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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (3)

ProteinM (1)


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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    The inhibitory effects of toothpaste and mouthwash ingredients on the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein and ACE2 HGNC, and the protease activity of TMPRSS2 HGNC, in vitro

    Authors: Riho Tateyama-Makino; Mari Abe-Yutori; Taku Iwamoto; Kota Tsutsumi; Motonori Tsuji; Satoru Morishita; Kei Kurita; Yukio Yamamoto; Eiji Nishinaga; Keiichi Tsukinoki

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.19.435740 Date: 2021-03-19 Source: bioRxiv

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) enters host cells when the viral spike protein PROTEIN is cleaved by transmembrane protease serine 2 HGNC ( TMPRSS2 HGNC) after binding to the host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC). Since ACE2 HGNC and TMPRSS2 HGNC are expressed in the mucosa of the tongue and gingiva, the oral cavity seems like it is an entry point for SARS-CoV-2. Daily oral care using mouthwash seems to play an important role in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. However, the relationship between daily oral care and the mechanisms of virus entry into host cells is unclear. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of ingredients that are generally contained in toothpaste and mouthwash on the interaction between the spike protein PROTEIN and ACE2 HGNC and on the serine protease HGNC activity of TMPRSS2 HGNC using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and in vitro enzyme assay, respectively. Both assays detected inhibitory effects of sodium tetradecene sulfonate, sodium N-lauroyl-N-methyltaurate, sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate MESHD, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and copper gluconate. Molecular docking simulations suggested that these ingredients could bind to the inhibitor-binding site of ACE2 HGNC. In addition, tranexamic acid and 6-aminohexanoic acid, which act as serine protease HGNC inhibitors, exerted inhibitory effects on TMPRSS2 HGNC protease activity. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to further elucidate these mechanisms. Our findings support the possibility that toothpaste and mouthwash contain ingredients that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    SARS-CoV2 envelop proteins reshape the serological responses of COVID-19 MESHD patients

    Authors: Sophie Martin; Christopher Heslan; Gwenaele Jegou; Leif A. Eriksson; Matthieu Le Gallo; Vincent Thibault; Eric Chevet; Tony Avril

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.15.431237 Date: 2021-02-15 Source: bioRxiv

    The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has elicited a unique international mobilization of the scientific community to better understand this coronavirus and its associated disease and to develop efficient tools to combat infection. Similar to other coronavirae, SARS-CoV-2 hijacks the host cell complex secretory machinery to produce properly folded viral proteins that will compose the nascent virions; including Spike, Envelope and Membrane proteins, the most exposed membrane viral proteins to the host immune system. Antibody response is part of the anti-viral immune arsenal that infected MESHD patients develop to fight viral particles in the body. Herein, we investigate the immunogenic potential of Spike (S), Envelope (E) and Membrane ( M) proteins PROTEIN using a human cell-based system to mimic membrane insertion and N-glycosylation MESHD. We show that both S and M proteins PROTEIN elicit the production of specific IgG, IgM and IgA in SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patients. Elevated Ig responses were observed in COVID+ patients with moderate and severe forms of the disease. Finally, when SARS-CoV-2 Spike MESHD SARS-CoV-2 Spike PROTEIN D614 and G614 variants were compared, reduced Ig binding was observed with the Spike G614 variant. Altogether, this study underlines the needs for including topological features in envelop proteins to better characterize the serological status of COVID+ patients, points towards an unexpected immune response against the M protein PROTEIN and shows that our assay could represent a powerful tool to test humoral responses against actively evolving SARS-CoV-2 variants and vaccine effectiveness.

    Structural analysis of COVID-19 MESHD spike protein PROTEIN in recognizing the ACE2 HGNC receptor of different mammalian species and its susceptibility to viral infection.

    Authors: Tirthankar Koley; Shivani Madaan; Sanghati Roy Chowdhury; Manoj Kumar; Punit Kaur; Tej Pal Singh; Abdul S. Ethayathulla

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-98738/v1 Date: 2020-10-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    The pandemic COVID-19 MESHD caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 spread worldwide as a new public health emergency. The SARS-CoV-2 infects MESHD humans by binding to glycosylated ACE2 HGNC receptor present in the inner lining of the lungs, heart, intestine and kidney. The COVID spike 2 protein recognizes the ACE2 HGNC receptor at the N-terminal helices of the metalloprotease domain. The residues Gln24, Thr27, Lys31, His34, Glu37, Asp38, Tyr41, Gln42 from helix α1; Leu79, Met82, Tyr83 from helix α2 and Gln325, Glu329, Asn330, Lys353 from loop connecting β4 and β5 strands form a concave surface surrounded by four glycosylation sites Asn53, Asn90, Asn103 and Asn322 form interactions with the spike protein PROTEIN. However, no significant data on the susceptibility of animals for infection or transmission. Therefore, we performed the comparative protein-protein docking analysis using the crystal structure of spike protein PROTEIN and homology models of the ACE2 HGNC receptor from 16 commonly found mammalian species to understand the potential mode of spike binding. Our comprehensive sequence and structure-based interaction analysis revealed the natural substitution of amino acid residues Gln24, His34, Phe40 and Met82 in the N-terminal α1 and α2 helices results in loss of crucial network of hydrogen-bonded and hydrophobic interactions with spike 2 RBD domain. Besides, the absence of N-linked glycosylation MESHD site Asn103 in other mammals further reduces the binding affinity between spike and ACE2 HGNC receptor. Hence, these changes explain the differences in the susceptibility and host pathogenesis in other mammalian species.

    Validation of a prospective urinalysis-based prediction model for ICU-resources and outcome of Covid-19 MESHD disease: A multicenter cohort study

    Authors: Oliver Gross; Onnen Moerer; Thomas Rauen; Jan Böckhaus; Elion Hoxha; Achim Jörres; Matthias Kamm; Amin Elfanish; Wolfram Windisch; Michael Dreher; Juergen Floege; Stefan Kluge; Christian Schmidt-Lauber; Jan-Eric Turner; Samuel Huber; Marylyn M. Addo; Simone Scheithauer; Tim Friede; Gerald S. Braun; Tobias B. Huber; Sabine Blaschke

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-97097/v1 Date: 2020-10-23 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose: Identifying preventive strategies in Covid-19 MESHD patients helps to improve ICU-resource-allocation and reduce mortality. We recently demonstrated in a post-mortem cohort that SARS-CoV-2 renal tropism MESHD was associated with kidney injury MESHD, disease severity and mortality. We also proposed an algorithm to predict the need for ICU-resources and the risk of adverse outcomes in Covid-19 MESHD patients harnessing urinalysis and protein/coagulation parameters on admission for signs of kidney injury MESHD. Here, we aimed to validate this hypothesis in a multicenter cohort. Methods: Patients hospitalized for Covid-19 MESHD at four tertiary centers were screened for an available urinalysis, serum albumin (SA) and antithrombin-III HGNC activity ( AT-III HGNC) obtained prospectively within 48h upon admission. The respective presumed risk for an unfavorable course was categorized as “low”, “intermediate” or “high”, depending on a normal urinalysis, an abnormal urinalysis with SA ≥2 g/dl and AT-III HGNC ≥70%, or an abnormal urinalysis with at least one SA or AT-III HGNC abnormality. Time to ICU or death MESHD within ten days served as primary, in-hospital mortality and required organ support served as secondary endpoints.Results: Among a total of N=223 screened patients, N MESHD=145 were eligible for enrollment, falling into the low (N=43), intermediate (N=84), and high risk (N=18) categories. The risk for ICU transfer or death MESHD was 100% in the high risk group and significantly elevated in the composite of high and intermediate risk as compared to the low risk group (63.7% vs. 27.9%; HR 2.6; 95%-CI 1.4 to 4.9; P=0.0020). Having an abnormal urinalysis was associated with mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or renal replacement therapy (RRT). Conclusion: Our data confirm that Covid-19 MESHD-associated urine abnormalities on admission predict disease aggravation and need for ICU. By engaging a simple urine dipstick on hospital admission our algorithm allows for early preventive measures and appropriate patient stratification. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT04347824)

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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