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SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    Malicious and Low Credibility URLs on Twitter during COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Sameera Horawalavithana; Ravindu De Silva; Mohamed Nabeel; Charitha Elvitigala; Primal Wijesekara; Adriana Iamnitchi

    id:2102.12223v1 Date: 2021-02-24 Source: arXiv

    This study provides an in-depth analysis of a Twitter dataset around AstraZeneca COVID vaccine development released as a part of Grand Challenge, North American Social Network Conference, 2021. In brief, we show: i) the presence of malicious and low credibility information sources shared on Twitter messages in multiple languages, ii) the malicious URLs, often in shortened forms, are increasingly hosted in content delivery networks and shared cloud hosting infrastructures not only to improve reach but also to avoid being detected and blocked, iii) potential signs of coordination MESHD to promote both malicious and low credibility URLs on Twitter. We use a null model and several statistical tests to identify meaningful coordination behavior MESHD.

    Well-Being Perception During COVID-19 Pandemic MESHD in Healthy Adolescents: Evidence From the Avatar Study

    Authors: Francesca Mastorci; Luca Bastiani; Gabriele Trivellini; Cristina Doveri; Anselmo Casu; Marta Pozzi; Irene Marinaro; Cristina Vassalle; Alessandro Pingitore

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-155879/v1 Date: 2021-01-26 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background COVID-19 pandemic MESHD provided an extraordinary and naturalistic context to observe young people’s psychosocial MESHD profile and to study how a condition of environmental deprivation and lack of direct social contact, affect the well-being and health status of adolescents. The current study explored whether the COVID-19 MESHD outbreak changes, in the short term, the acute well-being perception in adolescents, as measured by a Personalised Well-being Index (PWBI) and the four components affecting health (i.e. lifestyle habits, social context, emotional status, mental skills), in a sample of early adolescent students.Methods Data were collected in 1019 adolescents (boys 48.3%, mean age 12.53 ± 1.25), at the beginning of school year (Baseline Condition, BC) as part of the AVATAR project and during the Italian lockdown phase (LP) using online questionnaire.Results During COVID-19 MESHD quarantine, adolescents showed a lower PWBI (p = 0.000) as compared to the baseline conditions. Considering the four health-related well-being components, lifestyle habits (p = 0.000), social context (p = 0.000), and emotional status (p = 0.000), showed significantly lower values during lockdown phase than baseline ones. However, mental skills MESHD, in LP, displayed a significant increase as compared to pre-COVID conditions (p = 0.000).Conclusions In this study, we have provided data on the personalised well-being index and the different components affecting health in adolescents during the COVID-19 MESHD lockdown, showing a general decreased in well-being perception, expressed in the lifestyle habits, social, and emotional components, demonstrating detrimental effects in the first phase of quarantine on adolescents’ psychosocial MESHD profile. Our result shed new light on adolescence as a crucial period of risk behaviour, especially when social support is lacking.

    Development and Pilot-testing of a Hepatitis C Reinfection MESHD Prevention Intervention for Patients in Treatment for Hepatitis C Infection MESHD

    Authors: Adam Christopher Viera; Lauretta E. Grau; Jeffrey D. Fisher; Scott O. Farnum; Jeanette M. Tetrault; Greg Scott; Robert Heimer

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-139092/v1 Date: 2020-12-31 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: With annual rates of hepatitis C virus MESHD ( HCV MESHD) reinfection among persons who inject drugs ranging from 5% to 22%, the need for behavioral interventions to prevent reinfection following successful treatment is clear. Methods: This report aims to describe the conception and development of an intervention to prevent HCV MESHD reinfection and present preliminary results from its pilot testing at an opioid treatment program offering on-site primary medical care, including treatment for HCV infection MESHD. We developed a two-session intervention combining a teachable moment followed by a session based on the Information- Motivation-Behavioral Skills MESHD (IMB) Model to reinforce learning. The teachable moment occurs in less than ten minutes during the routine blood draw to measure viral load during HCV MESHD treatment. The reinforcing IMB session builds knowledge, motivation, and self-efficacy in practicing safer injection skills. Formative exploratory work for the intervention involved a literature review, planning meetings with implementation staff, and development of study materials. Intervention staff were trained and the intervention was pilot tested. Measured outcomes included feasibility and acceptability of the intervention to patients and implementers, study recruitment and retention, and preliminary changes in knowledge, motivation, self-efficacy, and HCV MESHD reinfection risk behaviors over the study time period. Results: The study protocol and intervention content are both described, along with the preliminary results of implementation and psychosocial MESHD outcomes among 17 patients undergoing direct-acting antiviral treatment for HCV MESHD. Baseline data revealed gaps in HCV MESHD prevention knowledge that could lead to reinfection. We also report lessons learned related to implementation of such an intervention with this population in integrated care settings. After some minor adjustments, we found high levels of feasibility and acceptability for the intervention at the implementing organization. Intervention implementation was interrupted due to COVID-19 MESHD restrictions. Conclusions: It is possible to implement an intervention in an opioid treatment program to improve HCV MESHD prevention knowledge with the potential to prevent reinfection. Intervention staff must be attentive to participant needs regarding time and monetary constraints to maximize acceptability. Given the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD, future research should explore the possibility of offering the intervention via phone or video chat.

    Future Proofing Applied Epidemiology Workforce Training for Emergency Response. A Global Survey of Applied Epidemiologists, 2019-2020

    Authors: Amy Elizabeth Parry; Martyn D Kirk; David N Durrheim; Babatunde Olowokure; Samantha Colquhoun; Tambri Housen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-122029/v1 Date: 2020-12-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundRapid and effective emergency response to address health security relies heavily on a competent and suitably trained local and international workforce. The COVID-19 pandemic MESHD has highlighted the need to ensure that the health security workforce is well equipped to tackle current and future challenges. We conducted a survey to understand whether applied epidemiology training was meeting the needs of the field epidemiological workforce.MethodWe conducted a cross sectional online survey. Purposive sampling and snowballing techniques were used to identify survey respondents. Inclusion criterion was any person who self-identified as working in an applied epidemiology role. We recruited survey respondents through an online social media campaign and partnered with the Training Programs in Epidemiology and Public Health Interventions Network (TEPHINET) to directly reach field epidemiology training programme (FETP) alumni networks. Survey topics included participant demographics, technical background, formal education level, year of epidemiology training, topics studied during epidemiology training, years of experience as an epidemiologist, and their public health/epidemiology learning. The survey was available in English and French. ResultsWe received 282 responses from people with a range of formal public health and epidemiology training backgrounds. Applied epidemiology work experience of respondents spanned almost 30 years from across 64 countries. FETP alumni made up 74% (n=210) of the total. Basic outbreak and surveillance training was well reported by the respondents, however training in specialised techniques related to emergency response was not as common. Less than 50% of respondents reported receiving training in leadership and management. Training in emergency response and communications scored low across most categories. Fifty-six per cent of respondents reported learning evidence-based decision-making. FETP graduates reported higher levels of formal training in all survey topics. ConclusionA specific aim of our survey was to identify the training needs of the applied epidemiology workforce. Training gaps identified included leadership, communication and social skills MESHD, as well as emergency response capacity. Our survey showed that applied epidemiology workforce training must evolve to remain relevant to current and future public health challenges. 

    A Near-Peer Surgical Teaching Programme for Junior Doctors

    Authors: Shoaib Fahad Hussain; Teri Hsiao Hsui Toi; Edward Peter Laurent; Shaikh Sanjid Seraj; Samer-ul-Haque

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-112782/v1 Date: 2020-11-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Surgical departments across the UK are having to mitigate increasing service demands, budget constraints and changes to work patterns, with their statutory duty to provide high-quality training and education. In an overstretched NHS, securing consultant-led teaching for junior doctors has become increasingly difficult leading to the rise of near-peer teaching. We evaluate the long-term effectiveness of a near-peer surgical teaching programme for junior doctors. Methods: We developed a rolling 12-week trainee-led, didactic surgical education programme for junior doctors and incorporated a three-tiered leadership and handover mechanism involving lead junior doctors, registrars and a lead consultant to ensure consistency and programme continuity. Junior doctors delivered presentations to their peers with close supervision and input from registrars. Participants provided session and supervision feedback using 5-point scales and free-text responses. Data was collected using Google Forms™ and analysed using student’s t-test on Microsoft Excel®. Results: 42 junior doctors responded to our end-of-programme feedback surveys covering December 2018 to April 2020. The overall programme (8.83±1.08/10), topic relevance (4.62±0.58/5), presentation quality (4.60±0.50/5) and supervisor knowledge (4.81±0.40/5) were rated highly by respondents. 95.2% (n=40) of respondents had attended more than 3 sessions and 71.4 % (n=30) had delivered teaching. Respondents also reported significant improvements in subject knowledge (3.72±0.92/5 to 4.50±0.56/5, P<0.0001), clinical confidence, presentation and teaching skills MESHD following each session. Conclusions: This long-term near-peer teaching programme addressed the educational needs of junior doctors and developed their presentation and organisational skills. Supervision and input from registrars facilitated discussion and reinforced key concepts. Our strategy also facilitated workplace-based assessments and familiarisation with local management protocols for new cohorts of doctors rotating in Surgery at Basildon University Hospital. We also recently adapted this into a virtual programme in response to the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD, maintaining clinical education and expanding our audience. The success of this programme highlights the role that trainees can play in designing, developing and coordinating an effective surgical teaching programme.   

    The impact of COVID-19 MESHD on the adaptive functioning of Italian children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: role of the online intervention.

    Authors: Siracusano Martina; Segatori Eugenia; Riccioni Assia; Gialloreti Emberti Leonardo; Curatolo Paolo; Mazzone Luigi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-99013/v1 Date: 2020-10-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    This study investigated the impact of lockdown due to COVID-19 MESHD COVID-19 MESHD pandemic on the adaptive functioning, problematic and repetitive behaviors of an Italian sample of preschoolers and schoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder MESHD. We evaluated whether after the compulsory home confinement, in comparison to a baseline evaluation performed during the months preceding COVID-19 MESHD, any improvement or worsening was reported by parents of ASD individuals using standardized instruments.No significant worsening in the areas explored emerged after the lockdown. Within the older participants, a clinical stability was found concerning both adaptive skills MESHD and behavioral aspects. Whereas, within preschoolers a significant improvement in adaptive skills emerged and was related to the subsistence of web delivered intervention, parental work persistency and online support during lockdown.

    Singularity and Coordination Problems: Pandemic Lessons from 2020

    Authors: Nicholas Kluge Corrêa; Nythamar De Oliveira

    id:2010.07018v1 Date: 2020-10-07 Source: arXiv

    One of the strands of the Transhumanist movement, Singulitarianism, studies the possibility that high-level artificial intelligence may be created in the future, debating ways to ensure that the interaction between human society and advanced artificial intelligence can occur safely and beneficially. But how can we guarantee this safe interaction? Are there any indications that a Singularity may be on the horizon? In trying to answer these questions, We'll make a small introduction to the area of security research in artificial intelligence. We'll review some of the current paradigms in the development of autonomous intelligent systems and evidence that we can use to prospect the coming of a possible technological Singularity. Finally, we will present a reflection using the COVID-19 MESHD COVID-19 MESHD pandemic, something that showed that our biggest problem in managing existential risks is our lack of coordination skills MESHD as a global society.

    Can physical activity protect against depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 MESHD COVID-19 MESHD pandemic? A rapid systematic review

    Authors: Sebastian Wolf; Johanna Zeibig; Britta Seiffer; Jana Welkerling; Luisa Brokmeier; Beatrice Atrott; Thomas Ehring; Felipe Barreto Schuch

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-81150/v1 Date: 2020-09-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    The Covid-19 MESHD Covid-19 MESHD pandemic is affecting the entire world population. During the first spread, most governments have implemented quarantine and strict social distancing procedures. Similar measures during recent pandemics resulted in an increase in post- traumatic stress MESHD, anxiety and depression symptoms MESHD. The development of novel interventions to mitigate the mental health burden are of outmost importance. In this rapid review, we aimed to provide a systematic overview of the literature with regard to associations between physical activity (PA) and depression MESHD and anxiety MESHD during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD. We searched major databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Sportdiscus, Web of Science) and preprint servers (MedRxivs, SportRxiv, ResearchGate and Google scholar), for relevant papers up to 25/07/2020. We identified a total of 21 observational studies (4 longitudinal, one cross-sectional with retrospective analysis and 16 cross-sectional), including information of 42,293 (age range = 6-70 years, median female = 68%) participants from 5 continents. The early evidence suggests that people who performed PA on a regular basis with higher volume and frequency and kept the PA routines stable, showed less symptoms of depression MESHD and anxiety MESHD. For instance, those reporting a higher total time spent in moderate to vigorous PA had 12% to 32% lower chances of presenting depressive symptoms MESHD and 15% to 34% of presenting anxiety MESHD. In order to maintain PA routines during Covid-19 MESHD, specific volitional and motivational skills MESHD might be paramount to overcome Covid-19 MESHD specific barriers. Particularly, web-based technologies could be an accessible way to increase motivation and volition for PA and maintain daily PA routines. 

    The Skeleton Key Group: The Impact of Fellow Led Education in Nephrology

    Authors: Amy A Yau; Joel Topf; Sayna Norouzi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-68466/v1 Date: 2020-08-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundThe Skeleton Key Group (SKG) is an online collective of trainees working to generate free, open-access medical education (FOAMed) focusing on electrolyte disorders. Trainee created and edited materials include a case report supplemented by visual abstracts, tweetorials, and quizzes. MethodsThe group formed in September 2019, and members were continually added. In May 2020, anonymous surveys were sent to SKG members and readers to assess educational impact.ResultsMember response rate was 62.5% (n=20) with 13 nephrology fellows and 4 residents. 85% (n=17) of respondents reported improved medical knowledge, and 70-80% (n=14-16) noted improved manuscript construction. Members’ primary goal of joining was to learn (n=18), and 60% (n=12) met all and 30% (n=6) met some of their goals with similar rates among low-engagement members (n=10).Of the 130 audience responses, the majority were nephrology fellows (41, 32%) and residents (42, 32%). Case reports were considered high quality, scoring 91±15.5 (0, low to 100, high). Tweetorials were the most useful and reported utility increased compared to the case report as training level progressed. 79% (n=103) confirmed their educational experience was impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD COVID-19 pandemic MESHD, and 90% (n=116) found the SKG an effective educational tool during this period.ConclusionsThe SKG is an innovative collaborative experience and valuable educational resource. Involvement led to positive changes in members’ reported medical knowledge and writing skills MESHD. Our data also reinforces the ability of FOAMed to cater to different learning styles and to complement traditional medical education specifically during periods of social distancing.

    Layoffs, Inequity and COVID-19 MESHD: A Longitudinal Study of the Journalism Jobs Crisis in Australia from 2012 to 2020

    Authors: Nik Dawson; Sacha Molitorisz; Marian-Andrei Rizoiu; Peter Fray

    id:2008.12459v2 Date: 2020-08-28 Source: arXiv

    In Australia and beyond, journalism is reportedly an industry in crisis, a crisis exacerbated by COVID-19 MESHD. However, the evidence revealing the crisis is often anecdotal or limited in scope. In this unprecedented longitudinal research, we draw on data from the Australian journalism jobs market from January 2012 until March 2020. Using Data Science and Machine Learning techniques, we analyse two distinct data sets: job advertisements (ads) data comprising 3,698 journalist job ads from a corpus of over 8 million Australian job ads; and official employment data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Having matched and analysed both sources, we address both the demand for and supply of journalists in Australia over this critical period. The data show that the crisis is real, but there are also surprises. Counter-intuitively, the number of journalism job ads in Australia rose from 2012 until 2016, before falling into decline. Less surprisingly, for the entire period studied the figures reveal extreme volatility, characterised by large and erratic fluctuations. The data also clearly show that COVID-19 MESHD has significantly worsened the crisis. We then tease out more granular findings, including: that there are now more women than men journalists in Australia, but that gender inequity is worsening, with women journalists getting younger and worse-paid just as men journalists are, on average, getting older and better-paid; that, despite the crisis besetting the industry, the demand for journalism skills MESHD has increased; and that, perhaps concerningly, the skills sought by journalism job ads increasingly include social media and generalist communications.

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