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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (5)

NSP3 (1)

ComplexRdRp (1)

ORF7a (1)


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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    National Consumption of Antimalarial Drugs and COVID-19 MESHD Deaths Dynamics : an Ecological Study

    Authors: Maxime Izoulet

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.18.20063875 Date: 2020-04-24 Source: medRxiv

    COVID-19 MESHD (Coronavirus Disease-2019) is an international public health problem with a high rate of severe clinical cases. Several treatments are currently being tested worldwide. This paper focuses on anti-malarial drugs such as chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, which have been currently reviewed by a systematic study as a good potential candidate and that has been reported as the most used treatment by a recent survey of physicians. We compare the dynamics of COVID-19 MESHD death rates in countries using anti- malaria MESHD drugs as a treatment from the start of the epidemic versus countries that do not, the day of the 3rd death MESHD and the following 10 days. We show that the first group have a much slower dynamic in death rates that the second group. This univariate analysis is of course only one additional piece of evidence in the debate regarding the efficiency of anti- malaria MESHD drugs, and it is also limited as the two groups certainly have other systemic differences in the way they responded to the pandemic, in the way they report death MESHD or in their population that better explain differences in dynamics (systematic differences that may also explain their choice to rely on anti- malaria MESHD drugs in the first place). Nevertheless, the difference in dynamics is so striking that we believe that the urgency context commands presenting the univariate analysis before delving into further analysis. In the end, this data might ultimately be either a piece of evidence in favor or anti- malaria MESHD drugs or a stepping stone in understanding further what other ecological aspects place a role in the dynamics of COVID-19 MESHD deaths.

    COVID-19 MESHD COVID-19 MESHD pandemic: examining the faces of spatial differences in the morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and USA.

    Authors: Adebayo A Otitoloju; Ifeoma P Okafor; Mayowa Fasona; Kafilat Adebola Bawa-Allah; Chukwuemeka Isanbor; Chukwudozie Solomon Onyeka; Olawale S Folarin; Taiwo O Adubi; Temitope O Sogbanmu; Anthony E Ogbeibu

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.20.20072322 Date: 2020-04-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background: COVID-19 MESHD, the disease associated with the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) is currently a global pandemic with several thousands of confirmed cases of infection and death MESHD. However, the death rate across affected countries shows variation deserving of critical evaluation. Methods: In this study, we evaluated differentials in COVID-19 MESHD confirmed cases of infection and associated deaths MESHD of selected countries in Sub-Sahara Africa (Nigeria and Ghana), South Africa, Europe (Italy, Spain, Sweden and UK) and USA. Data acquired for various standard databases on mutational shift of the SARS-CoV-2 virus based on geographical location, BCG vaccination policy, malaria endemicity MESHD, climatic conditions (temperature), differential healthcare approaches were evaluated over a period of 45 days from the date of reporting the index case. Results: The number of confirmed cases of infection and associated deaths in Sub-Sahara Africa were found to be very low compared to the very high values in Europe and USA over the same period. Recovery rate from COVID-19 MESHD is not correlated with the mutational attributes of the virus with the sequenced strain from Nigeria having no significant difference (p>0.05) from other geographical regions. Significantly higher (p<0.05) infection rate and mortality from COVID-19 MESHD were observed in countries (Europe and USA) without a current universal BCG vaccination policy compared to those with one (Sub-Sahara African countries). Countries with high malaria burden MESHD had significantly lower (p<0.05) cases of COVID-19 MESHD than those with low malaria burden MESHD. A strong negative correlation (-0.595) between mean annual temperature and COVID-19 MESHD infection and death was observed with 14.8% variances between temperature and COVID-19 MESHD occurrence among the countries. A clear distinction was observed in the COVID-19 MESHD disease management between the developed countries (Europe and USA) and Sub-Sahara Africa. Conclusions: The study established that the wide variation in the outcome of the COVID-19 MESHD disease burden in the selected countries are attributable largely to climatic condition (temperature) and differential healthcare approaches to management of the disease. We recommend consideration and mainstreaming of these findings for urgent intervention and management of COVID-19 MESHD across these continents.

    Multiple drivers of the COVID-19 MESHD spread: role of climate, international mobility, and region-specific conditions

    Authors: Yasuhiro Kubota; Takayuki Shiono; Buntarou Kusumoto; Junichi Fujinuma

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.20.20072157 Date: 2020-04-24 Source: medRxiv

    The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) has spread quickly across the globe. Here, we evaluated the role of climate (temperature and precipitation), region-specific susceptibility (BCG vaccination, malaria infection MESHD, and elderly population) and international traveller population (human mobility) in shaping the geographical patterns of COVID-19 MESHD cases across 1,055 countries/regions, and examined the sequential shift of multiple drivers of the accumulated cases from December, 2019 to April 12, 2020. The accumulated numbers of COVID-19 MESHD cases (per 1 million population) were well explained by a simple regression model. The explanatory power (R2) of the model increased up to > 70% in April 2020 as the COVID-19 MESHD spread progressed. Climate, host mobility, and host susceptibility largely explained the variance of the COVID-19 MESHD cases (per 1 million population), and their explanatory power improved as the pandemic progressed; the relative importance of host mobility and host susceptibility have been greater than that of climate. The number of days from outbreak onset showed greater explanatory power in the earlier stages of COVID-19 MESHD spread but rapidly lost its influence. Our findings demonstrate that the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD is deterministically driven by climate suitability, cross-border human mobility, and region-specific susceptibility. The present distribution of COVID-19 MESHD cases has not reached an equilibrium and is changing daily, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. Nevertheless, the present results, based on mapping the spread of COVID-19 MESHD and identifying multiple drivers of this outbreak trajectory, may contribute to a better understanding of the COVID-19 MESHD disease transmission risk and the measures against long-term epidemic.

    Repurposing of Chloroquine and Its Derivative, Hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 MESHD: Implications for People Living with HIV in Africa

    Authors: Chiagoziem Otuechere

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0395.v1 Date: 2020-04-22 Source: Preprints.org

    The coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has been declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a pandemic. Unfortunately, finding a vaccine or developing drugs from the scratch is a time-consuming luxury given the widespread and high fatality rates of the virus. In the short term, repurposing of drugs already in use seem to be the most rational step to quickly and effectively curb the virus. Several antiviral agents had been proposed as possible remedies, but the 4-aminoquinolines, Chloroquine (CHQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCHQ) appear to be generating more interest. They are generic, cheaply available and have proven efficacy against malaria parasites MESHD in Africa. The human immunodeficiency MESHD virus ( HIV MESHD), on the other hand, targets the immune system thereby reducing the patient’s ability to fight infections. Sadly, 68% of the global HIV burden occur in Africa. It is therefore anticipated that incidence of severe forms of COVID-19 MESHD could occur in Africa because of associated endemic conditions that compromise the immune system. With CHQ and HCHQ being considered for clinical use against COVID-19 MESHD, there is a need to highlight their potential merits and confounding variables in the subgroup of patients with or without HIV MESHD.

    Myths and Facts: Chloroquine May Be A Potential Supportive/Therapeutic Drug in COVID-19 MESHD Treatment

    Authors: Muhammad Kashif; Muhammad Aamir; Sadia Minhas; Romeeza Tahir; Shah Jahan; Nadeem Afzal

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0341.v1 Date: 2020-04-19 Source: Preprints.org

    Quinine and its less toxic derivatives have served humanity for decades as potent antimalarial drugs. Emergence of drug resistance has narrowed the usage of these drugs in malaria MESHD prevention and treatment. Fortunately, these drugs have roles in the treatment of other diseases as well including rheumatic disorders MESHD and viral infections MESHD. Quinine derivatives have proven antiviral effects, especially against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Zika virus MESHD (ZiKV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), Ebola virus MESHD and dengue virus (DENV). The prophylactic and therapeutic role of Chloroquine/hydroxychroquine has become a topic of interest after the recent outbreak of novel Corona virus-19 (nCoV-19). This virus is also named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) and WHO has officially named this disease as Corona virus disease MESHD 2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD). This lethal virus has affected almost 186 countries of the world till to date just in a period of four months of its outbreak. No approved antiviral drug is existed for the treatment of COVID-19 MESHD. Therefore, this review is focused on potential prophylactic and therapeutic role of chloroquine/hydroxychlroquine for COVID-19 MESHD.

    Prevalence of COVID-19 MESHD: A Look behind the Scenes

    Authors: Samir Haj Bloukh; Annis A. Shaikh; Habib M. Pathan; Zehra Edis

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0179.v2 Date: 2020-04-15 Source: Preprints.org

    Mankind faces a coronavirus pandemic originating from a seafood market in Wuhan, China since December 2019. The pathogen was named novel coronavirus (n-CoV) and bats are the identified key reservoir. The coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) quickly spread over China across the globe, turned into a pandemic with exponentially increasing numbers of cases and significant mortality rate. China reacted with lockdowns and strict control measurements to prevent spreading the virus. The treatment of severe cases was hampered by lack of specific vaccines. Vaccine-development and production is a painstaking process and can only be enforced by international cooperation. Different supportive treatment options surfaced due to combinations of antiviral agents with antibiotic drugs. Elderly, male, immune-suppressed patients with co-morbidities showed a high mortality rate. Health literacy, strong immune system, adequate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and healthy life style choices can support fast recovery. Antibiotic resistance needs to be addressed by development of new generation antimicrobials against nosocomial infections MESHD in preparation for future outbreaks. Plant-biosynthesis of nanomaterials and antiseptics may help in prevention and recovery rate. Prevalence of COVID-19 MESHD maybe inversely related to BCG vaccination, endemicity of malaria MESHD, humidy and temperature but directly with latitude. Recommendations to prevent the spread of COVID-19 MESHD should be followed strictly.

    ACE 2 HGNC Coding Variants: A Potential X-linked Risk Factor for COVID-19 MESHD Disease

    Authors: William T Gibson; Daniel M Evans

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.05.026633 Date: 2020-04-14 Source: bioRxiv

    Viral genetic variants are widely known to influence disease progression among infected humans. Given the recent and rapid emergence of pandemic SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, the cause of COVID-19 MESHD disease, viral protein variants have attracted research interest. However, little has yet been written about genetic risk factors among human hosts. Human genetic variation has proven to affect disease progression and outcome for important diseases such as HIV infection MESHD and malaria infestation MESHD. The fact that the human ACE2 HGNC protein is encoded on the X chromosome means that males who carry rare ACE2 HGNC coding variants will express those variants in all ACE2 HGNC-expressing cells, whereas females will typically express those variants in a mosaic distribution determined by early X-inactivation events. This sex-based difference in ACE2 HGNC expression has unique implications for epidemiological studies designed to assess host genetic factors influencing progression from asymptomatic SARS-coV-2 infection MESHD to COVID-19 MESHD. Here we present theoretical modelling of rare ACE2 HGNC coding variants documented to occur naturally in several human superpopulations and subpopulations, and show that rare variants predicted to affect the binding of ACE2 HGNC to the SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein exist in people. Though the rs4646116 (p.Lys26Arg) allele is found in 1 in 70 Ashkenazi Jewish males, and in 1 in 172 non-Finnish European males, this allele is found at higher frequencies in females. Furthermore, the class of missense ACE2 HGNC alleles predicted to affect SARS-CoV-2 binding are found in aggregate among 1.43% and 2.16% of Ashkenazi males and females, respectively, as well as in 0.58% and 1.24% of European males and females outside of Finland. These alleles are rarer in other population groups, and almost absent from East Asians genotyped to date. Though we are aware that full genome-wide and exome-wide sequencing studies may ultimately be required to assess human genetic susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 fully, we argue on the basis of strong prior probabilities that genotyping of this class of alleles is justified in cases of atypical SARS-CoV-2 diseases, such as asymptomatic super-spreaders (if any are identified), and in neonatal/paediatric-onset COVID-19 MESHD disease. Even relatively rare susceptibility factors (1% or fewer carriers) may become quantitatively important in the context of hundreds of thousands of infections. A small number of asymptomatic carriers, or a small number of super-spreaders, or a small segment of the population that is disproportionately likely to require intensive care, can magnify the medical, social and economic impacts of a pandemic of this size. The speed of the pandemic and the large number of affected cases worldwide justify efforts to identify all possible risk factors for adverse outcomes, including efforts to identify genetic susceptibility factors in human hosts.

    Mass Intake of Hydroxychloroquine or Chloroquine in the Present Context of the COVID-19 MESHD Outbreak: Possible Consequences in Endemic Malaria Settings

    Authors: Dieudonné Mvumbi

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0208.v1 Date: 2020-04-13 Source: Preprints.org

    World is currently experiencing a new pandemic for which no curative treatment is available. At this time, coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( Covid-19 MESHD) has reached 183 countries and has caused several deaths. Many reports presented chloroquine (CQ) and hydrochloroquine (HCQ), former drugs used against malaria MESHD, as the best current choice to fight this terrible disease. As these molecules had been withdrawn in malaria MESHD treatment policy due to chemoresistance, their reintroduction could have some consequences. Though local malaria MESHD prevalence could decrease for a while, molecular changes are likely to happen on some plasmodium falciparum genes involved in conferring drug resistance. This could threaten efforts in malaria MESHD control, if these molecules are widely administered.

    Interaction between malarial transmission and BCG vaccination with COVID-19 MESHD incidence in the world map: A changing landscape human immune system?

    Authors: Rudra Prosad Goswami; Dheeraj K Mittal; Rama Prosad Goswami

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.03.20052563 Date: 2020-04-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background: COVID-19 MESHD (Corona virus Disease-2019) is a new public health emergency and is a pandemic currently. Incidence and mortality of COVID-19 MESHD vary in different geographical areas. In this study we aimed to analyse the relationship between malaria MESHD transmission and BCG vaccination with COVID-19 MESHD incidence in the world map. Materials and methods: We collected malaria MESHD cases data (World Health Organisation (WHO), 2018), worldwide COVID-19 MESHD cases and mortality data (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control) and data on BCG vaccination. COVID-19 MESHD incidence and mortality was compared. Findings: Data on 5316978938 persons from 166 countries were analysed. Malaria MESHD incidence rate was negatively correlated with COVID-19 MESHD incidence rate (correlation coefficient = -0.513, p<0.001). Malaria MESHD free countries had significantly higher number of COVID-19 MESHD cases compared to malaria MESHD endemic countries. In Europe and Americas, countries, which have higher BCG vaccination coverage, had significantly less mortality per thousand population compared to those with low BCG coverage (median 0.0002 (0-0.0005) vs 0.0029 (0.0002-0.0177), p=0.017). The case fatality ratio of COVID-19 MESHD was related nonlinearly to the malaria MESHD incidence. Conclusions: The results suggest the changing human immune system as we progress to eliminate parasitic diseases MESHD with time. Chloroquine exposure in malaria MESHD endemic zones might have a protective effect.

    Natural Product Compounds in Alpinia officinarum and Ginger are Potent SARS-CoV-2 Papain-like Protease PROTEIN Inhibitors

    Authors: Dibakar Goswami; Mukesh Kumar; Sunil K. Ghosh; Amit Das

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12071997.v1 Date: 2020-04-06 Source: ChemRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 MESHD has caused more than 10,00,000 infections and ~55,000 deaths worldwide spanning over 203 countries, and the numbers are exponentially increasing. Due to urgent need of treating the SARS infection MESHD, many approved, pre-clinical, anti-viral, anti- malarial MESHD and anti-SARS drugs are being administered to patients. SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease PROTEIN ( PLpro PROTEIN) has a protease domain which cleaves the viral polyproteins a/b, necessary for its survival and replication, and is one of the drug target against SARS-CoV-2. 3D structures of SARS-CoV-2 PLpro PROTEIN were built by homology modelling. Two models having partially open and closed conformations were used in our study. Virtual screening of natural product compounds was performed. We prepared an in house library of compounds found in rhizomes, Alpinia officinarum, ginger and curcuma, and docked them into the solvent accessible S3-S4 pocket of PLpro PROTEIN. Eight compounds from Alpinia officinarum and ginger bind with high in silico affinity to closed PLpro PROTEIN conformer, and hence are potential SARS-CoV-2 PLpro PROTEIN inhibitors. Our study reveal new lead compounds targeting SARS-CoV-2. Further structure based modifications or extract formulations of these compounds can lead to highly potent inhibitors to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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