Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

There are no HGNC terms in the subcorpus

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

There are no SARS-CoV-2 protein terms in the subcorpus


SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic MESHD on UK Medical School Widening Access Schemes: Disruption, Support and a Virtual Student Led Initiative

    Authors: Emily R Bligh; Ellie Courtney; Rebecca Stirling; Asveny Rajananthanan; Sheffield Neuroscience Society

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2021-03-03 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background COVID-19 MESHD has disrupted medical education in the United Kingdom (UK). The pandemic may result in a long-term disproportionate negative impact to students applying to Medical School from a low-socioeconomic background. In addition, the upsurge in Medical School applications increases the likelihood of stricter University entry criteria over the coming years. There is no current research to determine how widening participation of Medicine to students from low-socioeconomic backgrounds can be improved virtually. The aim of this study is to establish the impact of COVID-19 MESHD on students enrolled in UK widening access schemes and the role of virtual student led initiatives in widening participation.MethodsA voluntary MESHD online survey was distributed to UK Sixth Form students (N=31) enrolled in a widening access scheme who attended Sheffield Neuroscience Society International Virtual Conference in February 2021. The event was free to attend. The five-domain survey consisted of questions determining demographics, career aspirations, impact of COVID-19 MESHD, academic skillsets and an educational manipulation check.ResultsThere were 30 pre-conference and 26 post-conference responses. 76.7% (N=23) had work experience cancelled due to COVID-19 MESHD. A total of 36.7% (N=11) of participants reported participating in virtual work experience. ‘Observe GP’ and ‘Medic Mentor’ were each specified as attended virtual opportunities in 20% (N=6) of answers. Post conference, students felt significantly more confident in applying to Medical School (p=0.008) and more prepared to undertake a presentation (p=0.002). Educational manipulation check scores increased significantly (p=0.003). 100% of students felt inspired to do further CV building activities. Conclusion COVID-19 MESHD has negatively impacted pupils enrolled in UK Medical School widening access schemes. Virtual student led initiatives can instill confidence in delegates from low socio-economic backgrounds, increase their career knowledge and inspire them to take part in further CV building exercises. Both Medical Schools and medical students play a key role in widening participation. This study recommends Medical Schools promote access to virtual events and act mindfully when determining student’s academic potential in the context of their socioeconomic and/or educational background.

    Lockdown Effects on Sars-CoV-2 Transmission - The evidence from Northern Jutland

    Authors: Kasper Planeta Kepp; Christian Bjornskov

    doi:10.1101/2020.12.28.20248936 Date: 2021-01-04 Source: medRxiv

    The exact impact of lockdowns and other NPIs on Sars-CoV-2 transmission remain a matter of debate as early models assumed 100% susceptible homogenously transmitting populations, an assumption known to overestimate counterfactual transmission, and since most real epidemiological data are subject to massive confounding variables. Here, we analyse the unique case-controlled epidemiological dataset arising from the selective lockdown of parts of Northern Denmark, but not others, as a consequence of the spread of mink-related mutations in November 2020. Our analysis shows that while infection levels decreased, they did so before lockdown was effective, and infection numbers also decreased in neighbour municipalities without mandates. Direct spill-over to neighbour municipalities or the simultaneous mass testing do not explain this. Instead, control of infection pockets possibly together with voluntary social behaviour MESHD was apparently effective before the mandate, explaining why the infection decline MESHD occurred before and in both the mandated and non-mandated areas. The data suggest that efficient infection surveillance and voluntary compliance make full lockdowns unnecessary at least in some circumstances.

    Predicting regional COVID-19 MESHD hospital admissions in Sweden using mobility data

    Authors: Philip Gerlee; Julia Karlsson; Ingrid Fritzell; Thomas Brezicka; Armin Spreco; Toomas Timpka; Anna Jöud; Torbjörn Lundh

    id:2101.00823v1 Date: 2021-01-04 Source: arXiv

    The transmission of COVID-19 MESHD is dependent on social contacts, the rate of which have varied during the pandemic due to mandated and voluntary social MESHD distancing. Changes in transmission dynamics eventually affect hospital admissions and we have used this connection in order to model and predict regional hospital admissions in Sweden during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD. We use an SEIR-model for each region in Sweden in which the infectivity is assumed to depend on mobility data in terms of public transport utilisation and mobile phone usage. The results show that the model can capture the timing of the first and beginning of the second wave of the pandemic. Further, we show that for two major regions of Sweden models with public transport data outperform models using mobile phone usage. The model assumes a three week delay from disease transmission to hospitalisation which makes it possible to use current mobility data to predict future admissions.

    Central and peripheral nervous system complications of COVID-19 MESHD: A prospective tertiary center cohort with 3-month follow-up

    Authors: Vardan Nersesjan; Moshgan Amiri; Anne-Mette Lebech; Casper Roed; Helene Mens; Lene Russell; Lise Fonsmark; Marianne Berntsen; Sigurdur Tor Sigurdsson; Jonathan Carlsen; Annika Langkilde; Pernille Martens; Eva Lobner Lund; Klaus Hansen; Bo Jespersen; Marie Norsker Folke; Per Meden; Anne-Mette Hejl; Christian Warmberg; Michael Benros; Daniel Kondziella

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.15.20231001 Date: 2020-11-17 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To systematically describe CNS and PNS MESHD complications in hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD patients. Methods: We conducted a prospective, consecutive, observational study of adult patients from a tertiary referral center with confirmed COVID-19 MESHD. All patients were screened daily for neurological and neuropsychiatric symptoms MESHD during admission, at discharge and at 3-month follow-up. We classified complications as caused by SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism MESHD, immune-mediated or critical illness-related. Results: From April-September 2020, we enrolled 61 consecutively admitted COVID-19 MESHD patients, 35 (57%) of whom were referred to ICU for respiratory failure MESHD. Evaluation revealed a higher frequency of CNS/PNS symptoms in ICU patients compared to non-ICU patients. The most common CNS complication was encephalopathy MESHD (n=22, 36.1%), which was severe in 13 patients (GCS[≤]12), including 8 with akinetic mutism MESHD. Length of ICU admission was an independent predictor of encephalopathy MESHD (OR=1.23). Other CNS complications included ischemic stroke MESHD, a biopsy-proven acute necrotizing encephalitis MESHD, and transverse myelitis MESHD. The most common PNS complication was critical illness polyneuromyopathy MESHD (13.1%), with prolonged ICU stay as independent predictor (OR=1.14). Treatment-related PNS complications included meralgia paresthetica. Of 41 complications in total, 3 were classified as para/post-infectious. The remainder included cases secondary to critical illness MESHD or other causes (n=34) or without sufficient investigations (n=4). Cerebrospinal fluid was negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in all 5 patients investigated. Conclusions: CNS/ PNS MESHD complications were common in hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD patients, particularly in ICU patients, and often attributable to critical illness MESHD. In cases with COVID-19 MESHD as the primary cause for neurological disease MESHD, there were no signs of viral neurotropism MESHD, but laboratory changes suggested autoimmune-mediated mechanisms.

    Trends in reasons for emergency calls during the COVID-19 MESHD crisis in the department of Gironde, France using automatic classification.

    Authors: Cédric Gil-Jardiné; Gabrielle Chenais; Catherine Pradeau; Eric Tentillier; Philipe Revel; Xavier Combes; Michel Galinski; Eric Tellier; Emmanuel Lagarde

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-11-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objectives During periods such as the COVID-19 MESHD crisis, there is a need for responsive public health surveillance indicators related to the epidemic and to preventative measures such as lockdown. The automatic classification of the content of calls to emergency medical communication centers could provide relevant and responsive indicators. Methods We retrieved all 796,209 free-text call reports from the emergency medical communication center of the Gironde department, France, between 2018 and 2020. We trained a natural language processing neural network model with a mixed unsupervised/supervised method to classify all reasons for calls in 2020. Validation and parameter adjustment were performed using a sample of 20,000 manually-coded free-text reports. Results The number of daily calls for flu-like symptoms began to increase from February 21, 2020 and reached an unprecedented level by February 28, 2020 and peaked on March 14, 2020, 3 days before lockdown. It was strongly correlated with daily emergency room admissions, with a delay of 14 days. Calls for chest pain MESHD, stress, but also those mentioning dyspnea MESHD, ageusia MESHD and anosmia MESHD peaked 12 days later. Calls for malaises with loss of consciousness MESHD, non-voluntary injuries MESHD and alcohol intoxications sharply decreased, starting one month before lockdown. Discussion This example of the COVID-19 MESHD crisis shows how the availability of reliable and unbiased surveillance platforms can be useful for a timely and relevant monitoring of all events with public health consequences. The use of an automatic classification system using artificial intelligence makes it possible to free itself from the context that could influence a human coder, especially in a crisis situation. Conclusion The content of calls to emergency medical communication centers is an efficient epidemiological surveillance data source that provides insights into the societal upheavals induced by a health crisis.

    Digital contact-tracing during the Covid-19 pandemic MESHD Covid-19 pandemic MESHD: an analysis of newspaper coverage in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland

    Authors: Julia Amann; Joanna Sleigh; Effy Vayena

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.22.20216788 Date: 2020-10-26 Source: medRxiv

    Governments around the globe have started to develop and deploy digital contact tracing apps to gain control over the spread of the novel coronavirus ( Covid-19 MESHD). The appropriateness and usefulness of these technologies as a containment measure have since sparked political and academic discussions globally. The present paper contributes to this debate through an exploration of how the national daily newspapers in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland reported on the development and adoption of digital contact-tracing apps during early and after stages of the lockdown. These countries were among the first in Europe to develop apps and were critical voices in the debate of decentralized vs. centralized data processing. We conducted thematic analysis on news coverage published between January and May 2020 in high-circulation national daily newspapers (print) from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. A total of 148 newspaper articles were included in the final analysis. From our analysis emerged six core themes of the development and adoption of digital contact tracing apps: 1) data governance; 2) role of IT giants; 3) scientific rigor; 4) voluntariness MESHD; 5) functional efficacy; 6) role of the app. These results shed light on the different facets of discussion regarding digital contact tracing as portrayed in German-speaking media. As news coverage can serve as a proxy for public perception, this study complements emerging survey data on public perceptions of digital contact tracing apps by identifying potential issues of public concern.

    The relative effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions on early Covid-19 MESHD mortality: natural experiment in 130 countries

    Authors: Jonathan Stokes; Alex James Turner; Laura Anselmi; Marcello Morciano; Thomas Hone

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.05.20206888 Date: 2020-10-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background Concurrent non-pharmaceutical interventions have been implemented around the world to control Covid-19 MESHD transmission. Their general effect on reducing virus transmission is proven, but they can also be negative to mental health and economies, and transmission behaviours can also change in absence of mandated policies. Their relative impact on Covid-19 MESHD attributed mortality rates, enabling policy selection for maximal benefit with minimal disruption, is not well established. Methods We exploited variations in nine non-pharmaceutical interventions implemented in 130 countries (3250 observations) in two periods chosen to limit reverse causality: i) prior to first Covid-19 MESHD death MESHD (when policymakers could not possibly be reacting to deaths in their own country); and, ii) 14-days-post first Covid-19 MESHD death MESHD (when deaths were still low, on average). We examined associations with daily deaths per million in each subsequent 24-day period (the time between virus transmission and mortality) which could only be affected by the policy period. A mean score of strictness and timeliness was coded for each intervention. Days in each country were indexed in time by first reported Covid-19 MESHD death to proxy for virus transmission rate. Multivariable linear regression models of Covid-19 MESHD mortality rates on all concurrent interventions were adjusted for seasonality, potential confounders, and potential cross-country differences in their mortality definitions. Robustness was checked by removing countries with known data reporting issues and with non-linear, negative binomial, models. Results After adjusting for multiple concurrent interventions and confounders, and accounting for both timing and strictness of interventions, earlier and stricter school (-1.23 daily deaths per million, 95% CI -2.20 -0.27) and workplace closures (-0.26, 95% CI -0.46 -0.05) were associated with lower Covid-19 MESHD mortality rates. Only controlling for strictness international travel controls, and only controlling for timing later restrictions on gatherings, were also associated with lower Covid-19 MESHD mortality. Other interventions, such as stay-at-home orders or restrictions on public transport, were not significantly associated with differences in mortality rates across countries. Findings were robust across multiple statistical approaches. Conclusions Focusing on compulsory, particularly school closing, not voluntary reduction of social interactions MESHD with mandated policies appears to have been the most effective strategy to mitigate early Covid-19 MESHD mortality.

    Comparing the impact on COVID-19 MESHD mortality of self-imposed behavior change and of government regulations across 13 countries

    Authors: Julian Jamison; Donald Bundy; Dean Jamison; Jacob Spitz; Stephane Verguet

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.02.20166793 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Countries have adopted different approaches, at different times, to reduce the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD). Cross-country comparison could indicate the relative efficacy of these approaches. We assess various non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) over time, comparing the effects of self-imposed (i.e. voluntary) behavior change and of changes enforced via official regulations, by statistically examining their impacts on subsequent death rates in 13 European countries. Methods and findings: We examine two types of NPI: the introduction of government-enforced closure policies over time; and self-imposed alteration of individual behaviors in response to awareness of the epidemic, in the period prior to regulations. Our proxy for the latter is Google mobility data, which captures voluntary behavior change MESHD when disease salience is sufficiently high. The primary outcome variable is the rate of change in COVID-19 MESHD fatalities per day, 16-20 days after interventions take place. Linear multivariate regression analysis is used to evaluate impacts. Voluntarily reduced mobility, occurring prior to government policies, decreases the percent change in deaths per day by 9.2 percentage points (95% CI 4.5-14.0 pp). Government closure policies decrease the percent change in deaths per day by 14.0 percentage points (95% CI 10.8-17.2 pp). Disaggregating government policies, the most beneficial are intercity travel restrictions, cancelling public events, and closing non-essential workplaces. Other sub-components, such as closing schools and imposing stay-at-home rules, show smaller and statistically insignificant impacts. Conclusions: This study shows that NPIs have substantially reduced fatalities arising from COVID-19 MESHD. Importantly, the effect of voluntary behavior change is of the same order of magnitude as government-mandated regulations. These findings, including the substantial variation across dimensions of closure, have implications for the phased withdrawal of government policies as the epidemic recedes, and for the possible reimposition of regulations if a second wave occurs, especially given the substantial economic and human welfare consequences of maintaining lockdowns.

    End-to-End AI-Based Point-of-Care Diagnosis System for Classifying Respiratory Illnesses and Early Detection of COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Abdelkader Nasreddine Belkacem; Sofia Ouhbi; Abderrahmane Lakas; Elhadj Benkhelifa; Chao Chen

    id:2006.15469v1 Date: 2020-06-28 Source: arXiv

    Respiratory symptoms can be a caused by different underlying conditions, and are often caused by viral infections, such as Influenza-like illnesses or other emerging viruses like the Coronavirus. These respiratory viruses, often, have common symptoms, including coughing, high temperature, congested nose, and difficulty breathing. However, early diagnosis of the type of the virus, can be crucial, especially in cases such as the recent COVID-19 MESHD COVID-19 MESHD pandemic. One of the factors that contributed to the spread of the pandemic, was the late diagnosis or confusing it with regular flu-like symptoms. Science has proved that one of the possible differentiators of the underlying causes of these different respiratory diseases MESHD is coughing, which comes in different types and forms. Therefore, a reliable lab-free tool for early and more accurate diagnosis that can differentiate between different respiratory diseases MESHD is very much needed. This paper proposes an end-to-end portable system that can record data from patients with symptom, including coughs ( voluntary or involuntary MESHD) and translate them into health data for diagnosis, and with the aid of machine learning, classify them into different respiratory illnesses, including COVID-19 MESHD. With the ongoing efforts to stop the spread of the COVID-19 MESHD disease everywhere today, and against similar diseases in the future, our proposed low cost and user-friendly solution can play an important part in the early diagnosis.

    Awareness and Impact of Hydroxychloroquine / Chloroquine prophylaxis among the Healthcare Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic MESHD COVID-19 Pandemic MESHD: An observational study.

    Authors: Silky Dhamija; Yayati Joshi; Amar Nandhakumar

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-06-22 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Various modalities are under study for prevention and treatment of novel coronavirus. One such modality is use of Hydroxychloroquine/Choloroquine. The objective of survey was to understand the awareness and impact of HCQ/CQ prophylaxis among the health care workers (HCWs) including surgeons and anaesthetists.Methods A web-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted for HCWs globally. Participation was voluntary MESHD and confidentiality was maintained by making participants' information anonymous. The questionnaire consisted of 28 items. Data were tabulated in excel, and descriptive statistics were performed. Results Survey was taken by 344 HCWs from all over the world. 98% participants heard about the use of HCQ/CQ prophylaxis against COVID 19 infection. 301 HCWs knew about the side effects of HCQ/CQ. 54 1% participants agree there is not adequate research done. 122 participants took HCQ/CQ prophylaxis. Out of 29 5% participants who received the medicine from hospital under hospital protocol, 66 7% were given medication without baseline investigations and 30 5% HCWs were not even briefed about the drug and its side effects by the hospitals. 36 2% participants developed side effects. 8 7% HCWs were tested for COVID19 MESHD out of 344 participants.Conclusion The drug taken by HCWs was without adequate evidence, prior investigations, supervision and follow-up. Most of the participants self prescribed the drug. No separate guidelines were stated for people who had co-morbid conditions. Hospitals neither conducted baseline investigations and nor briefed HCWs about HCQ/CQ. These are some serious concerns we are looking into as who will be answerable in case of adverse events.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins

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