Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (6)

NSP3 (1)

ComplexRdRp (1)

ORF7a (1)


SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
    displaying 41 - 50 records in total 66
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    A case of COVID - 19 with Imported Falciparum Malaria Infection is Reported

    Authors: Mingchao Zhu; Ya Zhu; Jue Zhang; Weiping Liu

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-06-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background During the COVID − 19 outbreak, limited medical resources in the short term and inadequate experience in dealing with major new public health events may lead to the neglect of some other infectious diseases MESHD, such as malaria MESHD, leading to the risk of the spread of infectious diseases MESHD.Therefore, it is particularly important to formulate classified guidance, take scientific prevention and control measures in a comprehensive manner, strengthen the screening of malaria MESHD patients and provide access to medical treatment during the outbreak.Methods Clinical records, laboratory results, and chest CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for a falciparum malaria infection MESHD patient with laboratory-confirmed COVID − 19 pneumonia MESHD .Results Patient's serum novel coronavirus antibody tested positive for IgG and weakly positive for IgM that were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2],the blood samples were classified as plasmodium falciparum by RT-PCR.Conclusions The patient when workers infected with p. falciparum in Africa, malaria MESHD recurrence after back to China, after antimalarial treatment in tianmen city first people's hospital, after an outbreak in wuhan will be coronavirus, and symptoms of COVID − 19, but soon be cured patients, to explore the diagnosis and treatment of antimalarial drugs in COVID − 19 patients with the role, for further in-depth study of COVID − 19 treatment provides a good example.

    Finding Tentative Causes for the reduced impact of Covid-19 MESHD on the Health Systems of poorer and developing nations: An ecological study of the effect of demographic, climatological and health-related factors on the global spread of Covid-19 MESHD

    Authors: Shabnam Banerjee; Arunanjan Saha

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.25.20113092 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Objective - The objective of this study is to evaluate the association with different factors empirically found to affect the spread and the severity of Covid-19 MESHD. Evidently there is less likelihood of having one single and absolute solution to this pandemic. It is pragmatic to look for a multi-pronged and collaborative assembly of probable solutions, which is the higher objective of this study. Design - Ecological study. Setting - Global setting including 45 countries from all six inhabited continents Population Two (2) or three (3) countries from each geographical region of the continents selected on the basis of population Main outcome - measures correlation factors derived from comparisons between different sets of variables Results - Empirical trends suggested in the existing literature were quantified in a global setting establishing clear trends. Correlation between the proportion of the population affected and median age, prime climate zones, malaria MESHD and tuberculosis MESHD incidence, BCG coverage and mitigation measures were established. Conclusions The study findings suggest that demographic and climatological factors, high endemicity of TB and Malaria MESHD, and universal BCG programmes may have a cushioning effect in the impact of Covid-19 MESHD on health systems of poorer and developing nations. In the light of these findings more emphasis is necessary on the protective effects of BCG and antiviral properties of antimalarial drugs.

    Determinants of cardiac adverse events of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in 20 years of drug safety surveillance reports

    Authors: Isaac V Cohen; Tigran Makunts; Talar Moumedjian; Masara Issa; Ruben Abagyan

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.19.20107227 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medications for treating non-resistant malaria MESHD, rheumatoid arthritis MESHD ( RA MESHD) and systemic lupus erythematosus MESHD ( SLE MESHD). In addition, both drugs are currently used off-label in hospitals worldwide and in numerous clinical trials for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. However, CQ and HCQ use has been associated with cardiac side effects, which is of concern due to the higher risk of COVID-19 MESHD complications in patients with heart related disorders, and increased mortality associated with COVID-19 MESHD cardiac complications. In this study we analyzed over thirteen million adverse event reports form the United States Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System to confirm and quantify the association of cardiac side effects of CQ and HCQ. Additionally, we identified several confounding factors, including male sex, NSAID coadministration, advanced age, and prior diagnoses contributing to the risk of drug related cardiotoxicity MESHD. These findings may help guide therapeutic decision making and ethical trial design for COVID-19 MESHD treatment.

    COVID-19 MESHD in Uganda: Predicting the impact of the disease and public health response on disease burden

    Authors: David Bell; Kristian Schultz Hansen; Agnes N Kiragga; Andrew Kambugu; John Kissa; Anthony K Mbonye

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.14.20102202 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: medRxiv

    Objective COVID-19 MESHD transmission and the public health lock-down response are now established in sub-Saharan Africa, including Uganda. Population structure and prior morbidities differ markedly between these countries from those where outbreaks were previously established. We predicted the relative impact of COVID-19 MESHD and the response in Uganda to understand whether the benefits could be outweighed by the costs. Design and setting Age-based COVID-19 MESHD mortality data from China were applied to the population structures of Uganda and countries with previously established outbreaks, comparing theoretical mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Based on recent Ugandan data and theoretical scenarios of programme deterioration, we predicted potential additional disease burden for HIV/AIDS, malaria MESHD and maternal mortality. Main outcome measures DALYs lost and mortality. Results Based on population age structure alone Uganda is predicted to have a relatively low COVID-19 MESHD burden compared to equivalent transmission in China and Western countries, with mortality and DALYs lost predicted to be 12% and 19% that of Italy. Scenarios of lockdown impact predict HIV/ AIDS MESHD and malaria MESHD equivalent to or higher than that of an extensive COVID-19 MESHD outbreak. Emerging HIV/ AIDS MESHD and maternal mortality data indicate that such deterioration could be occurring. Conclusions The results predict a relatively low COVID-19 MESHD impact on Uganda associated with its young population, with a high risk of negative impact on non- COVID-19 MESHD disease burden from a prolonged lockdown response. The results are likely to reflect the situation in other sub-Saharan populations, underlining the importance of tailoring COVID-19 MESHD responses to population structure and potential disease vulnerabilities.

    Parasites and their protection against COVID-19 MESHD- Ecology or Immunology?

    Authors: Kenneth Ssebambulidde; Ivan Segawa; Kelvin M Abuga; Vivian Nakate; Anthony Kayiira; Jayne Ellis; Lillian Tugume; Agnes N Kiragga; David B Meya

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.11.20098053 Date: 2020-05-18 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Despite the high infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, the incidence of COVID-19 MESHD in Africa has been slower than predicted. We aimed to investigate a possible association between parasitic infections MESHD and COVID-19 MESHD. Methods: An ecological study in which we analysed WHO data on COVID-19 MESHD cases in comparison to WHO data on helminths and malaria MESHD cases using correlation, regression, and Geographical Information Services analyses. Results: Of the global 3.34 million COVID-19 MESHD cases and 238,628 deaths as at May 4th 2020, Africa reported 0.029/3.3 million (0.88%) cases and 1,064/238,628 (0.45%) deaths. In 2018, Africa reported 213/229 million (93%) of all malaria MESHD cases, 204/229 million (89%) of schistosomiasis MESHD cases, and 271/1068 million (25%) of soil-transmitted helminth cases globally. In contrast, Europe reported 1.5/3.3 million (45%) of global COVID-19 MESHD cases and 142,667/238,628 (59%) deaths. Europe had 5.8/1068 million (0.55%) soil-transmitted helminths cases and no malaria MESHD/schistosomiasis cases in 2018. We found an inverse correlation between the incidence of COVID-19 MESHD and malaria MESHD (r -0.17, p =0.002) and COVID-19 MESHD and soil-transmitted helminths (r -0.25, p <0.001). Malaria MESHD-endemic countries were less likely to have COVID-19 MESHD (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.29-0.90; p =0.02). Similarly, countries endemic for soil-transmitted helminths were less likely to have COVID-19 MESHD (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.13-0.44; p <0.001), as were countries endemic for schistosomiasis MESHD (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.11-0.45; p<0.001). Conclusions: One plausible hypothesis for the comparatively low COVID-19 MESHD cases/deaths in parasite-endemic areas is immunomodulation induced by parasites. Studies to elucidate the relationship between parasitic infections MESHD and susceptibility to COVID-19 MESHD at an individual level are warranted.

    Comparative analyses revealed reduced spread of COVID-19 MESHD in malaria endemic countries

    Authors: Azhar Muneer; Kiran Kumari; Manish Tripathi; Rupesh Srivastava; Asif Mohmmed; Sumit Rathore

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.11.20097923 Date: 2020-05-14 Source: medRxiv

    In late 2019, SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) infection MESHD started in Hubei province of China and now it has spread like a wildfire in almost all parts of the world except some. WHO named the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 as COVID-19 MESHD ( CoronaVirus Disease MESHD-2019). It is very intriguing to see a mild trend of infection in some countries which could be attributed to mitigation efforts, lockdown strategies, health infrastructure, demographics and cultural habits. However, the lower rate of infection and death MESHD rates in mostly developing countries, which are not placed at higher levels in terms of healthcare facilities, is a very surprising observation. To address this issue, we hypothesize that this lower rate of infection is majorly been observed in countries which have a higher transmission/prevalence of protozoan parasite borne disease MESHD, malaria MESHD. We compared the COVID-19 MESHD spread and malaria MESHD endemicity of 108 countries which have shown at least 200 cases of COVID-19 MESHD till 18th April 2020. We found that the number of COVID-19 MESHD cases per million population correlates negatively with the malaria MESHD endemicity of respective countries. The malaria MESHD free countries not only have higher density of COVID-19 MESHD infections but also the higher case fatality rates as compared to highly malaria MESHD endemic countries. We also postulate that this phenomenon is due to natural immune response against malaria infection MESHD, which is providing a heterologous protection against the virus. Unfortunately, there is no licensed vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 yet, but this information will be helpful in design of future strategies against fast spreading COVID-19 MESHD disease.

    Simulation-Based Inference for Global Health Decisions

    Authors: Christian Schroeder de Witt; Bradley Gram-Hansen; Nantas Nardelli; Andrew Gambardella; Rob Zinkov; Puneet Dokania; N. Siddharth; Ana Belen Espinosa-Gonzalez; Ara Darzi; Philip Torr; Atılım Güneş Baydin

    id:2005.07062v1 Date: 2020-05-14 Source: arXiv

    The COVID-19 MESHD COVID-19 MESHD pandemic has highlighted the importance of in-silico epidemiological modelling in predicting the dynamics of infectious diseases MESHD to inform health policy and decision makers about suitable prevention and containment strategies. Work in this setting involves solving challenging inference and control problems in individual-based models of ever increasing complexity. Here we discuss recent breakthroughs in machine learning, specifically in simulation-based inference, and explore its potential as a novel venue for model calibration to support the design and evaluation of public health interventions. To further stimulate research, we are developing software interfaces that turn two cornerstone COVID-19 MESHD and malaria MESHD epidemiology models COVID-sim, ( and OpenMalaria ( into probabilistic programs, enabling efficient interpretable Bayesian inference within those simulators.

    The COVID-19 MESHD Gene and Drug Set Library

    Authors: Maxim V. Kuleshov; Daniel J.B. Clarke; Eryk Kropiwnicki; Kathleen M. Jagodnik; Alon Bartal; John E. Evangelista; Abigail Zhou; Laura B. Ferguson; Alexander Lachmann; Avi Ma'ayan

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    The coronavirus (CoV) severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD (SARS)-CoV-2 ( COVID-19 MESHD) pandemic has received rapid response by the research community to offer suggestions for repurposing of approved drugs as well as to improve our understanding of the COVID-19 MESHD viral life cycle molecular mechanisms. In a short period, tens of thousands of research preprints and other publications have emerged including those that report lists of experimentally validated drugs and compounds as potential COVID-19 MESHD therapies. In addition, gene sets from interacting COVID-19 MESHD virus-host proteins and differentially expressed genes when comparing infected to uninfected cells are being published at a fast rate. To organize this rapidly accumulating knowledge, we developed the COVID-19 MESHD Gene and Drug Set Library ( covid19 MESHD/), a collection of gene and drug sets related to COVID-19 MESHD research from multiple sources. The COVID-19 MESHD Gene and Drug Set Library is delivered as a web-based interface that enables users to view, download, analyze, visualize, and contribute gene and drug sets related to COVID-19 MESHD research. To evaluate the content of the library, we performed several analyses including comparing the results from 6 in-vitro drug screens for COVID-19 MESHD repurposing candidates. Surprisingly, we observe little overlap across these initial screens. The most common and unique hit across these screen is mefloquine, a malaria MESHD drug that should receive more attention as a potential therapeutic for COVID-19 MESHD. Overall, the library of gene and drug sets can be used to identify community consensus, make researchers and clinicians aware of the development of new potential therapies, as well as allow the research community to work together towards a cure for COVID-19 MESHD.

    Using Supervised Machine Learning and Empirical Bayesian Kriging to reveal Correlates and Patterns of COVID-19 MESHD Disease outbreak in sub-Saharan Africa: Exploratory Data Analysis

    Authors: Amobi Andrew Onovo; Akinyemi Atobatele; Abiye Kalaiwo; Christopher Obanubi; Ezekiel James; Pamela Gado; Gertrude Odezugo; Doreen Magaji; Dolapo Ogundehin; Michele Russell

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.27.20082057 Date: 2020-05-02 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) is an emerging infectious disease MESHD that was first reported in Wuhan, China, and has subsequently spread worldwide. Knowledge of coronavirus-related risk factors can help countries build more systematic and successful responses to COVID-19 MESHD disease outbreak. Here we used Supervised Machine Learning and Empirical Bayesian Kriging MESHD (EBK) techniques to reveal correlates and patterns of COVID-19 MESHD Disease outbreak in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods: We analyzed time series aggregate data compiled by Johns Hopkins University on the outbreak of COVID-19 MESHD disease across SSA. COVID-19 MESHD data was merged with additional data on socio-demographic and health indicator survey data for 39 of SSA 48 countries that reported confirmed cases and deaths from coronavirus between February 28, 2020 through March 26, 2020. We used supervised machine learning algorithm, Lasso for variable selection and statistical inference. EBK was used to also create a raster estimating the spatial distribution of COVID-19 MESHD disease outbreak. Results: The lasso Cross-fit partialing out predictive model ascertained seven variables significantly associated with the risk of coronavirus infection MESHD (i.e. new HIV infections MESHD among pediatric, adolescent, and middle-aged adult PLHIV, time (days), pneumococcal MESHD conjugate-based vaccine, incidence of malaria MESHD and diarrhea MESHD treatment). Our study indicates, the doubling time in new coronavirus cases was 3 days. The steady three-day decrease in coronavirus outbreak rate of change (ROC) from 37% on March 23, 2020 to 23% on March 26, 2020 indicates the positive impact of countries' steps to stymie the outbreak. The interpolated maps show that coronavirus is rising every day and appears to be severely confined in South Africa. In the West African region (i.e. Burkina Faso, Ghana, Senegal, CotedIviore, Cameroon, and Nigeria), we predict that new cases and deaths MESHD from the virus are most likely to increase. Interpretation: Integrated and efficiently delivered interventions to reduce HIV MESHD, pneumonia MESHD, malaria MESHD and diarrhea MESHD, are essential to accelerating global health efforts. Scaling up screening and increasing COVID-19 MESHD testing capacity across SSA countries can help provide better understanding on how the pandemic is progressing and possibly ensure a sustained decline in the ROC of coronavirus outbreak. Funding: Authors were wholly responsible for the costs of data collation and analysis.

    Modelling of Systemic versus Pulmonary Chloroquine Exposure in Man for COVID-19 MESHD Dose Selection

    Authors: Ghaith Aljayyoussi; Rajith Rajoli; Henry Pertinez; Shaun Pennington; W. David Hong; Paul O'Neill; Andrew Owen; Steve Ward; Giancarlo Biagini

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.24.20078741 Date: 2020-04-30 Source: medRxiv

    Chloroquine has attracted intense attention as a potential clinical candidate for prevention and treatment of COVID-19 MESHD based on reports of in-vitro efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. While the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) relationship of chloroquine is well established for malaria MESHD, there is sparse information regarding its dose-effect relationship in the context of COVID-19 MESHD. Here, we explore the PK-PD relationship of chloroquine for COVID-19 MESHD by modelling both achievable systemic and pulmonary drug concentrations. Our data indicate that the standard anti-malarial treatment dose of 25mg/kg over three days does not deliver sufficient systemic drug exposures for the inhibition of viral replication. In contrast, PK predictions of chloroquine in the lungs using in-vivo data or human physiologically-based PK models, suggest that doses as low as 3mg/kg/day for 3 days could deliver exposures that are significantly higher than reported antiviral-EC90s for up to a week. Moreover, if pulmonary exposure is a driver for prevention, simulations show that chronic daily dosing of chloroquine may be unnecessary for prophylaxis purposes. Instead, once weekly doses of 5mg/kg would be sufficient to achieve a continuous cover of therapeutically active pulmonary exposures. These findings reveal a highly compartmentalised distribution of chloroquine in man that may significantly affect its therapeutic potential against COVID-19 MESHD. The systemic circulation is shown as one site where chloroquine exposure is insufficient to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication. However, if therapeutic activity is driven by pulmonary exposure, it should be possible to reduce the chloroquine dose to safe levels. Carefully designed randomized controlled trials are urgently required to address these outstanding issues.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins

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