Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinN (4)

ProteinS (4)

ORF1 (1)

ORF3a (1)

ProteinM (1)


SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    Characterising long COVID more than 6 months after acute infection MESHD in adults; prospective longitudinal cohort study, England

    Authors: Zahin Amin-Chowdhury; Ross J Harris; Felicity Aiano; Maria Zavala; Marta Bertran; Ray Borrow; Ezra Linley; Shazaad Ahmad; Ben Parker; Alex Horsley; Bassam Hallis; Jessica Flood; Kevin E Brown; Gayatri Amirthalingam; Mary E Ramsay; Nick Andrews; Shamez N Ladhani

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.18.21253633 Date: 2021-03-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background Most individuals with COVID-19 MESHD will recover without sequelae, but some will develop long-term multi-system impairments. The definition, duration, prevalence and symptoms associated with long COVID, however, have not been established. Methods Public Health England (PHE) initiated longitudinal surveillance of clinical and non-clinical healthcare workers for monthly assessment and blood sampling for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in March 2020. Eight months after enrolment, participants completed an online questionnaire including 72 symptoms in the preceding month. Symptomatic mild-to-moderate cases with confirmed COVID-19 MESHD were compared with asymptomatic, seronegative controls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent symptoms associated with long COVID. Findings All 2,147 participants were contacted and 1,671 (77.8%) completed the questionnaire, including 140 (8.4%) cases and 1,160 controls. At a median of 7.5 (IQR 7.1-7.8) months after infection, 20 cases (14.3%) had ongoing (4/140, 2.9%) or episodic (16/140, 11.4%) symptoms. We identified three clusters of symptoms associated with long COVID, those affecting the sensory (ageusia, anosmia MESHD, loss of appetite and blurred vision MESHD), neurological (forgetfulness, short-term memory loss MESHD and confusion MESHD/brain fog HGNC) and cardiorespiratory ( chest tightness/pain MESHD, unusual fatigue MESHD, breathlessness after minimal exertion/at rest, palpitations) systems. The sensory cluster had the highest association with being a case (aOR 5.25, 95% CI 3.45-8.01). Dermatological, gynaecological, gastrointestinal MESHD or mental health symptoms were not significantly different between cases and controls. Interpretation Most persistent symptoms reported following mild COVID-19 MESHD were equally common in cases and controls. While all three clusters identified had a strong association with cases, the sensory cluster had the highest specificity and strength of association, and therefore, most likely to be characteristic of long COVID.

    COVID-19 MESHD Survivors' Reports of the Timing, Duration, and Health Impacts of Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC) Infection

    Authors: Natalie Lambert; - Survivor Corps; Sarah A El-Azab; Nathan S Ramrakhiani; Anthony Barisano; Lu Yu; Kaitlyn Taylor; Alvaro Esperanca; Charles A Downs; Heather L Abrahim; Melissa D Pinto; Rana Chakraborty; Jessica L Borelli

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.22.21254026 Date: 2021-03-22 Source: medRxiv

    IMPORTANCEPost-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD (PASC) is a major public health concern. Studies suggest that 1 in 3 infected with SARS-CoV-2 may develop PASC, including those without initial symptoms or with mild COVID-19 MESHD disease.1, 2 OBJECTIVETo evaluate the timing, duration, and health impacts of PASC reported by a large group of primarily non-hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD survivors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTSA survey of 5,163 COVID-19 MESHD survivors reporting symptoms for more than 21 days following SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Participants were recruited from Survivor Corps and other online COVID-19 MESHD survivor support groups. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURESParticipants reported demographic information, as well as the timing, duration, health impacts, and other attributes of PASC. The temporal distribution of symptoms, including average time of onset and duration of symptoms were determined, as well as the perceived distress and impact on ability to work. RESULTSOn average, participants reported 21.4 symptoms and the number of symptoms ranged from 1 to 93. The most common symptoms were fatigue MESHD (79.0%), headache MESHD (55.3%), shortness of breath MESHD (55.3%), difficulty concentrating (53.6%), cough MESHD (49.0%), changed sense of taste (44.9%), diarrhea MESHD (43.9%), and muscle or body aches (43.5%). The timing of symptom onset varied and was best described as happening in waves. The longest lasting symptoms on average for all participants (in days) were "frequently changing" symptoms (112.0), inability to exercise (106.5), fatigue MESHD (101.7), difficulty concentrating (101.1), memory problems (100.8), sadness (99.2), hormone imbalance (99.1), and shortness of breath MESHD (96.9). The symptoms that affected ability to work included the relapsing/remitting nature of illness (described by survivors as "changing symptoms"), inability to concentrate, fatigue MESHD, and memory problems MESHD, among others. Symptoms causing the greatest level of distress (on scale of 1 "none" to 5 "a great deal") were extreme pressure at the base of the head (4.4), syncope MESHD (4.3), sharp or sudden chest pain MESHD (4.2), brain pressure (4.2), headache MESHD (4.2), persistent chest pain MESHD or pressure (4.1), and bone pain MESHD in extremities (4.1). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCEPASC is an emerging public health priority characterized by a wide range of changing symptoms, which hinder survivors ability to work. PASC has not been fully characterized and the trajectory of symptoms and long-term outcomes are unknown. There is no treatment for PASC, and survivors report distress in addition to a host of ongoing symptoms. Capturing patient reports of symptoms through open-ended inquiry is a critical first step in accurately and comprehensively characterizing PASC to ensure that medical treatments and management strategies best meet the needs of individual patients and help mitigate health impacts of this new disease.

    Collaborative Cohort of Cohorts for COVID-19 MESHD Research (C4R) Study: Study Design

    Authors: Elizabeth C Oelsner; Norinna Bai Allen; Tauqueer Ali; Pramod Anugu; Howard Andrews; Alyssa Asaro; Pallavi P Balte; R Graham Barr; Alain Bertoni; Jessica Bon; Rebekah Boyle; Arunee A Chang; Grace Chen; Shelley A Cole; Josef Coresh; Elaine Cornell; Adolfo Correa; David Couper; Mary Cushman; Ryan T Demmer; Mitchell S Elkind; Aaron R Folsom; Amanda M Fretts; Kelley Pettee Gabriel; Linda Gallo; Jose Gutierrez Contreras; Meilan K Han; Joel M Henderson; Virginia J Howard; Carmen R Isasi; David R Jacobs Jr.; Suzanne E Judd; Debora Kamin Mukaz; Alka M Kanaya; Namratha R Kandula; Robert C Kaplan; Akshaya Krishnaswamy; Gregory L Kinney; Anna Kucharska-Newton; Joyce S Lee; Cora E Lewis; Deborah A Levine; Emily B Levitan; Bruce Levy; Barry Make; Kimberly Malloy; Jennifer J Manly; Katie A Meyer; Yuan-I Min; Matthew Moll; Wendy C Moore; Dave Mauger; Victor E Ortega; Priya Palta; Monica M Parker; Wanda Phipatanakul; Wendy Post; Bruce M Psaty; Elizabeth A Regan; Kimberly Ring; Veronique L Roger; Jerome I Rotter; Tatjana Rundek; Ralph L Sacco; Michael Schembri; David A Schwartz; Sudha Seshadri; James M Shikany; Mario Sims; Karen D Hinckley Stukovsky; Gregory A Talavera; Russell P Tracy; Jason G Umans; Ramachandran S Vasan; Karol Watson; Sally E Wenzel; Karen Winters; Prescott G Woodruff; Vanessa Xanthakis; Ying Zhang; Yiyi Zhang; - The C4R Investigators

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.19.21253986 Date: 2021-03-20 Source: medRxiv

    The Collaborative Cohort of Cohorts for COVID-19 MESHD Research (C4R) is a national prospective study of adults at risk for coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) comprising 14 established United States (US) prospective cohort studies. For decades, C4R cohorts have collected extensive data on clinical and subclinical diseases and their risk factors, including behavior, cognition, biomarkers, and social determinants of health. C4R will link this pre-COVID phenotyping to information on SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and acute and post-acute COVID-related illness. C4R is largely population-based, has an age range of 18-108 years, and broadly reflects the racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, and geographic diversity of the US. C4R is ascertaining severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD and COVID-19 MESHD illness using standardized questionnaires, ascertainment of COVID-related hospitalizations and deaths, and a SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey via dried blood spots. Master protocols leverage existing robust retention rates for telephone and in-person examinations, and high-quality events surveillance. Extensive pre-pandemic data minimize referral, survival, and recall bias MESHD. Data are being harmonized with research-quality phenotyping unmatched by clinical and survey-based studies; these will be pooled and shared widely to expedite collaboration and scientific findings. This unique resource will allow evaluation of risk and resilience factors for COVID-19 MESHD severity and outcomes, including post-acute sequelae, and assessment of the social and behavioral impact of the pandemic on long-term trajectories of health and aging.

    Process evaluation of the development and remote recruitment for Essential Coaching for Every Mother during COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Justine Dol; Gail Tomblin Murphy; Douglas McMillan; Megan Aston; Marsha Campbell-Yeo

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.09.21253071 Date: 2021-03-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background: With the sudden decrease in in-person support and increase in perinatal mental health concerns during the coronavirus pandemic, innovative strategies, such as mHealth, are more important than ever. This study has two objectives: (1) to describe the modification of Essential Coaching for Every Mother during the coronavirus pandemic, and (2) to describe the process evaluation of recruitment and retention of pregnant and postpartum women for a pre-post intervention study. Methods: For objective 1, modified messages were piloted with mothers and postpartum healthcare providers simultaneously. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a subset of 10 participants from the original development study. For objective 2, three methods were used for recruitment: social media, posters in hospital, and media outreach. First time mothers were eligible for enrollment antenatally (37+ weeks) and postnatally (<3 weeks). Eligibility screening occurred remotely via text message with participants initiating contact. Data were collected via TextIt and REDCap. Outcomes were days to recruit 75 participants, eligibility vs. ineligibility rates, dropout and exclusion reasons, survey completion rates, perinatal timing of enrollment, and recruitment sources. Results: For objective 1, three mothers (M age=30.67 years) and seven healthcare providers (M age = 46.0 years) participated in the modification of the messages. Participants felt the messages were appropriate and relevant related to changes in postpartum care during the coronavirus pandemic. Nine messages were modified related to coronavirus and five messages were added to the program. For objective 2, recruitment ran July 15th-September 19th (67 days) with 200 screened and 88 enrolled, 70% antenatally. It took 50 days to enroll 75 participants. Mothers recruited antenatally (n=53) were more likely to receive all intervention message (68% vs. 19%). Mothers recruited postnatally (n=35) missed more messages on average (13.8 vs. 6.4). Participants heard about the study through family/friends (31%), news (20%), Facebook groups (16%), Facebook ads (14%), posters (12%), or other ways (7%). Conclusion: Antenatal recruitment resulted in participants enrolling earlier and receiving more of the study messages. Word of mouth MESHD and media outreach were successful, followed by advertisement on Facebook. Remote recruitment was a feasible way to recruit for Essential Coaching for Every Mother.

    Clinical Characteristics, Activity Levels and Mental Health Problems in Children with Long COVID: A Survey of 510 Children

    Authors: Danilo Buonsenso; Ferran Espuny Pujol; Daniel Munblit; Sammie Mcfarland; Frances Simpson

    id:10.20944/preprints202103.0271.v1 Date: 2021-03-09 Source:

    Background The World Health Organization has recently recognized Long COVID, calling the international medical community to strengthen research and comprehensive care of patients with this condition. However, if Long COVID pertains to children as well is not yet clear. Methods An anonymous, online survey was developed by an organization of parents of children suffering from persisting symptoms since initial infection. Parents were asked to report signs and symptoms, physical activity and mental health issues. Only children with symptoms persisting for more than four weeks were included. Results 510 children were included (56.3% females) infected between January 2020 and January 2021. At their initial COVID-19 MESHD infection, 22 (4.3%) children were hospitalized. Overall, children had persisting COVID-19 MESHD for a mean of 8.2 months (SD 3.9). Most frequent symptoms were: Tiredness and weakness MESHD (444 patients, 87.1% of sample), Fatigue (410, 80.4%), Headache MESHD (401, 78.6%), Abdominal pain MESHD (387, 75.9%), Muscle and joint pain MESHD (309, 60.6%), Post-exertional malaise (274, 53.7%), rash MESHD (267, 52.4%). 484 (94.9%) children had had at least four symptoms. 129 (25.3%) children have suffered constant COVID-19 MESHD infection symptoms MESHD, 252 (49.4%) have had periods of apparent recovery and then symptoms returning, and 97 (19.0%) had a prolonged period of wellness followed by symptoms. Only 51 (10.0%) children have returned to previous levels of physical activity. Parents reported a significant prevalence of Neuropsychiatric symptoms MESHD. Conclusions Our study provides further evidence on Long COVID in children. Symptoms like fatigue MESHD, headache MESHD, muscle and joint pain MESHD, rashes MESHD and heart palpitations, and mental health issues like lack of concentration and short memory problems MESHD, were particularly frequent and confirm previous observations, suggesting that they may characterize this condition. A better comprehension of Long COVID is urgently needed..

    SARS-CoV-2-specific T Cell Memory MESHD is Sustained in COVID-19 MESHD Convalescents for 8 Months with Successful Development of Stem Cell-like Memory T Cells MESHD

    Authors: Eui-Cheol Shin; Jae Hyung Jung; Min-Seok Rha; Moa Sa; Hee Kyoung Choi; Ji Hoon Jeon; Hyeri Seok; Dae Won Park; Su-Hyung Park; Hye Won Jeong; Won Suk Choi

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.04.21252658 Date: 2021-03-08 Source: medRxiv

    Memory T cells contribute to rapid viral clearance during re-infection, but the longevity and differentiation of SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T cells remain unclear. We conducted direct ex vivo assays to evaluate SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in COVID-19 MESHD convalescents up to 254 days post-symptom onset (DPSO). Here, we report that memory T cell responses were maintained during the study period. In particular, we observed sustained polyfunctionality and proliferation capacity of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells. Among SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells detected by activation-induced markers, the proportion of stem cell-like memory T MESHD (T SCM) cells increased, peaking at approximately 120 DPSO. Development of TSCM cells was confirmed by SARS-CoV-2-specific MHC-I multimer staining. Considering the self-renewal capacity and multipotency of TSCM cells, our data suggest that SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells are long-lasting after recovery from COVID-19 MESHD. The current study provides insight for establishing an effective vaccination program and epidemiological measurement.

    Self-reported Memory Problems MESHD Eight Months after Non-Hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD in a Large Cohort

    Authors: Arne Soraas; Ragnhild Ro; Karl T Kalleberg; Merete Ellingjord-Dale; Nils I Landro

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.25.21252151 Date: 2021-02-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 MESHD range from ageusia and anosmia MESHD, experienced by most patients, to altered consciousness and rare and severe encephalopathy MESHD. A direct affection of the central nervous system (CNS) in the disease has been supported by animal models and MRI findings in patients with mild and severe symptoms. Here we report eight-month data on memory problems for non-hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD patients compared to SARS-CoV-2 negative patients and untested volunteers. Objective: To explore the association between non-hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD eight months previously and self-reported memory problems. Methods: We followed a cohort of 13156 participants that was invited after (1) being tested for SARS-CoV-2 with a combined oropharyngeal- and nasopharyngeal swab or (2) randomly selected from the Norwegian population (untested). Participants completed online baseline- and follow-up questionnaires detailing underlying medical conditions, demographics, symptoms, and items from the RAND-36 questionnaire on health-related quality of life and known confounders for memory problems. Results: After repeated invitations, the participation rate was 40% (N=794) of SARS-CoV-2 positive, 26% (N=7993) of negative, and 22% (N=4369) of untested randomly selected invitees. All participants completed the baseline questionnaire as a part of inclusion. The follow-up period was 248 days (SD=18) from baseline, and the follow-up questionnaire was completed by 75% of SARS-CoV-2 positive participants, 65% of negative participants, and 73% of untested randomly selected participants. At follow-up, 49 (11.5%) of the SARS-CoV-2 positive participants reported memory problems in contrast to 173 (4.1%) of the SARS-CoV-2 negative participants and 65 (2.4%) of the untested randomly selected participants. In a multivariate model, SARS-CoV-2 positivity remained strongly associated with reporting memory problems at eight months follow-up compared to the SARS-CoV-2 negative group (odds ratio (OR) 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-5.2) and the untested group (OR 4.9, 95% CI 3.4-7.2). Compared to the other groups, SARS-CoV-2 positive participants also reported more concentration problems and a significant worsening of health compared to one year ago at follow-up. Feeling depressed, less energy, or pain MESHD were reported relatively equally by the different groups. Summary: We find that 11.5% of COVID-19 MESHD patients experience memory problems eight months after the disease. SARS-CoV-2 is a new virus, and the long-term consequences of infections are therefore unknown. Our results show that a relatively high proportion of non-hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD patients report memory problems eight months after the disease.

    Clinical Relevance of Covid-19 MESHD in the Second Half of Pregnancy

    Authors: Marta RUGGIERO; Edgardo Somigliana; Beatrice TASSIS; Letizia LI PIANI; Sara Uceda Renteria; Giussy BARBARA; Giovanna LUNGHI; Enrico FERRAZZI

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2021-02-23 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Evidence on the outcome of Covid-19 MESHD in pregnancy is generally reassuring but yet not definitive. Methods: To specifically assess the impact of Covid-19 MESHD in the second half of pregnancy, we prospectively recruited 315 consecutive women delivering in a referral hospital located in Lombardy, Italy in the early phase of the epidemic. Restriction of the recruitment to this peculiar historical time period allowed to exclude infections occurring early in pregnancy and to limit the recall bias MESHD. All recruited subjects underwent a nasopharyngeal swab to assess the presence of Sars-Cov-2 using Real-time PCR. In addition, two different types of antibodies for the virus were evaluated in peripheral blood, those against the spike proteins S1 PROTEIN and S2 of the envelope and those against the nucleoprotein PROTEIN of the nucleocapsid. Women were considered to have had Covid-19 MESHD in pregnancy if at least one of the three assessments was positive. Results: Overall, 28 women had a diagnosis of Covid-19 MESHD in pregnancy (8.9%). Women diagnosed with the infection were more likely to report one or more episodes of symptoms suggestive for Covid-19 MESHD (n=11, 39.3%) compared to unaffected women (n=39, 13.6%). The corresponding OR was 4.11 (95%CI: 1.79-9.44). Symptoms significantly associated with Covid-19 MESHD in pregnancy included fever MESHD, cough MESHD, dyspnea and anosmia MESHD. Only one woman necessitated intensive care. Pregnancy outcome in women with and without Covid-19 MESHD did not also differ. Conclusions: Covid-19 MESHD is asymptomatic in three out of five women in the second half of pregnancy and is rarely severe. In addition, pregnancy outcome may not be significantly affected.

    Long COVID affects home-isolated young patients

    Authors: Bjorn Blomberg; Kristin Mohn; Karl Albert Brokstad; Dagrunn Linchausen; Bent-Are Hansen; Sarah Lartey Jalloh; Kanika Kuwelker; Fan Zhou; Marianne Saevik; Hauke Bartsch; Camilla Tondel; Bard Kittang; Rebecca Cox; Nina Langeland; Bergen COVID-19 Study Group

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2021-02-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Long-term complications following COVID-19 MESHD are common in hospitalised patients, but the spectrum of symptoms in milder cases remains unclear. In a Norwegian prospective cohort study of 312 patients, 61% of COVID-19 MESHD patients (247 home-isolated and 65 hospitalised) had persistent symptoms at six months, most commonly fatigue MESHD (37%), impaired concentration (26%), disturbed smell and/or taste (25%), memory loss MESHD (24%) and dyspnoea MESHD (21%). In young home-isolated adults, aged 16–30, 52% had symptoms at six months, with fatigue MESHD (21%), dyspnoea MESHD (13%), impaired concentration (13%) and memory loss MESHD (11%) posing particular challenges. Pre-existing chronic lung disease MESHD and high convalescent antibody titres predicted persistent symptoms, particularly fatigue MESHD. Our finding that young, home-isolated adults with mild COVID-19 MESHD are at risk of long-lasting dyspnoea MESHD and cognitive symptoms highlights the importance of infection control measures, such as vaccination.

    Naive human B cells can neutralize SARS-CoV-2 through recognition of its receptor binding domain

    Authors: Jared Feldman; Julia Bals; Kerri St. Denis; Evan C. Lam; Blake M. Hauser; Larance Ronsard; Maya Sangesland; Thalia Bracamonte Moreno; Vintus Okonkwo; Nathania Hartojo; Alejandro B. Balazs; Daniel Lingwood; Aaron G. Schmidt

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.02.429458 Date: 2021-02-10 Source: bioRxiv

    Exposure to a pathogen elicits an adaptive immune response aimed to control and eradicate. This initial exposure is imprinted on the immune system, so that a subsequent encounter to the same pathogen or a variant will result in a memory recall MESHD response that is often protective. Interrogating the naive B cell repertoire in terms of both abundance and specificity to said pathogen may contribute to an understanding of how to potentially elicit protective responses. Here, we isolated naive B cells across 8 human donors, targeting the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD). Single B cell sorting, and subsequent sequence analysis, showed diverse gene usage and pairing with no apparent restriction on complementarity determining region length in either the heavy or light chains. We show that recombinantly expressed IgGs and Fabs of these germline precursors bind SARS-CoV-2 RBD. Importantly, a subset of these naive antibodies also bind SARS-CoV MESHD, an emergent variant (501Y.V2) and a potential pandemic (WIV-1) coronavirus. Furthermore, naive antibodies can also neutralize SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses in the absence of any somatic hypermutation, suggesting that protective immunity to coronaviruses, more broadly, may be genetically encoded. Future studies aimed at understanding the naive repertoire to other coronaviruses may ultimately reveal shared specificities that could be leveraged to develop pan-coronavirus vaccines aimed at priming encoded germline responses.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins

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