Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins


SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    TCA-soluble blood serum proteins of COVID-19 MESHD patients as possible predictive markers for the disease severity

    Authors: Andrii Orfin; Tamila Alexanyan; Svitlana Tkachuk Svitlana Tkachuk; Anatoliy Starodub; Taras Luchyshyn; Andriy Sibirny; Serhiy Souchelnytskyi; Yuriy Kit

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.07.21255063 Date: 2021-04-09 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 19 ( COVID-19 MESHD) is a global health crisis on a planetary scale. COVID-19 MESHD in many people has mild or moderate manifestation, although significant number of people, especially the elderly, suffer heavy from this illness, which often resulting in death MESHD. There are reports of similarities in immune response between COVID-19 MESHD and some autoimmune diseases MESHD. Earlier, we have demonstrated that fraction of TCA-soluble blood serum proteins containing a 48 kDA fragment of unconvential Myosin C1 have linked with development of multiple sclerosis MESHD and rheumatoid arthritis MESHD. Here we analyze use of these proteins in determining the severity of disease in COVID-19 MESHD patients. We found that blood serum of COVID-19 MESHD patients in acute disease MESHD manifestation contains, in contrast to healthy individuals, the TCA-soluble proteins with molecular masses 48 kDa and 76 kDA which were identified as a short form of unconventional myosin 1c and a modified form of human serum albumin HGNC.

    COVID-19 MESHD is associated with multiple sclerosis MESHD exacerbations that are prevented by disease modifying therapies

    Authors: Afagh Garjani; Rodden M Middleton; Rachael Hunter; Katherine A Tuite-Dalton; Alasdair Coles; Ruth Dobson; Martin Duddy; Stella Hughes; Owen R Pearson; David Rog; Emma C Tallantyre; Roshan das Nair; Richard Nicholas; Nikos Evangelou

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.08.21253141 Date: 2021-03-10 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundInfections can trigger exacerbations of multiple sclerosis MESHD ( MS MESHD). The effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) on MS MESHD are not known. The aim of this study was to understand the impact of COVID-19 MESHD on new and pre-existing symptoms of MS MESHD. MethodsThe COVID-19 MESHD and MS MESHD study is an ongoing community-based, prospective cohort study conducted as part of the United Kingdom MS MESHD Register. People with MS MESHD and COVID-19 MESHD were invited by email to complete a questionnaire about their MS MESHD symptoms during the infection. An MS MESHD exacerbation was defined as developing new MS MESHD symptoms and/or worsening of pre-existing MS MESHD symptoms. ResultsFifty-seven percent (230/404) of participants had an MS MESHD exacerbation during their infection; 82 developed new MS MESHD symptoms, 207 experienced worsened pre-existing MS MESHD symptoms, and 59 reported both. Disease modifying therapies (DMTs) reduced the likelihood of developing new MS MESHD symptoms during the infection (OR 0.556, 95%CI 0.316-0.978). Participants with a higher pre- COVID-19 MESHD webEDSS (web-based Expanded Disability Status Scale) score (OR 1.251, 95%CI 1.060-1.478) and longer MS MESHD duration (OR 1.042, 95%CI 1.009-1.076) were more likely to experience worsening of their pre-existing MS MESHD symptoms during the infection. Conclusion COVID-19 MESHD infection was associated with exacerbation of MS MESHD. DMTs reduced the chance of developing new MS MESHD symptoms during the infection.

    Upper respiratory tract SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads in symptomatic and asymptomatic children and adults

    Authors: Rosa Costa; Felipe Bueno; Eliseo Albert; Ignacio Torres; Silvia Carbonell-Sahuquillo; Ana Barres-Fernandez; David Sanchez; Carmelo Padron; Javier Colomina; Maria Isabel Lazaro-Carreno; Jose Rafael Breton-Martinez; Cecilia Martinez-Costa; David Navarro

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.03.21252814 Date: 2021-03-03 Source: medRxiv

    ObjectivesThere is limited information comparing SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in the upper respiratory tract (URT) between children and adults, either presenting with COVID-19 MESHD or asymptomatic. Here we conducted a retrospective, single center study involving a large cohort of SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD individuals to address this issue. Patients and MethodsA total of 1,184 consecutive subjects (256 children and 928 adults) testing positive for SARS-COV-2 RNA in nasopharyngeal exudates (NP) were included, of whom 424 (121 children and 303 adults) had COVID-19 MESHD not requiring hospitalization and 760 (135 children and 625 adults) were asymptomatic close contacts of COVID-19 MESHD patients. SARS-CoV-2 RNA testing was carried out using the TaqPath COVID-19 MESHD Combo Kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific, MS MESHD, USA). The AMPLIRUN(R) TOTAL SARS-CoV-2 RNA Control (Vircell SA, Granada, Spain) was used for estimating SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads (in copies/mL). ResultsMedian SARS-COV-2 RNA loads were comparable between adults and children with COVID-19 MESHD (7.14 log10 copies/ml vs. 6.98 log10 copies/ml; P=0.094). Median SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in asymptomatic children and adults was similar (6.20 log10 copies/ml vs. 6.48 log10 copies/ml; P=0.97). Children with COVID-19 MESHD symptoms displayed SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads comparable to their asymptomatic counterparts (P=0.61). Meanwhile in adults, median SARS-CoV-2 RNA load was significantly higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic subjects (P=<0.001), yet comparable (P=0.61) when the analysis excluded patients sampled within 48 h after symptoms onset. ConclusionsThe data suggest that children may be drivers of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the general population at the same level as adults.

    Longitudinal analysis of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence using multiple serology platforms

    Authors: Juan Manuel Carreno; Damodara Rao Mendu; Viviana Simon; Masood A Shariff; Gagandeep Singh; Vidya Menon; Florian Krammer

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.24.21252340 Date: 2021-02-26 Source: medRxiv

    Serological tests are important tools helping to determine previous infection with severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus MESHD 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to monitor immune responses. The current tests are based on spike (S), the receptor binding domain (RBD), or the nucleoprotein PROTEIN (NP) as substrate. Here, we used samples from a high seroprevalence cohort of health care workers (HCWs) to perform a longitudinal analysis of the antibody responses using three distinct serological assays. 501 serum samples were tested using: a) a research-grade RBD and spike based tandem enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MS-RBD ELISA, MS-spike ELISA), b) a commercial RBD and spike based tandem ELISA (Kantaro-RBD, -spike), and c) a commercial NP-based chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA, Abbott Architect). Seroprevalence ranged around 28% during the early stage of the pandemic (a: 28.4% positives; b: 28.1%; c: 27.3%). Good correlation was observed between the MS MESHD and Kantaro RBD ELISAs and between the MS MESHD and Kantaro spike ELISAs. By contrast, modest correlations were observed between the Abbott Architect and both RBD and spike-based assays. A proportion of HCWs (n=178) were sampled again 3-5 months after the first time point. Although antibody levels declined in most of the positive individuals, the overall seroprevalence measured by RBD-spike based assays remained unchanged. However the seroprevalence of NP-reactive antibodies significantly declined. Lastly, we tested six samples of individuals who received two doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine and found that seroconversion was detected by the RBD-spike assays but, of course as expected, not the NP based assay. In summary, our results consolidate the strength of different serological assays to assess the magnitude and duration of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2.

    Negative Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S Antibody Response Following Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination in a Patient on Ocrelizumab

    Authors: Mahsa Khayat-Khoei MD MBA; Sarah Conway MD; Douglas A. Rubinson MD PhD; Petr Jarolim MD PhD; Maria K. Houtchens MD MMs

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2021-02-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Several vaccines for novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) are now available.  In Multiple Sclerosis MESHD ( MS MESHD) patients on anti- CD20 HGNC therapy, blunted antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and to some vaccines have been reported. However, there is no data on immune response to mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in patients on anti- CD20 HGNC therapies. We present a patient with MS MESHD on ocrelizumab, who received the Pfizer mRNA COVID-19 MESHD vaccine, and did not seroconvert 27 days after the second vaccine dose as measured by an FDA approved Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay.

    Associations of DMT therapies with COVID-19 MESHD severity in multiple sclerosis MESHD

    Authors: Steve Simpson-Yap; Edward De Brouwer; Tomas Kalincik; Nick Rijke; Jan Hillert; Clare Walton; Gilles Edan; YVES Yves MOREAU; Tim Spelman; Lotte Geys; Tina Parciak; Clement Gautrais; Nikola Lazovski; Ashkan Pirmani; Amin Ardeshirdavani; Lars Forsberg; Anna Glaser; Robert McBurney; Hollie Schmidt; Arnfin Bergmann; Stefan Braune; Alexander Stahmann; Rodden Middleton; Amber Salter; Robert J Fox; Anneke van der Walt; Helmut Butzkueven; Raed Al-Roughani; Serkan Ozakbas; Juan I Rojas; Ingrid van der Mei; Nupur Nag; Rumen Ivanov; Guilherme Sciascia do Olival; Alice Estavo Dias; Melinda Magyari; Doralina Guimaraes Brum; Maria Fernanda Mendes; Ricardo Alonso; Richard Nicholas; Johana Bauer; Anibal Chertcoff; Anna Zabalza; Georgina Arrambide; Alexander Fidao; Giancarlo Comi; Liesbet Peeters

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.08.21251316 Date: 2021-02-10 Source: medRxiv

    Background: People with multiple sclerosis MESHD ( MS MESHD) are a vulnerable group for severe COVID-19 MESHD, particularly those taking immunosuppressive disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). We examined the characteristics of COVID-19 MESHD severity in an international sample of people with MS MESHD. Methods: Data from 12 data-sources in 28 countries were aggregated. Demographic and clinical covariates were queried, alongside COVID-19 MESHD clinical severity outcomes, hospitalisation, admission to ICU, requiring artificial ventilation, and death MESHD. Characteristics of outcomes were assessed in patients with suspected/confirmed COVID-19 MESHD using multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression. Results: 657 (28.1%) with suspected and 1,683 (61.9%) with confirmed COVID-19 MESHD were analysed. Older age, progressive MS MESHD-phenotype, and higher disability were associated with worse COVID-19 MESHD outcomes. Compared to dimethyl fumarate, ocrelizumab and rituximab were associated with hospitalisation (aOR=1.56,95%CI=1.01-2.41; aOR=2.43,95%CI=1.48-4.02) and ICU admission (aOR=2.30,95%CI=0.98-5.39; aOR=3.93,95%CI=1.56-9.89), though only rituximab was associated with higher risk of artificial ventilation (aOR=4.00,95%CI=1.54-10.39). Compared to pooled other DMTs, ocrelizumab and rituximab were associated with hospitalisation (aOR=1.75,95%CI=1.29-2.38; aOR=2.76,95%CI=1.87-4.07) and ICU admission (aOR=2.55,95%CI=1.49-4.36; aOR=4.32,95%CI=2.27-8.23) but only rituximab with artificial ventilation (aOR=6.15,95%CI=3.09-12.27). Compared to natalizumab, ocrelizumab and rituximab were associated with hospitalisation (aOR=1.86,95%CI=1.13-3.07; aOR=2.88,95%CI=1.68-4.92) and ICU admission (aOR=2.13,95%CI=0.85-5.35; aOR=3.23,95%CI=1.17-8.91), but only rituximab with ventilation (aOR=5.52,95%CI=1.71-17.84). Importantly, associations persisted on restriction to confirmed COVID-19 MESHD cases. No associations were observed between DMTs and death MESHD. Conclusions: Using the largest cohort of people with MS MESHD and COVID-19 MESHD available, we demonstrated consistent associations of rituximab with increased risk of hospitalisation, ICU admission, and requiring artificial ventilation, and ocrelizumab with hospitalisation and ICU admission, suggesting their use may be a risk factor for more severe COVID-19 MESHD.

    Neuroimaging Features of COVID-19 MESHD: Retrospective Northern Italy Multicenter Study and a Scoping Review of the Prevalence of COVID-19 MESHD Associated Acute Cerebrovascular Diseases MESHD

    Authors: Andrea Giorgianni; Francesco D'Amore; Gabriele Vinacci; Edoardo Agosti; Letterio Politi; Andrea De Vito; Alessandra Polistena; Luca Valvassori; Mirko Trentadue; Lisa Nicoli; Carlo Sozzi; Sergio Balbi; Anna Mercuri; Alberto Terrana; Fabio Triulzi; Casale Silvia; Nunzio Nuzzi; Francesco Asteggiano; Valentina Genovese; Elvis Lafe; Elena Bianchini; Pietro Bernasconi; Enrico Colli-Tibaldi; Laura Longhi; Francesca Bandiera; Fabio Baruzzi

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2021-01-18 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background The primary aim of this study was to provide additional data of neuroimaging features of coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) in a large-scale population admitted in several northern Italy institutions. The secondary aim was to analyze acute cerebrovascular disease MESHD ( CVD MESHD) prevalence in COVID-19 MESHD. Methods A database of confirmed COVID-19 MESHD hospitalized patients who developed acute neurological symptoms MESHD and underwent any neuroimaging was retrospectively gathered from twelve institutions based in Lombardy from February 21st to July 10th. To assess the prevalence of CVD MESHD we conducted a scoping review following the PRISMA extension guidelines for scoping reviews. We searched PubMed/Medline, SCOPUS and EMBASE databases for peer-reviewed in-press or published studies from December to January 2021 reporting CVD MESHD in COVID-19 MESHD patients. Results Out of 90 COVID-19 MESHD patients who were referred to neuroimaging, 78 (87%) showed CVD MESHD, in particular 65 had acute ischemic strokes MESHD (AIS), 8 had intracerebral hemorrhages MESHD, 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages MESHD ( SAH MESHD) and 3 showed clinical and imaging findings in keeping with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome MESHD ( PRES MESHD); 6 patients (7%) showed clinical and imaging findings highly suggestive of encephalitis MESHD; 3 patients (3%) showed demyelinating diseases MESHD: 1 case of MS progression, 1 case of newly diagnosed MS MESHD and 1 case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis MESHD ( ADEM MESHD); 2 cases (2%) acuity of chronic subdural hematoma MESHD ( cSDH MESHD); 1 patient (1%) with Guillain Barré syndrome. In addiction two patients with CVD MESHD developed cauda polyradiculitis and tetraparesis MESHD. In our scoping review out of 3275 studies, 24 satisfied the inclusion criteria: in a pooled total population of 136198 patients, the pooled prevalence of CVD MESHD was 0.9%. In particular 0.8% of AIS MESHD and 0.1% of ICH MESHD and 0.003% of PRES. Conclusions Our study shows a high prevalence of CVD MESHD among patients who developed acute neurological symptoms MESHD, which is in line with papers reporting data comparable to ours. The heterogeneity of clinical reports, however, constitutes a limitation when comparing our findings with those of the clinical papers. Nonetheless, CVD MESHD could be a frightening association with COVID-19 MESHD, particularly in critically ill MESHD patients. Healthcare policymakers and clinicians should be prepared to a likely increase in workload and to rearrange the strategy of healthcare delivery.

    Interferons and Multiple Sclerosis: Lessons from 25 Years of Clinical and Real-World Experience with Intramuscular Interferon-Beta-1a (Avonex)

    Authors: Stanley Cohan; Barry Hendin; Anthony Reder; Kyle Smoot; Robin Avila; Jason Mendoza; Bianca Weinstock-Guttman

    id:202101.0183/v1 Date: 2021-01-11 Source:

    Multiple sclerosis MESHD ( MS MESHD) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease MESHD of the central nervous system. The interferons (IFNs) were discovered in 1957, and recombinant IFN-β-1b was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as the first disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for MS MESHD in 1993. Since that time, clinical trials and real-world observational studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of IFN HGNC therapies. The pivotal intramuscular IFN-β HGNC-1a phase 3 trial was the first to demonstrate that a DMT could reduce accumulation of sustained disability in MS MESHD. Patient adherence to treatment is higher with intramuscular IFN-β-1a, given once weekly, than with subcutaneous formulations requiring multiple injections per week. Moreover, subcutaneous IFN-β HGNC-1a is associated with an increased incidence of injection site reactions and neutralizing antibodies compared with intramuscular administration. In recent years, revisions to MS MESHD diagnostic criteria have improved clinicians’ ability to identify patients with MS MESHD and have promoted the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnosis and monitoring. MRI studies show that treatment with IFN-β-1a, relative to placebo, reduces T2 and gadolinium-enhancing lesions and gray matter atrophy MESHD. Since the approval of intramuscular IFN-β-1a, several high-efficacy therapies have been approved for MS MESHD, though the benefit of these high-efficacy therapies should be balanced against the increased risk of serious adverse events. For some subpopulations of patients, including pregnant women, the safety profile of IFN-β HGNC formulations may provide a particular benefit. In addition, the antiviral properties of IFNs may indicate therapeutic opportunities for IFN-β HGNC in the treatment of viral infections such as COVID-19 MESHD.

    Comprehensive Profiling and Characterization of The Absorbed Components and Metabolites in Mice Serum and Tissues Following Oral Administration of Qingfei Paidu Decoction by UHPLC-Q-Exactive-Orbitrap HRMS

    Authors: Wei Liu; Jian Huang; Feng Zhang; Congcong Zhang; Rongsheng Li; Yongli Wang; Chaoran Wang; Xinmiao Liang; Weidong Zhang; Ling Yang; Ping Liu; Guang-Bo Ge

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-12-25 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPDD) is a Chinese medicine compound formula recommended for combating corona virus disease 2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD) by National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. This study aims to identify the main constituents in QFPDD and the absorbed components (including prototypes and metabolites) in serum and tissues after oral administration of QFPDD to mice.Methods: A practical and sensitive method of UHPLC-Q-Exactive-Orbitrap HRMS was developed to identify the chemical constituents in QFPDD and the absorbed prototypes as well as the metabolites in mice serum and tissues following oral administration of QFPDD.Results: A total of 405 chemicals, including 40 kinds of alkaloids, 162 kinds of flavonoids, 44 kinds of organic acids, 71 kinds of triterpene saponins and 88 kinds of other compounds in the water extract of QFPDD were tentatively identified via comparison with the retention times and MS MESHD/MS spectra of the standards or refereed by literature. With the help of the standards and in vitro metabolites, 195 chemical components (including 104 prototypes and 91 metabolites) were identified in mice serum after oral administration of QFPDD. In addition, 165, 177, 112, 120, 44, 53 constituents were identified in the lung, liver, heart, kidney, brain, and spleen of QFPDD-treated mice, respectively.Conclusions: An UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS based method was established for chemical profiling the constituents in QFPDD, while the absorbed prototypes and metabolites occurring in mice serum and tissues were investigated following oral administration of QFPDD. These findings provided key information and guidance for further investigation on the pharmacologically active substances and clinical applications of QFPDD.

    Neurological Disorders associated with COVID-19 MESHD Hospital Admissions : Experience of a Single Tertiary Healthcare Centre

    Authors: Permesh Singh Dhillon; Robert Dineen; Haley Morris; Radu Tanasescu; Esmaeil Nikfekr; Jonathan Evans; Cris S Constantinescu; Akram A Hosseini

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.22.20235184 Date: 2020-12-11 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundEarly reports have detailed a range of neurological symptoms MESHD in patients with the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. However, there is a lack of detailed description and incidence of the neurological disorders MESHD amongst hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD patients. We describe a range of neurological disorders MESHD (other than non-specific neurological symptoms), including their clinical, radiological and laboratory findings, encountered in our cohort COVID-19 MESHD patients admitted to a large tertiary institution. MethodsWe reviewed our prospectively collated database of all adult Neurology referrals, Neurology and Stroke MESHD admissions and Neurological multi-disciplinary MESHD team meetings for all hospitalized patients with suspected or proven COVID-19 MESHD from 17 March 2020 to 31 August 2020. ResultsTwenty-nine of 1243 COVID-19 MESHD inpatients (2.3%) presented with COVID-19 MESHD-related neurological disorders MESHD. The mean age was 68.9 +/-13.5(SD) years, age range of 34-97 years, and there were 17 males. 22 patients had confirmed, 5 were probable and 2 had suspected COVID-19 MESHD infection according to the WHO case classification. Eight patients (27%) required critical care admission. Neurological symptoms MESHD at presentation included acute confusion MESHD and delirium MESHD, seizures MESHD, and new focal neurological deficits MESHD. Based on the pre-defined neurological phenotype, COVID-19 MESHD patients were grouped into four main categories. 16 patients had cerebrovascular events (13 with acute ischaemic stroke MESHD and 3 had haemorrhagic features), 7 patients were found to have inflammatory, non-inflammatory and autoimmune encephalopathy MESHD (including 2 with known Multiple Sclerosis MESHD), whilst movement and peripheral nervous system disorders MESHD were diagnosed in 3 patients each. ConclusionAlthough the exact prevalence and aetiology remains unclear, non-sporadic new onset of neurological disorders MESHD, in addition to anosmia MESHD, occurs during the acute COVID-19 MESHD-infection. Longitudinal follow-up of these patients is required to determine the long-term effects, treatment response and outcome of the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins

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