective public health strategies. Incidence and mortality of COVID-19 MESHD for each of the 220 countries as on July 30, 2020 were evaluated against key epidemiological variables, namely - BCG vaccination (ongoing vs. discontinued/never undertaken), %population aged [≥]65 years, incidences of ischemic heart disease MESHD ( IHD MESHD), hypertensive heart disease MESHD ( HHD MESHD), cancer MESHD, malaria MESHD, and diabetes MESHD; human development index (HDI) and population density. These were retrieved from the public domains of WHO, UN, World Bank and published reports. The COVID-19 MESHD CFRs ranged between 0.0% and 28.3% (mean {+/-} SD: 3.05% {+/-} 3.48). The influence of the individual epidemiological parameters on CFR were evaluated through the event rate estimations. A significantly lower event rate was observed in countries with ongoing BCG vaccination program (ER: with vs without ongoing BCG vaccination: 0.020 vs 0.034, p<0.001). The type of BCG strains used also influenced the ER; this being 0.018, 0.031 and 0.019 for early, late and mixed strains respectively (p=0.008). The epidemiological variables significantly associated with higher COVID-19 MESHD event rate were countries with higher %population aged [≥]65 years (p<0.001), greater incidence of IHD MESHD (p<0.001) and cancer MESHD (p=0.003) and better HDI (p=0.003). Incidences of malaria MESHD, HHD MESHD and diabetes MESHD along with population density had no significant impact on COVID-19 MESHD CFR. Further, BCG vaccination significantly lowered the COVID-19 MESHD ER in each of the high-risk population subgroups - countries with >7.1% population aged [≥]65 years (p=0.008), >0.737 HDI (p=0.001), IHD MESHD >1171/105 population (p=0.004) and cancer MESHD incidence >15726 (p<0.001). The results supports BCG induced trained immunity leading to heterologous immunoprotection against COVID-19 MESHD. Thus BCG vaccination with early strains could provide a cost-effective prophylaxis, especially in high-risk individuals and bridge the gap till an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 is freely available globally.

    Methylene Blue has a potent antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in the absence of UV-activation in vitro

    Authors: Valeria Cagno; Chiara Medaglia; Andreas Cerny; Thomas Cerny; Caroline Tapparel; Erich Cerny

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.14.251090 Date: 2020-08-14 Source: bioRxiv

    Methylene blue is an FDA and EMA approved drug with an excellent safety profile. It displays broad-spectrum virucidal activity in the presence of UV light and has been shown to be effective in inactivating various viruses in blood products prior to transfusions. In addition, its use has been validated for methemoglobinemia MESHD and malaria MESHD treatment. Here we show the virucidal activity of methylene blue at low micromolar concentrations and in the absence of UV activation against SARS-CoV2.

    First Principle Study of Silver Nanoparticles Interactions with Antimalarial Drugs Extracted from Artemisia Annua Plant

    Authors: Mahmood Akbari; Razieh Morad; Malik Maaza

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-56961/v1 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    Silver nanoparticles have a great potential in a broad range of applications such as drug-delivery carriers because of their antiviral and antibacterial properties. In this study, the coating properties of silver nanoparticle with three common anti-malarial drugs Artemisinin, Artemether, and Artesunate have been studied by using the quantum mechanical and classical atomistic molecular dynamics simulation in order to use as the drug delivery to treat Malaria MESHD and COVID-19 MESHD diseases. The optimized structure, frequencies, charge distribution and the electrostatic potential maps of three drug molecules were simulated by using the density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311++g(d,p) level of theory. Then molecular dynamics simulation was used to study the coating of AgNP with each of these drugs. The affinity of interaction was obtained as; Artesunate > Artemether > Artemisinin which is in agreement with the DFT results on the adsorption of drugs on the Ag(111) slab.

    Accessing the syndemic of COVID-19 MESHD and malaria intervention in Africa

    Authors: Benyun Shi; Jinxin Zheng; Shang Xia; Shan Lin; Xinyi Wang; Yang Liu; Xiao-Nong Zhou; Jiming Liu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-52323/v3 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) has caused substantial disruptions to health services in the low and middle-income countries with a high burden of other diseases, such as malaria MESHD in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic MESHD on malaria MESHD transmission potential in malaria-endemic MESHD countries in Africa. Methods: We present a data-driven method to quantify the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD, as well as various non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), could lead to the change of malaria MESHD transmission potential in 2020. First, we adopt a particle Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to estimate epidemiological parameters in each country by fitting the time series of the cumulative number of reported COVID-19 MESHD cases. Then, we simulate the epidemic dynamics of COVID-19 MESHD under two groups of NPIs: (i) contact restriction and social distancing, and (ii) early identification and isolation of cases. Based on the simulated epidemic curves, we quantify the impact of COVID-19 MESHD epidemic and NPIs on the distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Finally, by treating the total number of ITNs available in each country in 2020, we evaluate the negative effects of COVID-19 pandemic MESHD on malaria MESHD transmission potential based on the notion of vectorial capacity. Results: In this paper, we conduct case studies in four malaria MESHD-endemic countries, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Zambia, in Africa. The epidemiological parameters (i.e., the basic reproduction number R_0 and the duration of infection D_I) of COVID-19 MESHD in each country are estimated as follows: Ethiopia (R_0=1.57, D_I=5.32), Nigeria (R_0=2.18, D_I=6.58), Tanzania (R_0=2.47, D_I=6.01), and Zambia (R_0=2.12, D_I=6.96). Based on the estimated epidemiological parameters, the epidemic curves simulated under various NPIs indicated that the earlier the interventions are implemented, the better the epidemic is controlled. Moreover, the effect of combined NPIs is better than contact restriction and social distancing only. By treating the total number of ITNs available in each country in 2020 as a baseline, our results show that even with stringent NPIs, malaria MESHD transmission potential will remain higher than expected in the second half of 2020. Conclusions: By quantifying the impact of various NPI response to the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD on malaria MESHD transmission potential, this study provides a way to jointly address the syndemic between COVID-19 MESHD and malaria MESHD in malaria MESHD-endemic countries in Africa. The results suggest that the early intervention of COVID-19 MESHD can effectively reduce the scale of the epidemic and mitigate its impact on malaria MESHD transmission potential. Keywords : COVID-19 pandemic MESHD; Non-pharmaceutical interventions; Particle Markov chain Monte Carlo; Insecticide-treated nets; Vectorial capacity; Malaria MESHD transmission potential

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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